|This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2010)|
|Type||Telecommunication and observation|
|Construction started||Originally constructed 1961|
|Completed||1965, rebuilt 2006-2009|
|Antenna spire||204.5 m (671 ft)|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||Uglješa Bogutović and Slobodan Janjić|
The Avala Tower (Serbian: Авалски торањ / Avalski toranj) is a 204.5 m (671 ft) tall telecommunication tower located on Avala mountain in the periphery of Belgrade. It was destroyed in NATO bombardment of Serbia on 29 April 1999. On 21 December 2006, the reconstruction of Avala Tower commenced and the tower was officially opened at a ceremony on 21 April 2010. It is currently the tallest tower in the Balkan region.
The tower was designed by architects Uglješa Bogdanović and Slobodan Janjić, and engineer Milan Krstić. Construction started on 14 October 1961 and was completed four years later in 1965. The tower weighed 4,000 tonnes (3,900 long tons; 4,400 short tons). Between 102 m (335 ft) and 135 m (443 ft), there was an enclosed observation deck. It was the only tower in the world to have an equilateral triangle as its cross section, and one of very few towers not perched directly into the ground, but standing on its legs. The legs formed a tripod, the symbol of Serbian tripod chair. It is one of the small number of towers to be constructed in that manner.
The tower was surmounted by an antenna, which was at first used for black and white television transmission. In 1971 the antenna was replaced by a new one for color TV transmission.
From the height of 102 metres to a 135 metres there was an all glass area to which visitors could come via two quick lifts.
The project, which was of high risk, was finished without any worker injuries or deaths, which was unusual for a project of its size.
After completion, with the 202.87 m (666 ft) height it was the fifth tallest self-supporting construction in the world, after Empire State Building, La Tour Eiffel, Chrysler Building and Grande Dixence Dam.
The Avala Tower was destroyed on 29 April 1999 by NATO bombardment. Previously the power supply had been destroyed, but a senior military officer installed an alternative generator. It is reasoned[original research?] that the tower would not have been brought down if transmissions using the tower had not been resumed. The intent was to put Radio Television Serbia off the air; however the effect was not strong as Radio Television Serbia was relying on a network of local TV stations which were obliged to relay its programming throughout the whole of Serbia. The Avala Tower was a symbol of pride and a famous landmark, not only of Belgrade and Serbia, but of the former Yugoslavia too. The tower was one of the last buildings to be destroyed before the end of the NATO operation. A special bomb was used to destroy the tower. The blast was one of the loudest explosions heard throughout Belgrade during the NATO bombardment.
Rebuilding the new tower
In 2004, Radio Television Serbia commenced a series of fund-raising events in order to collect money to construct the building once again at the same place it was destroyed. In 2005, clearing of the site where the tower was destroyed began and on 21 December 2006 the construction of a new Avala Tower commenced. An agreement regarding its construction was signed by Dušan Basara, director of the construction sector of the Ratko Mitrović Company — which was in charge of the construction of the tower — and general director of RTS, Aleksandar Tijanić.
Initially, completion of the new tower was expected in August 2008, but construction works were severely delayed. The opening date was pushed back to 29 April 2009, the tenth anniversary of its destruction. Radio Television Serbia reported on 23 October 2009 that the tower had been completed.
Many fund-raising events have been held for the collection of funds so a new tower can be constructed. One of the first was a match between Serbian grand slam-winning tennis players Ana Ivanovic and Novak Djokovic. All the proceeds went to the Avala Tower fund. Ceca Ražnatović (a Serbian folk singer) held a concert on 15 June 2006, with all the proceeds going to the Avala Tower fund. Radio Television Serbia ran commercials for donations to rebuild the tower. According to a December 2006 report, when it was announced that the construction of a new Avala Tower would commence that same month, over €1 million was collected through fund-raising and donations.
Radio and TV frequencies
- 95.3 MHz - Radio Belgrade 1
- 97.6 MHz - Radio Belgrade 2/3
- 98.5 MHz - Hit Music FM
- 101.4 MHz - Fokus Radio
- 104.0 MHz - Radio Belgrade 202
DVB-T2 digital television - UHF channel 28:
- RTS HD
- RTS 1
- RTS 2
- RTS Digital (arts and culture)
- RTV Pink
- Prva Srpska Televizija
- Happy TV
- Studio B
- RTV 1
Analogue television (to be terminated in 2015):
- VHF channel 6 - RTS 1
- UHF channel 22 - RTS 2
- UHF channel 45 - RTV Pink
- UHF channel 57 - B92
- UHF channel 64 - Happy TV
- List of tallest buildings in Serbia
- Architecture of Belgrade
- List of towers
- List of masts These are also often used as for TV broadcasts.
- List of tallest structures in former Yugoslavia
- Beobuild Archive : Rebuilding phases and photos of Avala Tower
- New tower fireworks dedication
- Avala Tower Fans Association
- Avala Tower at skyscraperpage.com
- Virtual tour @ Avala Tower
- Mount Avala Tower at Structurae