Aveyron

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This article is about the French department. For other uses, see Aveyron (disambiguation).
Aveyron
Department
Millau Viaduct, Aveyron
Millau Viaduct, Aveyron
Flag of Aveyron
Flag
Coat of arms of Aveyron
Coat of arms
Location of Aveyron in France
Location of Aveyron in France
Coordinates: 44°15′N 02°42′E / 44.250°N 2.700°E / 44.250; 2.700Coordinates: 44°15′N 02°42′E / 44.250°N 2.700°E / 44.250; 2.700
Country France
Region Midi-Pyrénées
Prefecture Rodez
Subprefectures Millau
Villefranche-de-Rouergue
Government
 • President of the General Council Jean-Claude Luche (UMP)
Area1
 • Total 8,735 km2 (3,373 sq mi)
Population (2009)
 • Total 277,048
 • Rank 78th
 • Density 32/km2 (82/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Department number 12
Arrondissements 3
Cantons 46
Communes 304
^1 French Land Register data, which exclude estuaries, and lakes, ponds, and glaciers larger than 1 km2

Aveyron (French pronunciation: ​[avɛʁɔ̃]; Occitan: Avairon [avajˈɾu]) is a department located in the north-east of the Midi-Pyrenees region of southern France named after the Aveyron River.

The inhabitants of the department are known as Aveyronnais or Aveyronnaises.[1] The inhabitants of Rodez are called Ruthénois, based on the first Celtic settlers, the rutenii.

Geography[edit]

Aveyron is the centre of a triangle formed by the cities of Toulouse, Clermont-Ferrand, and Montpellier. The department approximately follows the outline of the former province of Rouergue. It is the 5th largest department in metropolitan France in terms of area (8,735 km2 (3,373 sq mi)) and the 3rd largest by population in Midi-Pyrenees. Its prefecture is Rodez.

The department comes under the jurisdiction of the Academy of Toulouse and the Montpellier Court of Appeal. The INSEE and Post Code is 12.

Aveyron is located in the south of the Massif Central. The highest point in the department is the summit of Le Signal de Mailhebiau at 1469m on the Plateau of Aubrac. The Aveyron department is divided into several natural regions such as the Grand Causses and Rougiers.

Aveyron department consists of an ancient high rocky plateau of great geological diversity. The Truyère, Lot, Aveyron, and Tarn rivers have carved a lot of deep gorges.

The department is surrounded by the departments of Tarn, Tarn-et-Garonne, Lot, Hérault, Gard, Lozère, and Cantal.

The Lac de Villefranche-de-Panat is used as a reservoir to provide drinking water supplies for the region.

Climate[edit]

Climate data is available for Millau at an altitude of 715m

City Sunshine Rain Snow Storm Fog
Hrs/Yr mm/Yr Days/Yr Days/Yr Days/Yr
National Average 1973 770 14 22 40
Millau[2] 2163 757 31 26 60
Paris 1630 642 15 19 13
Nice 2668 767 1 31 1
Strasbourg 1633 610 30 29 65
Brest 1492 1109 9 11 74

Weather Data for Millau

Climate data for Millau
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 5.5
(41.9)
6.8
(44.2)
9.4
(48.9)
12.3
(54.1)
16.4
(61.5)
20.6
(69.1)
24.5
(76.1)
23.8
(74.8)
20.5
(68.9)
15.5
(59.9)
9.3
(48.7)
6.4
(43.5)
14.3
(57.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.6
(36.7)
3.6
(38.5)
5.5
(41.9)
8.1
(46.6)
12.0
(53.6)
15.7
(60.3)
19.0
(66.2)
18.5
(65.3)
15.7
(60.3)
11.7
(53.1)
6.2
(43.2)
3.5
(38.3)
10.2
(50.4)
Average low °C (°F) −0.2
(31.6)
0.4
(32.7)
1.6
(34.9)
4.0
(39.2)
7.6
(45.7)
10.9
(51.6)
13.4
(56.1)
13.2
(55.8)
10.9
(51.6)
7.8
(46)
3.1
(37.6)
0.6
(33.1)
6.1
(43)
Precipitation mm (inches) 70.6
(2.78)
58.1
(2.287)
56.8
(2.236)
65.2
(2.567)
75.2
(2.961)
57.2
(2.252)
45.4
(1.787)
56.1
(2.209)
59.4
(2.339)
87.1
(3.429)
57.7
(2.272)
68.5
(2.697)
757.3
(29.815)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 10.5 9.5 9.9 9.5 10.0 7.0 4.4 6.1 6.6 8.5 8.9 10.1 101
Mean monthly sunshine hours 95 109 159 180 206 254 312 274 215 155 107 97 2,163
Source: Metereological data for Millau, from 1961 to 1990 July 2013

History[edit]

Ruteni coin, 5th–1st century BCE.

Aveyron is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790.

The first known historical inhabitants of the region were the Rutenii tribe, but the area was inhabited previously to this, boasting many prehistoric ruins including over 1,000 Dolmens - more than any other department in France.

During the medieval and early modern periods, and until the 1790s, the territory covered by Aveyron was a province known as Rouergue.

In 1797, Victor of Aveyron (the Feral child of Aveyron) was found wandering the woods in the area.

Victor of Aveyron in 1800

In 1817, a local prosecutor Antoine Bernardin Fualdès was assassinated. The sordid circumstances of his death, following which his body was found floating in the Aveyron River, led to the matter becoming publicised as a cause célèbre. Recent studies have indicated that he met his end at the initiative of a right wing royalist organisation known as the Chevaliers de la Foi (Knights of the Faith).


Heraldry[edit]

Arms of Aveyron
The Arms of Aveyron are those of the province of Rouergue and are blazoned as follows:

Blazon:
Gules, a lion rampant gardant in Or.



Demography[edit]

In 2010, the department had 276,805 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses conducted in the department since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of municipalities with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]

Evolution of the Population (See database)
1791 1801 1806 1821 1831 1836 1841 1846 1851
371,835 318,340 331,921 339,422 359,056 370,951 375,083 389,121 394,183
1856 1861 1866 1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896
393,890 396,025 400,070 402,474 413,826 415,075 415,826 400,467 389,464
1901 1906 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954
382,074 377,299 369,448 332,940 328,886 323,782 314,682 307,717 292,727
1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2007 2010 -
290,489 281,568 278,306 278,654 270,141 263,924 274,425 276,805 -

Sources : Historical data of Aube department on the SPLAF website Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)


Second homes[edit]

According to the general census of the population on 1 January 2008, 17.8% of available housing in the department were second homes.

This table shows the main towns of Aveyron including second homes and occasionally exceed 10% of total housing .

Town Municipal Population Number of Residences Secondary Residences  % Secondary Residences
Brusque 314 429 249 58.04%
Nant 920 929 532 57.24%
Saint-Jean-du-Bruel 693 830 469 56.52%
Najac 752 930 503 54.09%
Canet-de-Salars 410 438 226 51.60%
Saint-Chély-d'Aubrac 549 474 215 45.36%
Salles-Curan 1,064 923 415 44.90%
Saint-Laurent-d'Olt 661 545 232 42.49%
Arvieu 861 635 269 42.36%
Broquiès 644 524 209 39.94%
Brommat 710 613 231 37.68%
Saint-Geniez-d'Olt 2,034 1,596 580 36.37%
Villefranche-de-Panat 778 600 217 36.17%
Laguiole 1,269 1,063 377 35.48%
Saint-Rome-de-Tarn 845 605 207 34.14%
Camarès 975 756 252 33.27%
Sainte-Geneviève-sur-Argence 1,011 732 214 29.26%
Entraygues-sur-Truyère 1,171 862 224 25.96%
Cransac 1,681 1,357 310 22.84%
Salles-la-Source 2,028 1,029 210 20.40%
Sévérac-le-Château 2,395 1,521 303 19.93%
Bozouls 2,772 1,433 227 15.84%
Espalion 4,477 2,925 413 14.14%
Saint-Affrique 8,112 4,609 480 10.41%

Politics[edit]

The President of the General Council is Jean-Claude Luche of the Union for a Popular Movement.

Party seats
Socialist Party 14
Union for a Popular Movement 13
Miscellaneous Right 11
Miscellaneous Left 3
Left Radical Party 2
Left Party 1
The Greens 1

Culture[edit]

Regional Sub-dialect[edit]

The regional sub-dialect spoken in Aveyron is a form of Languedoc Occitan called Rouergat. Faced with the risk of disappearance of the language several associations asked the State and political communities for an ambitious language policy.[3] In Rouergat, Aveyron is written:

  • Avairon (traditional Occitan spelling) - e.g. "Roergue forma lo despartament de l'Avairon"
  • Oboyróu (spelling of Father Vayssier) - e.g. "Rouergue fouórmo lou desportomén de l'Oboyróu"

Tourism[edit]

Aveyron contains a part of the Cévennes National Park. Well-known tourist attractions are the castle of Najac, a medieval ruin perched high on a hill, and the many beautiful old castles and monasteries such as Conques Abbey, Sylvanès Abbey, Bonneval Abbey and Loc-Dieu Abbey, located near Martiel in a region with many dolmens. The small city of Millau is the site of the world's tallest bridge, the Millau viaduct, opened by President Chirac in December 2004.

Activities include horseriding, fishing, swimming in the Lacs du Lévézou and hiking/camping. The inhabitants are also very good craftsmen, and Aveyron is full of various craft objects, handmade, that can be found locally. Examples include the couteau de Laguiole, the world famous Roquefort cheese, from the village of the same name and other local produce. Markets take place every Saturday on market places around the region.

Saint-Sernin-sur-Rance is the commune where the feral child Victor of Aveyron was found in the late 18th century.

The Most Beautiful Villages of France[edit]

Ten towns in Aveyron fall within the classification of a 1901 association Les Plus Beaux Villages de France:

Other Tourist Spots[edit]

Societies[edit]

  • Central Agricultural Society of Aveyron, founded in 1798
  • Society of letters, sciences and arts of Aveyron, founded in 1836

Notable people linked to the department[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Encyclopedia Bonneton, Aveyron, Christine Bonneton, 2005 (French)
  • Jean-Michel Cosson, Dictionnary of Aveyron, Loubatières, ISBN 2-86266-471-5 (French)
  • Daniel Crozes, The Guide to Aveyron, Éditions du Rouergue, ISBN 2-84156-541-6 (French)
  • Aue/Miche, Aveyron (Discovered), MSM, ISBN 2-911515-44-7 (French)
  • Dominique Auzias, Jean-Paul Labourdette, The small clever Aveyron, Collectif, Nouvelles Éditions Université, ISBN 2-7469-1664-9 (French)
  • Paul Astruc, Major Crominal cases of Aveyron, Éditions De Borée, ISBN 2-84494-180-X (French)
  • Christian Bernard, Aveyron in flowers: Illustrated inventory of vascular plants of Aveyron department, Éditions du Rouergue, ISBN 2-84156-658-7 (French)
  • Francine Claustres, Aveyron Cuisine, Sud Ouest, ISBN 2-87901-257-0 (French)
  • Aveyron: Farming Yields, Du Curieux, ISBN 2-914225-07-5 (French)
  • French Hiking Federation, Aveyron on foot, Guide FFRP, ISBN 2-85699-893-3 (French)
  • French Hiking Federation, The most beautiful villages in Aveyron… on foot: 20 walks and hikes, FFRP, ISBN 2-7514-0113-9 (French)
  • Hubert Calmette, The paths of Émilie in Aveyron, French Hiking Federation, ISBN 2-84182-156-0 (French)
  • Richard André, Romain Pages Éditions, The Regional National Park of Grands Causses, Parc naturel Grands Causses, ISBN 2-84350-194-6 (French)
  • Rémi Soulié, The old Rouergue: Land of Aveyron, Paris, ISBN 2-84621-069-1 (French)
  • Alain Marc, Aveyron, Logbooks, Éditions du Rouergue, ISBN 2-84156-610-2 (French)
  • Laurent Millet, Family names of Aveyron, Archives Cult, ISBN 2-35077-013-3 (French)
  • Laurent Barthe, Of Rouergue in Aveyron, Empreinte, ISBN 2-913319-34-3 (French)
  • Aveyron 1900-1920 Édition De Boree, ISBN 2-84494-322-5 (French)
  • Jean-Michel Cosson, Stéphane Monnet, Aveyron in the 1939-1945 war, Éditions De Boré, ISBN 2-84494-464-7 (French)
  • Jill Dawson, Béatrice Dunner, The wild child of Aveyron, Du Rocher, ISBN 2-268-05377-6 (French)
  • Jean Itard, Victor de l'Aveyron, Allia, ISBN 2-904235-78-7 (French)
  • Dagonet/Christian, Regards to Aveyron, De Borée, ISBN 2-84494-536-8 (French)
  • Nicole de Bertier, Meeting in Aveyron, Equinoxe, ISBN 2-84135-471-7 (French)

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002 [1], the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" which allow, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For municipalities with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these municipalities is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force in 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Inhabitants of France (French)
  2. ^ Data from the Station at Millau, sources:Infoclimat Millau, INSEE and Lameteo.org
  3. ^ Article in La Dépêche.fr on 24 October 2009 consulted on 29 December 2009 (French)