Autonomous cruise control system
Autonomous cruise control (ACC; also called adaptive cruise control or radar cruise control) is an optional cruise control system for road vehicles that automatically adjusts the vehicle speed to maintain a safe distance from vehicles ahead. It makes no use of satellite or roadside infrastructures nor of any cooperative support from other vehicles. Hence control is imposed based on sensor information from on-board sensors only. The extension to cooperative cruise control requires either fixed infrastructure as with satellites, roadside beacons or mobile infrastructures as reflectors or transmitters on the back of other vehicles ahead.
Such systems go under many different trade names according to the manufacturer. These systems use either a radar or laser sensor setup allowing the vehicle to slow when approaching another vehicle ahead and accelerate again to the preset speed when traffic allows - example video. ACC technology is widely regarded as a key component of any future generations of intelligent cars. The impact is equally on driver safety as on economising capacity of roads by adjusting the distance between vehicles according to the conditions.
Laser-based systems and radar-based systems compete in quality and price.
Laser-based ACC systems do not detect and track vehicles in adverse weather conditions nor do they reliably track extremely dirty (non-reflective) vehicles. Laser-based sensors must be exposed, the sensor (a fairly large black box) is typically found in the lower grille offset to one side of the vehicle.
Radar-based sensors can be hidden behind plastic fascias; however, the fascias may look different from a vehicle without the feature. For example, Mercedes packages the radar behind the upper grille in the center, and behind a solid plastic panel that has painted slats to simulate to the look of the rest of the grille.
Single radar systems are the most common. Systems involving multiple sensors use either two similar hardware sensors like the 2010 Audi A8 or the 2010 Volkswagen Touareg, or one central long range radar coupled with two short radar sensors placed on the corners of the vehicle like the BMW 5 and 6 series.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (July 2013)|
Radar-based ACC often feature a precrash system, which warns the driver and/or provides brake support if there is a high risk of a collision. Also in certain cars it is incorporated with a lane maintaining system which provides power steering assist to reduce steering input burden in corners when the cruise control system is activated.
GPS-aided ACC: the GPS navigation system provides guidance input to the ACC. On the motorway, the car in the front is slowing down, but with turn signal on and it is actually heading for a highway off-ramp. A conventional ACC would sense the car in front was decelerating and it would simply apply brakes accordingly. But with GPS-guided ACC takes into account the approaching highway exit and it simultaneously receives images from a camera attached e.g. behind the front pane to the rearview mirror. The camera may detect the turn signal from the car ahead. So instead of braking, this new system continues uninterrupted, because it knows that the car in front will exit the lane
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (July 2013)|
The next generation, also known as the Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, will include information served from a vehicle ahead in the same lane. Such dependant approach however requires standardization across manufacturers and model generations. There is no vision when such agreement could come into practice. All designs without such cooperative support will operate with comparably lower dynamic, but promise better reliability and independent operation.
The cooperative approach is the better advances concept to improve road capacity. Therefore reach of detection must exceed the capabilities of on-board laser or radar. A wireless communication between vehicles in a queue may not aid braking, but can be used for adjusting speed to avoid longitudinal oscillations.
- 1992: Mitsubishi was the first automaker to offer a Lidar-based distance detection system on the Japanese market Debonair. Marketed as Distance Warning, this early system only warned the driver, without influencing throttle, brakes or gearshifting.
- 1995: Mitsubishi Diamante introduced laser Preview Distance Control. This early system only controlled speed through throttle control and downshifting, but did not apply the brakes.
- 1997: Toyota began to offer a "laser adaptive cruise control" (lidar) system on the Japanese market Celsior. It only controlled speed through throttle control and downshifting, but did not apply the brakes.
- 1999: Mercedes introduced Distronic, the first worldwide radar-assisted ACC, on the Mercedes-Benz S-Class (W220). and the CL-Class.
- 1999: Jaguar began offering a radar-based Adaptive Cruise Control system on the Jaguar XK (X100)
- 1999: Nissan introduced laser (lidar) Adaptive Cruise Control on Japanese market Nissan Cima.
- 2000: BMW introduced radar Active Cruise Control in Europe on the BMW 7 Series (E38)
- 2000: The Lexus division was the first to bring laser adaptive cruise control to the US market in late 2000 with the LS 430's Dynamic Laser Cruise Control system.
- 2000: Toyota further refined their laser ACC system by adding "brake control", that also applied brakes
- 2001: Infiniti introduces laser Intelligent Cruise Control on 2002 Infiniti Q45#Third generation F50.
- 2001: Renault introduced Adaptive Cruise Control on the Renault Vel Satis (supplied by Bosch)
- 2002: Lancia introduced radar adaptive cruise control (by Bosch) on the Lancia Thesis
- 2002: Volkswagen introduced radar Adaptive cruise control on the Volkswagen Phaeton in first half of 2002, manufactured by Autocruise (now (TRW).
- 2002: Audi introduced radar Adaptive cruise control (Autocruise) on the Audi A8 in late 2002
- 2003: Cadillac introduced radar adaptive cruise control (ACC) on the Cadillac XLR
- 2003: Toyota shifted from laser (lidar) to radar ACC technology: October 2003 radar ACC on the Celsior. The first Lexus Dynamic Radar Cruise Control and a radar-guided pre-collision system on the Lexus LS(XF30) US market facelift.
- 2004: Toyota added "low-speed tracking mode" to the radar ACC on the Crown Majesta. The low-speed speed tracking mode was a second mode that would warn the driver if the car ahead stopped and provide braking; it could stop the car but then deactivated.
- 2005: In the United States, Acura first introduced radar Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) integrated with a Collision avoidance system (Collision Mitigation Braking System (CMBS)) in the late calendar year 2005 in the model year 2006 Acura RL as an optional feature.
- 2005: Mercedes-Benz S-Class (W221) refined the Distronic system to completely halt the car if necessary (now called "Distronic Plus". Now offered on E-Class and most Mercedes sedans. In an episode of Top Gear, Jeremy Clarkson demonstrated the effectiveness of the cruise control system in the S-class by coming to a complete halt from motorway speeds to a round-about and getting out, without touching the pedals.
- 2006: Audi introduced Full speed range ACC plus on the Audi Q7. It has low-speed mode, and additional functions to warn the driver of a potential collision, and prepare emergency braking as needed. The system supplied by Bosch is also available in the 2008 Audi A8, the Audi Q5, 2009 Audi A6 and the new 2010 Audi A8. The Audi A4 is available with an older version of the ACC that does not stop the car completely.
- 2006: Nissan introduced Intelligent Cruise Control with DISTANCE CONTROL ASSIST on Nissan Fuga. It pushes the gas pedal against the foot when the DVD navigation with GPS determines that an unsafe speed is being maintained. If the Autonomous cruise control system is being used, the Distance Control Assistance will reduce speed automatically, and will warn the driver that an adjustment is being made with an audible bell sound.
- 2006: September 2006 Toyota introduced its "all-speed tracking function" for the Lexus LS 460. This radar-assisted system maintains continuous control from speeds of 0 km/h to 100 km/h and is designed to work under repeated starting and stopping situations such as highway traffic congestion.
- 2007: BMW introduced full-speed Active Cruise Control Stop-and-Go on the BMW 5 Series (E60).
- 2008: Lincoln introduced radar adaptive cruise control on the 2009 Lincoln MKS.
- 2008: SsangYong Motor Company introduced radar Active Cruise Control on the SsangYong Chairman
- 2009: Hyundai introduces radar Adaptive cruise control on Hyundai Equus in Korean market.
- 2009: ACC and CMBS also became available as optional features in the model year the 2010 Acura MDX[not in citation given] Mid Model Change (MMC) and the newly introduced model year 2010 Acura ZDX.
- 2010: Audi world first GPS-guided radar ACC on Audi A8#D4
- 2010: Jeep introduces Adaptive Cruise Control on the 2011 Jeep Grand Cherokee
- 2013: Mercedes introduced DISTRONIC PLUS with Steering Assist (traffic jam assist) on the Mercedes-Benz S-Class (W222)
- 2013: BMW introduced Active Cruise Control with Traffic Jam Assistant
- 2014: Chrysler introduces full speed range radar Adaptive Cruise Control with Stop+ on the 2015 Chrysler 200.
Vehicles models supporting adaptive cruise control
Vehicles with full speed range adaptive cruise control are able to bring the car to a full stop, and resume from standstill. Partial cruise control cuts off below a set minimum speed, requiring driver intervention.
|Make||Full speed range ACC||Partial cruise control|
|Aftermarket||Any Vehicle 1990+ ||Uses OpenCV, Wikispeedia, no braking.
Motor Authority Review 
|BMW||2007 5-series, 2011+ X5 excl Diesel, 2013 3-series, i3||Active Cruise Control with Stop & Go||2000 7, 5, 6, 3||(only as an option together with big engines, Stop & Go Variant available on 3, 5, 6 and 7 models) (Active Cruise Control)|
|Mercedes-Benz||2006 S, B, E, CLS, CL (2009+); A, CLA, M, G, GL (2013+)||Distronic Plus||1998 S, E, CLS, SL, CL, M, GL, CLK, 2012 C||Distronic|
|Volkswagen||Phaeton (2010+), Passat B8 (2014+), Touareg (2011+) Golf Mk7 (2013+), Polo (2014+)||not in US||Passat, Phaeton all generations, Touareg|
|Audi||A8, A7 (2010+), A6 (2011+); Q7 (2007+), A3 (2013+), Q5 (2013+)||Adaptive Cruise Control with Stop & Go||A3, A4 (see a demonstration on YouTube), A5, Q5, A6, A8 (also uses data from navigation and front camera sensors), Q7|
|Bentley||Continental GT (2009+)||Follow-to-Stop option|
|Porsche||Panamera (2010+); Cayenne (2011+), Cayman (2013+), Boxster(2012+)||Porsche Active Safe (PAS), PDK transmission only.|
|Vauxhall / Opel||Insignia, Zafira Tourer (on selected variants of SE, SRi, Elite, VXR), Astra|
|Jaguar||1999 XK-R, S-Type, XJ, XF|
|Land Rover||Range Rover (2013+)||Range Rover Sport|
|Volvo||V40, S60, S80, XC60, XC70||Also includes full power automatic braking under 20 mph|
|Cadillac||XTS, ATS, SRX (2013+), Escalade (2015+ Premium trim)||Also includes full power automatic braking under 20 mph||2004 XLR, 2005 STS, 2006 DTS (shuts off below 25 mph)|
|Chevrolet||Impala (2014+)||Availability: Early Spring 2013|
|Chrysler||200c (2015+)||Active Cruise Control with Stop & Go.||2007 300C||laser, for a limited time, now uses a Bosch radar-based system|
|Dodge||2011 Charger, 2011 Durango||radar, by Bosch|
|Jeep||Cherokee (Limited and TrailHawk Models), Grand Cherokee Stop & Go||2011 Grand Cherokee, Grand Cherokee (2014+) - 20+ mph (Option on Limited & Overland, standard on Summit)||radar, by Bosch|
|Ford||Disables and does not work or brake under 20 mph;||2011+Explorer, 2006 Mondeo, 2013 Kuga, 2013+ Fusion, S-Max, Galaxy, 2010+ Taurus, 2011+ Edge||Radar Adaptive Cruise Control and Collision Warning with Brake Support|
|Lincoln||Disables and does not work or brake under 20 mph||2009+ MKS, 2010+ MKT, 2011+ MKX, 2013+ MKZ, 2015+ MKC||Radar Adaptive Cruise Control and Collision Warning with Brake Support|
|Honda||2003 Inspire, 2005 Legend, 2013 Accord (USA), 2007 CR-V series III, 2015 Honda CRV ||Adaptive Cruise Control and Collision Mitigating Braking System; for 2015 CRV, Honda Sensing |
|Mazda||2014 Mazda6, Mazda3, 2016 CX-5||Radar Cruise Control and Forward Obstruction Warning|
|Acura||2014 RLX, 2014 MDX, 2015 TLX||2005 RL, MDX, ZDX|
|Nissan||1998 Cima, Primera T-Spec Models||Intelligent Cruise Control|
|Infiniti||EX (2010+)||older, laser based system||2006 EX, M, Q45, QX56, G35, FX35/45/50, G37||shuts off below 3 mph, EX: in North America as an option, shuts off below 40 km/h|
|Toyota||1997 Celsior, 2009 Sienna (XLE Limited Edition), Avalon, Sequoia (Platinum Edition), Avensis, 2009 Corolla (Japan), 2010 Prius||Dynamic Laser Cruise Control (DLCC) on 2009+ Sienna XLE Limited, Avalon Limited and Sequoia Platinum shuts off below 25 mph (US)|
|Lexus||2006 LS 460, 2013 GS hybrid||Dynamic Radar Cruise Control
LS 460 full ACC not available in US
|2000 LS430/460 (laser and radar), RX (laser and radar), GS, IS, ES 350, and LX 570 (shuts off below 30 mph)|
|Subaru||Legacy, Outback (2013+) Forester (2014)||EyeSight Non-Radar Camera System|
|Hyundai||Equus (2012+), Genesis (2015+), Sonata (2015+)||Edmunds review||Genesis (2012+)||Edmunds review|
|Skoda||Octavia (2013+), Fabia (2014+)|
|Tesla||Model S (2015+)||Traffic-Aware Cruise Control (TACC)|
- Autonomous car
- Intelligent car
- IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Society
- Lane departure warning system
- Precrash system
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