From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Avaya Inc.
Type Private
Industry Telecommunications
Predecessor(s) Lucent Technologies
Founded 2000
Headquarters Santa Clara, California, United States
Area served Worldwide
Key people Kevin J. Kennedy CEO
Products Business telecommunications equipment
Revenue Increase US$5.171 billion (FY 2012)[1]
Operating income Increase US$115 million (FY 2012)[1]
Net income Increase US$-344 million (FY 2012)[1]
Total assets Decrease US$8.194 billion (FY 2012)[1]
Total equity Decrease US$-2.436 billion (FY 2012)[1]
  • TPG Capital
  • Silver Lake Partners
Employees 16,951 (Sept 2012)[1]
Subsidiaries Avaya Government Solutions
Website USA [1]
Korea한국 [2]
UK [3]
Israel [4]

Avaya Inc. /əˈv.ə/ is a privately held global provider of business communications and collaboration systems. The international headquarters is in Santa Clara, California, United States. The company supplies contact centers, networking (routers, switches and other networking hardware), unified communications (UC), and video products (integrated hardware and software) services.


In July and September 2000 interviews reported that Avaya Communications would be created on October 1, 2000 as a spin off of the business telephone division of Lucent Technologies Inc..[2] Avaya took with it 34,000 employees and also received $400 million in capital from Warburg Pincus.[3]

Henry Schacht became the board chairman and the first CEO was Don Peterson who was promoted from the CFO position of Lucent.[4] Avaya had a stock symbol of "AV" and debuted at $20 a share.[5]

Since 2001, the company has sold and acquired several companies to support its current product set – Vista,[6] VPNet,[7] Quintus,[8] Routescience, Nimcat Networks,[9] Spectel,[10] Ubiquity Software,[11] and Traverse Networks.[12] Avaya shifted from a direct sales focused to a channel focused organization and while originally 98% of sales came from direct sales, now 50% of sales are from alternate channels. In 2003 Avaya sold its Connectivity Solutions segment to CommScope for $263 million to focus on its phone gear and communications services businesses.[13][14]

In 2004 Avaya expanded in Europe through a $370 million acquisition of Tenovis and in Asia through a majority interest in Tata Telecom (now Avaya Global Connect).[15][16][17] In 2006 Louis D'Ambrosio took over as the CEO and president of Avaya.[18][19] and on Jan 12, 2007 they announced the acquisition of Ubiquity Software Corporation for $144 million.,[11] Ubiquity develops SIP end-user applications.

Going private[edit]

October 26, 2007 Avaya was acquired by two private equity firms, TPG Capital and Silver Lake Partners, for $8.2 billion.[20][21] As a result of this transaction Avaya became a privately held company, no longer traded on any stock market.[20] On November 9, 2007, the firms completed their buy-out and Avaya shareholders received $17.50 per share of owned common stock. In 2008 it had approximately 17,500 employees, 40% of whom are located outside of the United States. Avaya's global headquarters are located in Santa Clara, California, with Kevin J. Kennedy appointed as its Chief Executive Officer.

Purchase of Nortel's Enterprise Assets[edit]

Through Nortel's bankruptcy proceedings, certain assets related to their Enterprise Voice and Data business units were put up for auction. Avaya placed a $900 million bid and was formally announced as the winner of these assets on September 14, 2009.[22][23] On December 18, 2009, Avaya and Nortel officially closed the sale, to create Avaya with a total of about 21,400 employees.[24][25] On March 8, 2010 Avaya renewed the LG-Nortel relationship to continue Avaya Data Solutions sales into Korea.[26]

Western Electric roots[edit]

Since Avaya is a company spun off from Lucent Technologies, itself a spinoff of AT&T, Avaya continues to sell and support telephone models for businesses that were made popular in the heyday of the Bell System, including the 2554 wall phone, and the 2500 series desk phone, both popular Western Electric models.[27] Avaya telephone production at the Shreveport Works, a former Western Electric pay phone plant, ceased in 2001. All of Avaya's telephones are made outside the U.S. by contract manufacturers such as Celestica. Much of Avaya's product and customer set today can be traced back to its AT&T legacy where it formed part of AT&T Network Systems.[28]

2011 – present[edit]

At the start of 2011 Avaya acquired Konftel, a company founded in 1988 and headquartered in Sweden, to expand its audio capabilities with the OmniSound system.[29][30] Then in June 2011, Avaya filed with the SEC to raise up to $1 billion in an initial public offering.[31] On October 4, 2011, Avaya reported that it was acquiring Sipera Systems for its session border controller (SBC) functionality and UC security applications.[32][33] On October 19, 2011 it was reported that Avaya would buy Aurix.[34] On April 30, 2012 the shareholders approved the acquisition of Radvision by Avaya for about $230 million.[35][36][37] The Radvision endpoints will be integrated with the Avaya Aura Unified Communication systems and interoperability has already been established.[38] Avaya has been named the official telecommunication equipment supplier for the 2014 Sochi Olympics.[39]

Corporate information[edit]

Avaya's headquarters are located at 4655 Great America Parkway, Santa Clara, California. The company has offices located in over 145 countries worldwide.[40]


DellOro Group has called Avaya a leader in Unified Communications and Enterprise Telephony[41] Drew Kraus et al. called Avaya a leader in Contact Center.[42] It was named a as a leader in Enterprise messaging by T3i Group in 2010[43] MZA, Ltd. recognized its Range audio conferencing in 2010.[44] IntelliCom Analytics named it a leader in Hardware maintenance[45]

Gartner places Avaya in the Leaders quadrant because of its comprehensive vision and its possibilities to implement these:

  • Leaders Quadrant in the Gartner Magic Quadrant for Corporate Telephony, worldwide, in 2009, 2010[46]
  • Leaders Quadrant in the Gartner Magic Quadrant for Contact Center Infrastructure, Worldwide, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011[47]


Bell Canada (BCE), using Avaya's hardware, was the official Converged 10 Gigabit Ethernet network provider for the 2010 Winter Olympics.[48] Avaya was the official Converged Communications Provider for the 2006 FIFA World Cup. It also previously provided the communications networks for the 2002 FIFA World Cup and the FIFA Women's World Cup in 2003.

Avaya professional credentials[edit]

Avaya sponsors a wide variety of IT Professional certifications and training for Avaya products and technologies. The five-level credential program offers opportunities to enhance individual proficiency from a beginner to expert level competence. The certifications from the highest level are; Avaya Certified Solutions Architect (ACSA), Avaya Certified Support Specialist (ACSS), Avaya Certified Implementation Specialist, Avaya Professional Design Specialist.[49]

Avaya government solutions[edit]

In 1985, Performance Engineering Corporation (later PEC Solutions Inc.) was founded as a professional services firm that helped government clients with Internet and other advanced technologies. The company specialized in secure web-enabling for clients in homeland security, criminal justice and intelligence, defense and civilian agencies within the federal government and at state and local levels.[50] On June 6, 2005, Nortel Networks Inc. completed the acquisition of PEC Solutions, Inc. to form Nortel PEC Solutions Inc.[51][52] On January 18, 2006, Nortel PEC Solutions was renamed Nortel Government Solutions.[53] On December 21, 2009, Avaya acquired Nortel Government Solutions as part of Nortel's Enterprise asset sale, merging Avaya Federal Solutions and Nortel Government Solutions to form Avaya Government Solutions Inc.[54] Currently based in Fairfax, Virginia, Avaya Government Solutions operates as a wholly owned subsidiary of Avaya[55] and provides information technology services, consultancy and products to the federal government of the United States.[56]


The company products are made up of two major lines, the networking systems and the unified communication systems.


Modular systems[edit]

Stackable Chassis systems[edit]

  • Virtual Services Platform (VSP) 4000 – high-end Gigabit Ethernet stackable switch to extend Fabric-based networking to the Branch
  • Virtual Services Platform (VSP) 7000 – high-end 10 Gigabit Ethernet stackable switch to extend Fabric-based networking to the Data Center Top-of-Rack
  • Ethernet Routing Switch 5600 (ERS-5632FD, ERS-5650TD-PWR, ERS-5650TD, ERS-5698TFD-PWR, ERS-5698TFD)
  • Ethernet Routing Switch 5500 (ERS-5530, ERS-5520-48T-PWR, ERS-5520-24T-PWR, ERS-5510-48T, ERS-5510-24T)
  • Ethernet Routing Switch 4000
    (ERS-4850GTS, ERS-4850GTS-PWR+, ERS-4826GTS, ERS-4526GTS-PWR+)(ERS-4526FX, ERS-4526T, ERS-4526T-PWR, ERS-4526T-PWR+ ERS-4550T, ERS-4550T-PWR, ERS-4550T-PWR+ ERS-4524GT, ERS-4524GT-PWR, ERS-4548GT, ERS-4548GT-PWR, ERS-4526GTX, ERS-4526GTX-PWR) The ERS-4500 Switches can be combined up to eight units high to create a 320 Gbit/s backplane through a fast stacking configuration.[57] The Switch series consists of eleven (11) models that can be mixed and matched together with other models to meet configuration and scaling requirements.[58] The systems are also capable of supporting the 100/1000BASE-X small form-factor pluggable transceiver, and several also support the T1 Ethernet over TDM Pluggable Transceiver. This system has gone through several detailed interoperability tests and is certified as a Department of Defense approved and certified product for use in military networks.[59]
  • Ethernet Routing Switch 3500 (ERS-3510GT, 3510GT-PWR+, 3524GT, 3524GT-PWR+, 35265T, and 3526T-PWR+)
  • Ethernet Routing Switch 2500 (ERS-2526T, ERS-2526T-PWR, ERS-2550T, ERS-2550T-PWR)

Secure routers[edit]

The secure routers are a product line of devices manufactured by Avaya that combines the functions of WAN routing, firewall security, Ethernet switching, IP telephony, and Microsoft mediation into one device.

  • SR 4134, SR-3120, SR-2330
  • SR-1000 Systems (SR-1004, SR-1002, SR-1001, SR-1001S)


VPN Router Family
  • Identity Engines
  • Secure Network Access
  • VPN Routers (200, 600, 1000, 1750, 2700, 5000)
  • VPN Gateway (3050, 3070, 3050-VM, 3070-VM, 3090-VM)


  • 2300 Series
  • 8100 Series

Unified communications[edit]


  • Application Server 5300 (AS5300)
  • CS2100, CS1500, CS1000
  • Communication Manager (CM)
  • IVR
  • CMM Voicemail
  • Speech Server
  • Session Manager (SM)
  • Session Border Controller (SBC)
  • System Manager (SMGR)
  • Communication Manager Messaging (CMM)
  • Application Enablement Services
  • Presence Services
  • Media Services
  • Avaya Interaction Center (AIC)
  • Contact Center Express (CCE)
  • Avaya Aura Contact Center (AACC)
  • System Platform – A virtualization technology to provide a common framework for the deployment of products, templates and applications.
  • Collaboration Server
  • Unified Messaging
  • EC500 (Extension to Cellular)
  • IP Office, a hybrid key/PBX and digital/IP based telephone system[60]
  • Business Communication Manager (BCM)


  • S8800, S8700, S8500, S8400, S8300


  • AG2330 – A survivable SIP gateway (compatible with multiple SIP servers)
  • B5800 – Branch gateway
  • Media gateways (G860, G650, G450, G430)

Desktop devices[edit]

Avaya IP Phone
  • Avaya Desktop Video Device ADVD (Android Tablet based full UC and video/conferencing device)[61]
  • Flare (full UC and video/conferencing device)
  • 1100 series IP phones (1110, 1120E, 1140E, 1150E, 1165E)
  • 1200 series IP phones
  • 1400 series digital telephones
  • 1600 series IP phones (1603, 1608, 1616, 16CC – an IP based call center telephone, replacing the CallMaster telephone line)
  • 2000 series IP phones
  • 2500-based telephones (made from Avaya's telephone equipment descendants)
  • 3900 series digital telephones
  • 4400D+ series digital phones (Magix, Definity & IP Office)
  • 4600 IP Telephones
  • 6400D+ series digital phones (Definity & IP Office)
  • 7000 series digital telephones
  • 7400 series analog & digital telephones (Merlin, System 25/75/85, Definity)
  • 9400 series digital telephones
  • 9500 series digital telephones
  • 9600 IP Telephones (9601, 9608, 9611G, 9621G, 9641G, 9610, 9620L, 9620C, 9630G, 9640 / G, 9650 / C, 9670G)
  • Wireless phones (3600 series, 3700 series, 4000 series, 6100 series, 7400 series)


Management applications[edit]

The integration and protection of legacy Nortel assets is ensured for 6 years.[26][62]

Technologies / protocols[edit]

  • Agile Communication Environment – Integrates Unified Communications capabilities and business applications and processes.
  • AUDIX – Voice messaging platforms
  • Avaya Aura – A suite of products and services targeting real-time multimedia enterprise communications[63]
  • Avaya one-X – Web-based Unified Communications
  • Digital Communications Protocol (DCP) – A proprietary protocol for Definity and CM systems
  • Auto Detection Auto Configuration – A networking protocol which automatically configure Avaya switches to support and prioritize traffic for IP phones. When ADAC is enabled and an IP phone is connected to the switch, the switch automatically configures the VLAN, port, and QoS settings. This protocol can be configured globally or on a port, and can be used with IEEE 802.1AB/LLDP or by itself for auto discovering the phones, setting VLAN PVID, Layer 2 and Layer 3 QoS values. An unlimited number of phones on a port can be supported.[64]
  • Auto Unit Replacement – Allows the maintainer to hot swap (replace) any switch (including the master) in the stack without powering down the stack or rebooting the stack. The new unconfigured switch will be integrated into the stack and be reconfigured to match the removed switch.
  • Avaya Energy Saver (AES) – Automatically reduces the power consumption of ethernet equipment without impacting the flow of traffic.
  • Flexible Advanced Stacking Technology (FAST) Stacking – A switch-stacking technology that allows up to eight Avaya ERS series switches to operate as a single switch. All switches in the stack share configuration-files, if one switch fails the remaining switches continue to function and wrap the traffic around the failed unit. It allows up to eight switches to operate and be managed as a single device. The stacking performance can scale up to 1.1 Tbit/s.
  • Discovery Protocol
  • Multi-link trunking (MLT)
  • Distributed Multi-Link Trunking
  • Split multi-link trunking (SMLT)
  • Distributed Split Multi-Link Trunking
  • R-SMLT or Routed-SMLT
  • InterSwitch Trunk (IST)
  • Simple Loop Prevention Protocol
  • Provider Backbone Transport (PBT)
  • Provider Backbone Bridges (PBB) or IEEE 802.1ah-2008
  • UNIStim
  • VLACP – Virtual Link Aggregation Control Protocol

Retired products[edit]

  • 1A2 Key System (later replaced by ComKey and Merlin Class)
  • Merlin line: Merlin Classic, Merlin Plus, Merlin II, Merlin Legend & Merlin Magix
  • System 85, System 75, Avaya Definity line including the hardware and software.
  • System 25 (based on the code of the Merlin system)
  • CallMaster, a voice terminal designed specifically for the growing demand of call center telephony in the late 1980s into the 1990s. The CallMaster was based on a similar design of an executive office telephone a few decades before called the Call Director.


Avaya bought Nortel Enterprise and acquired its patents.[65] This is a list of Patents referenced, cited or explained in Wikipedia articles.[66]

  • US20050007951 – Routed split multilink trunking[67]
  • 7173934 – System, device, and method for improving communication network reliability using trunk splitting[68]
  • 6496502 – Distributed multi-link trunking method and apparatus[69]
  • 7068641 – UNIStim

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f "Avaya, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Dec 12, 2012". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013. 
  2. ^ "Lucent Technologies, Form S-3, Filing Date Jul 28, 2000". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013. 
  3. ^ "Avaya, Form 10-12B/A, Filing Date Aug 9, 2000". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013. 
  4. ^ "Lucent Technologies, Form 10-12B/A, Filing Date Aug 9, 2000". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013. 
  5. ^ "Lucent Technologies, Form 10-12B/A, Filing Date Sep 6, 2000". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013. 
  6. ^ "Avaya, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Oct 21, 2003". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013. 
  7. ^ "Avaya, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Jan 8, 2001". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Avaya, Form 10-Q, Quarterly Report, Filing Date May 15, 2001". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013. 
  9. ^ "Avaya, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Oct 25, 2005". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013. 
  10. ^ "Avaya, Form 10-Q, Quarterly Report, Filing Date Aug 12, 2004". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013. 
  11. ^ a b "Avaya, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Jan 16, 2007". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013. 
  12. ^ "Avaya, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Dec 8, 2006". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013. 
  13. ^ "Avaya, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Dec 12, 2003". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Technology Briefs – Telecommunications: CommScope To Buy Avaya Unit For 63 Million". The New York Times. October 28, 2003. Retrieved Nov 22, 2011. 
  15. ^ "Avaya, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Oct 7, 2004". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013. 
  16. ^ "Avaya, Form 10-Q, Quarterly Report, Filing Date May 12, 2004". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013. 
  17. ^ "Avaya Plunks Down $370 Million For Tenovis". CRN News. October 5, 2004. Retrieved Oct 6, 2011. 
  18. ^ "Avaya, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Jul 24, 2006". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013. 
  19. ^ Lawson, Stephen (July 25, 2006). "Avaya CEO steps down". Infoworld.com. Retrieved 2011-08-18. 
  20. ^ a b "Avaya, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Nov 1, 2007". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013. 
  21. ^ "Investment Firms Pick Up Avaya For $8.2 Billion". Informationweek.com. June 5, 2007. Retrieved 2011-08-18. 
  22. ^ "Nortel Networks, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Sep 14, 2009". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013. 
  23. ^ Sean Michael Kerner (September 14, 2009). "Avaya Closes Nortel Enterprise Deal for $900M". internetnews. Retrieved Feb 16, 2010. 
  24. ^ "Nortel Networks, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Dec 24, 2009". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013. 
  25. ^ "Avaya, Form S-4, Filing Date Dec 23, 2009". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013. 
  26. ^ a b "Avaya Renews Collaboration with LG-Nortel for Data Business in Korea". Avaya.com. Mar 8, 2010. Retrieved 2011-08-18. 
  27. ^ Avaya Expands Mobile Capabilities[dead link]
  28. ^ "Avaya GlobalConnect In Pact With TCCS". Efytimes.com. Dec 20, 2006. Retrieved 2011-08-18. 
  29. ^ "Avaya, Form 10-Q, Quarterly Report, Filing Date Feb 14, 2011". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013. 
  30. ^ Jeffrey Burt (Jan 5, 2011). "Avaya Buys Audio Collaboration Solutions Vendor Konftel". eWeek. Retrieved Oct 6, 2011. 
  31. ^ Julianne Pepitone (June 9, 2011). "Avaya files for $1 billion IPO". CNN Money. Retrieved June 9, 2011. 
  32. ^ "Avaya, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Oct 4, 2011". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013. 
  33. ^ Larry Hettick (October 4, 2011). "Avaya acquires Sipera". Network World. Retrieved Oct 6, 2011. 
  34. ^ "Aurix Acquired by Avaya". Yahoo!. 
  35. ^ "Avaya, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Jun 6, 2012". secdatabase.com. Retrieved Jan 19, 2013. 
  36. ^ "RADVISION Acquired By Avaya". Radvision. Retrieved 4 Sep 2012. 
  37. ^ Shoshanna Solomon (15 March 2012). "Avaya Agrees to Acquire RadVision for About $230 Million". Business Week. Retrieved 4 Sep 2012. 
  38. ^ Larry Hettick (8 June 2012). "One acquisition closes, another agreement opens". Network World. Retrieved 4 Sep 2012. 
  39. ^
  40. ^ "Avaya Worldwide Locator". Retrieved Aug 18, 2011. 
  41. ^ Enterprise Telephony Report, 4Q10. DellOro Group. February 2011. 
  42. ^ Drew Kraus et al (June 2011). Gartner Magic Quadrant for Contact Center Infrastructure, Worldwide. Gartner Inc. 
  43. ^ InfoTrack for Converged Applications, Full Year 2010. T3i Group. April 2011. 
  44. ^ The World UC Applications Market, 2010 Edition. MZA, Ltd. June 2010. 
  45. ^ Services Market Dashboard, 4Q YE 2010 Global Lifecycle Services Market. IntelliCom Analytics. April 2011. 
  46. ^ Steve Blood et al. (August 2010). Gartner Magic Quadrant for Corporate Telephony. Gartner Inc. 
  47. ^ Drew Kraus et al. (June 2011). Gartner Magic Quadrant for Contact Center Infrastructure, Worldwide. Gartner Inc. 
  48. ^ Tim Greene. "Avaya hopes for gold in running the Olympic network". NetworkWorld. Archived from the original on February 12, 2010. Retrieved Feb 16, 2010. 
  49. ^ "Avaya Professional Credential Program". Avaya Learning. Retrieved Apr 18, 2012. 
  50. ^ "PEC Solutions Inc.". Washington Post 200PEC Solutions Inc. 2005. Retrieved Apr 1, 2011. 
  51. ^ "Nortel Completes Acquisition of PEC Solutions, Inc.". Business Wire. June 7, 2005. Retrieved Apr 1, 2011. 
  52. ^ Witte, Griff (April 27, 2005). "Nortel to Buy PEC Solutions For $448 Million". The Washington Post. 
  53. ^ "Nortel PEC Solutions Renamed Nortel Government Solutions". Nortel. January 18, 2006. Retrieved Apr 1, 2011. 
  54. ^ "Avaya/Nortel combination aims for greater growth". Nortel. Dec 21, 2009. Retrieved Jan 11, 2012. 
  55. ^ "Introducing Avaya Government Solutions". Avaya Government Solutions. Retrieved Apr 1, 2011. 
  56. ^ "Who We Are". Avaya Government Solutions. Retrieved Apr 1, 2011. 
  57. ^ "Ethernet Routing Switch 5510 FAQ". Nortel. Retrieved Feb 2, 2010. 
  58. ^ "Hot Sheet". Nortel. Retrieved Feb 2, 2010. 
  59. ^ "ASVALAN Certification". Defense Information Systems Agency. Dec 18, 2009. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved Aug 2, 2011. 
  60. ^
    • Advani, Dennis; TestLab, Enex (May 16, 2007). "Avaya IP Office 500". ZD Net. Retrieved Aug 18, 2011. 
    • TMC Labs (November 2004). "IP Office". TMC Net. 
  61. ^ Avaya (Sep 15, 2010). "Avaya Flare Experience™ Tour". Retrieved Jan 3, 2012. 
  62. ^
  63. ^ "Avaya Launches New Customer Service and Collaboration Applications". UCStrategies.com. Jul 21, 2010. 
  64. ^ "ERS 5520 Switch v5.1 Software". Retrieved Apr 4, 2009. 
  65. ^ Avaya Closes Nortel Enterprise Deal for $900M "Avaya Closes Nortel Enterprise Deal for $900M". Internetnews. Sep 14, 2009. Retrieved Feb 26, 2011. 
  66. ^ "List of Patents that have Issued to the Nortel Family of Companies". Nortel. Retrieved Feb 26, 2011. 
  67. ^
  68. ^ "System, device, and method for improving communication network reliability using trunk splitting". Retrieved Feb 26, 2011. 
  69. ^

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Business data