Autonomous administrative divisions of China
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This article is part of the series:
History of the political divisions of China
Autonomous administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China are specific areas associated with one or more ethnic minorities that are designated as autonomous within the People's Republic of China (PRC). These areas are recognized in the PRC's constitution and are nominally given a number of rights not accorded to other administrative divisions. The actual degree of autonomy of such regions is questioned. This is because their authority rests with the Constitution and the Law on Regional Autonomy, requiring leaders to seek prior approval from the National People's Congress (NPC) to pass legislation. This is not true for other provinces, which can pass legislation without such prior approval. For this reason, it has been contended that Autonomous regions are in fact "less autonomous."
Autonomous administrative divisions
The PRC's autonomous administrative divisions may be found in the first (or top) to third levels of its national administrative divisions thus:
|Level||Type||Chinese||Pinyin||Number as of June 2005|
|province (1)||Autonomous regions||自治区||Zìzhìqū||5|
|prefecture (2)||Autonomous prefectures||自治州||Zìzhìzhōu||30|
|county (3)||Autonomous counties||自治县||Zìzhìxiàn||117|
Although not named as autonomous areas, some third-level settlements and areas that are identified as county-level cities and county-level districts enjoy the same autonomy as autonomous areas. At the fourth ("township") level, 1 ethnic sumu (the Evenk Ethnic Sumu) and over 270 ethnic townships also exist, but are not considered to be autonomous and do not enjoy the laws pertaining to the larger ethnic autonomous areas.
|county (3)||Ethnic districts||民族区||Mínzú qū||4|
|township (4)||Ethnic township (Ethnic town)*||民族乡 (民族镇)*||Mínzú xiāng (Mínzú zhèn)*||1,092 township (15 town)|
|Ethnic sumu||民族苏木||Mínzú sūmù||1|
|villages (5)||Ethnic villages (Ethnic gacha)||民族村(民族嘎查)||Mínzú cūn (Mínzú gāchá)||?|
The names of most of the PRC's autonomous areas are made from linking together:
- the name of a geographical area;
- the name or names of the predominant ethnic minority or minorities;
- the word "Autonomous";
- a type of administrative division.
|Level||Geographical area||+||Ethnic name/s||+||"Autonomous"||+||Admin. division||=||Result|
|1||Guangxi||Zhuang||Autonomous||Region||Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region|
|2||Dehong||Dai & Jingpo||Autonomous||Prefecture||Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture|
|3||Shizhu||Tujia||Autonomous||County||Shizhu Tujia Autonomous County|
|3||Evenk||Evenks||Autonomous||Banner||Evenk Autonomous Banner|
In the Chinese name of the administrative area, the nationality name is always suffixed with -族 ("nationality"), unless the nationality name consists of more than two syllable (e.g. Xinjiang Uygur /Wéi'wǔ'ěr AR) or the geographical name contains the nationality name (e.g. Inner Monglia and Tibet ARs). This distinction is not reflected in translation into English.
Some autonomous areas have more than one specified minority, which tend to be listed in the name of the prefecture, creating rather long names. Two autonomous counties simply use "Various Nationalities" in their names as placeholders, rather than listing out all of their designated ethnicities:
|Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture||Enshi||Tujia and Miao||Autonomous Prefecture|
|Shuangjiang Lahu, Va, Blang and Dai Autonomous County||Shuangjiang||Lahu, Va, Blang and Dai||Autonomous County|
|Longlin Various Nationalities Autonomous County||Longlin||Various Nationalities (Miao, Yi and Gelao)||Autonomous County|
|Longsheng Various Nationalities Autonomous County||Longsheng||Various Nationalities (Dong, Yao, Miao)||Autonomous County|
A few autonomous areas break the regular nomenclature pattern, because the name of the nationality is already contained within the geographical name, or because there is no geographical name:
|Tibet Autonomous Region||Tibet||(Tibetan)||Autonomous Region|
|Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region||Inner Mongolia||(Mongol)||Autonomous Region|
|Dongxiang Autonomous County||—||Dongxiang||Autonomous County|
|Evenki Autonomous Banner||—||Evenks||Autonomous Banner|
|Oroqin Autonomous Banner||—||Oroqin||Autonomous Banner|
Autonomous regions, prefectures, counties, and banners are covered under Section 6 of Chapter 3 (Articles 111-122) of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, and with more detail under the Law of the People's Republic of China on Regional National Autonomy (《中华人民共和国民族区域自治法》). The constitution states that the head of government of each autonomous areas must be of the ethnic group as specified by the autonomous area (Tibetan, Uyghur, etc.). The constitution also guarantees a range of rights including: independence of finance, independence of economic planning, independence of arts, science and culture, organization of local police, and use of local language. In addition, the head of government of each autonomous region is known as a "chairman", unlike provinces, where they are known as "governors".
Of the five autonomous regions, only Tibet has an absolute majority (>50%) of the designated ethnic group, namely, the Tibetans. Xinjiang has a plurality (<50%) of the designated ethnic group, the Uyghurs, though this is disputed by Uyghur independence advocates, who claim that the Han Chinese population in Xinjiang has been severely understated. The remaining three autonomous regions have absolute majorities of Han Chinese, the majority ethnicity of China.
Autonomous regions, prefectures, counties, and banners were established after communist takeover, following Soviet practice. At first, the nomenclature of these autonomous areas were somewhat confused, with autonomous regions appearing at the province, prefecture, county, and township levels. Eventually the nomenclature was standardized to the conventions used today.
The first autonomous region to be established was Inner Mongolia, created within communist-held territory in 1947, two years before the establishment of the People's Republic. Xinjiang was converted from a province to an autonomous region in 1955. Guangxi and Ningxia followed in 1957, and Tibet Autonomous Region was formally established in 1965.
- Justin J. Stein, “Taking the Deliberative Turn in China: International Law, Minority Rights, and the Case of Xinjiang,” Journal of Public and International Affairs, Volume 14/Spring 2003: 13-14.