Autonomous okrug (Russian: автономный округ, occasionally also referred to known as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", is a type of federal subject of Russia and simultaneously an administrative division type of some federal subjects. As of 2014, Russia comprises eighty-three federal subjects, of which four are autonomous okrugs.
Originally called national okrug, this type of administrative unit was created in the 1920s and widely implemented in 1930 to provide autonomy to indigenous peoples of the North. In 1977, the 1977 Soviet Constitution changed the term "national okrugs" to "autonomous okrugs" in order to emphasize that they were indeed autonomies and not simply another type of administrative and territorial division. While the 1977 Constitution stipulated that the autonomous okrugs are subordinated to the oblasts and krais, this clause was revised on December 15, 1990, when it was specified that autonomous okrugs are subordinated directly to the Russian SFSR, although they still may stay in jurisdiction of a krai or an oblast to which they were subordinated before. Several brief autonomous okrugs, such as that of the Gilyak (Nivkh) or the Ket are not included in the list below.
As of 1990, ten autonomous okrugs existed within the RSFSR. Their current status (as of August 2008) within the Russian Federation is given in parentheses for autonomous okrugs which had a change in status: