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Aerovías del Continente Americano S.A.
Avianca Logo 2013.png
Founded December 5, 1919 as SCADTA
Secondary hubs
Focus cities
Frequent-flyer program LifeMiles
Airport lounge Avianca VIP Lounges
Alliance Star Alliance
Fleet size 163
Destinations 121
Company slogan
  • "'It's For You'"
  • 'With Pleasure'
  • 'Here Things are Happening !'
  • 'The First Airline of the Americas'
  • 'The Airline of Colombia'
Parent company Synergy Group
Headquarters Main: Bogotá, Colombia
Secondary: San Salvador, El Salvador
Key people
Operating income Increase COP 2.8 B[2] (FY 2009)
Total assets Increase COP 2.403.632 M (FY 2008)

Avianca S.A. (acronym in Spanish formerly for Aerovías Nacionales de Colombia S.A. (National Airways of Colombia), currently Aerovías del Continente Americano S.A. (Airways of the American Continent) is the national airline and flag carrier of Colombia,[3][4] since 5 December 1919, when it was initially registered under the name SCADTA.[5][6] It is headquartered in Bogotá, D.C. with its main hub at the El Dorado International Airport. Avianca is also a trademark comprising a group of seven independently IATA-coded and -owned Latin American airlines, whose operations are combined to function as one airline using a code sharing system. Avianca is the largest airline in Colombia and second one in Latin America: Avianca together with their subsidiaries has the most extensive network of destinations in Latin America[7] and one of the largest and most modern aircraft fleets on the continent.[citation needed] It is wholly owned by the Synergy Group S.A., a Latin American holding company established by Germán Efromovich and specializing in air transport. it's listed on the Colombia Stock Exchange.[8]

On 7 October 2009, it was announced that Avianca would merge with TACA.[9] In 2009 Avianca reached their 90th anniversary and is the world's second oldest airline still in operation (behind KLM);[10][11] Avianca is the oldest continuously operating airline in the Western Hemisphere.[12]

On 21 June 2012,[13] Avianca was introduced as an official member of Star Alliance after a process that lasted for around 18 months since their initial announcement[14] of being invited in joining the Alliance.


SCADTA (1919–1940)[edit]

Avianca Lockheed L-1049G Super Constellation at Miami International Airport (1965).
Avianca Douglas DC-4 (1972).
Avianca Boeing 727 (1975).

The airline traces its history back to 5 December 1919, in the city of Barranquilla, Colombia. Colombians Ernesto Cortissoz (the first President of the Airline), Rafael Palacio, Cristóbal Restrepo, Jacobo Correa and Aristides Noguera and Germans Werner Kämerer, Stuart Hosie and Alberto Tietjen founded the Colombo-German Company, called Sociedad Colombo-Alemana de Transporte Aéreo or SCADTA. The company accomplished their first flight between Barranquilla and the nearby town of Puerto Colombia using a Junkers F.13, transporting 57 pieces of mail. The flight was piloted by German Helmuth von Krohn. This and another aircraft of the same type were completely mechanically constructed monoplanes, the engines of which had to be modified to efficiently operate in the climatic conditions of the country. There were nine aircraft in the fleet with a total range of 850 km (528 mi) (525 Mi) which could carry up to four passengers and two crewmen. Due to the topographic characteristics of the country and the lack of airports at the time, floats were adapted for two of the Junkers aircraft to make water landings in the rivers near different towns. Using these floats, Helmuth von Krohn was able to perform the first inland flight over Colombia on 20 October 1920, following the course of the Magdalena River; the flight took eight hours and required four emergency landings in the water.

Soon after the vision of the founding group had become a reality, German scientist and philanthropist Peter von Bauer became interested in the airline and contributed general knowledge, capital and a tenth aircraft for the company, as well as obtaining concessions from the Colombian government to operate the country's airmail transportation division using the airline. This new contract allowed SCADTA to thrive in a new frontier of aviation. By the mid-1920s, SCADTA, having overcome many obstacles, inaugurated its first international routes that initially covered destinations in Venezuela and the United States. Regretfully, in 1924, the aircraft that both Ernesto Cortissoz and Helmuth von Krohn were piloting, crashed into an area currently known as Bocas de Ceniza in Barranquilla, causing their deaths. Despite this tragedy, the airline continued to thrive under the guidance of German Peter von Bauer until the early 1940s, where circumstances related to the outbreak of World War II forced him to sell his shares in the airline to the US-owned Pan American World Airways.

National Airways of Colombia (1940–1994)[edit]

On 14 June 1940, in the city of Barranquilla, SCADTA, under ownership by United States businessmen, merged with Colombian Air Carrier SACO, (acronym of Servicio Aéreo Colombiano), forming the new Aerovías Nacionales de Colombia S.A. or Avianca. Five Colombians participated in this act: (Rafael María Palacio, Jacobo A. Corea, Cristobal Restrepo, Aristides Noguera) and German citizens Alberto Teitjen, Werner Kaemerer and Stuart Hosie, while the post of first President of Avianca was filled by Martín del Corral. There had been decades of dedicated work and contribution to Colombia's development through actions, among which the following may be highlighted:

  • In September 1920, with Fritz Hammer as pilot, Wilhem Schnurrbush as copilot and Stuart Hosie as a passenger, SCADTA accomplished its first flight between Barranquilla and Puerto Berrío.
  • On 19 October of that same year, Helmuth Von Krohn accomplished the first flight between Barranquilla and Girardot and by 1921 routes between Barranquilla, Girardot and Neiva were established.
  • In 1922, SCADTA began to provide airmail service.
  • In August 1922, General Pedro Nel Ospina, then President of Colombia, used a SCADTA aircraft to conduct official business for the first time.
  • On 19 July 1923, to save the country from bankruptcy, SCADTA transported a gold and currency load from Puerto Berrío to Girardot.
  • On 12 July 1928, a SCADTA Junkers F.13, commanded by Pilot Herbert Boy, crossed the Equator.
  • On 23 July 1929, regular routes between Girardot and Bogotá were established.
  • The cost of the first SCADTA air tickets were as follows: from Bogotá to Barranquilla, COP $75; from Bogotá to Cartagena, COP $85; from Bogotá to Cartago, COP $35; and from Bogotá to Santiago de Cali, COP $50.
  • On 16 July 1931, SCADTA established the first mail service between Bogotá and New York City.
  • In 1937, the airline acquired 10 Boeing 247 twin-engine aircraft, extending its domestic routes.
  • By October 1939, Avianca acquired the first Douglas DC-3 aircraft arriving in the country, flying at the then-incredible speed of 200 miles per hour.
  • Beginning in 1946, Avianca inaugurated flights to Quito, Lima, Panama City, Miami, New York City and finally Europe, using Douglas DC-4 and C-54 Skymaster aircraft,.
  • In 1951, Avianca acquired the Lockheed 749 Constellation and the 1049 Super Constellation aircraft, the biggest and fastest at the time.
  • A grand feat in Colombian commercial aviation was also conducted by Avianca in 1956, when the airline committed to take the Colombian delegation, that was to participate in the Melbourne Olympic Games in Australia. There were 61 hours of continuous operation, with only one stop for refueling allowed.
  • Four years later, in 1961, Avianca leased two Boeing 707 aircraft, to operate its international routes and on November 2, 1961, it acquired its own Boeing 720s, baptizing them with the names Simón Bolívar and Francisco de Paula Santander.
  • 1976 was an important one for Avianca, becoming the first Latin American airline to continuously operate a Boeing 747. Three years later, it started operations with another 747, this time a 747 Combi, mixing cargo and passenger operations.
  • In 1981, the possibilities for in-ground service for passengers in Bogotá expanded, thanks to the modern air terminal that Avianca commissioned: Avianca's Air Bridge. The new terminal originally operated routes to Miami, New York City, Santiago de Cali, Medellín, Pasto and Montería.
  • By 1990, Avianca had acquired the most modern aircraft in the world: two Boeing 767-200ERs, which were baptized with the names Cristóbal Colón and Américo Vespucio.

Avianca's System (1994–2002)[edit]

In 1994, a strategic alliance was established to merge three of the most important enterprises of the aeronautical sector of Colombia: Avianca, the regional carrier SAM and the helicopter operator Helicol, which brought life to Avianca's new system of operations. This system offered specialized services in Cargo (Avianca Cargo) and postal services, as well as the most modern fleet in Latin America made up of: Boeing 767–200, Boeing 767–300, Boeing 757–200, McDonnell Douglas MD-83, Fokker 50 and Bell helicopters.

This new system covered the following destinations:

By 1996, Avianca Postal Services evolved into Deprisa, providing express mail services through its products Deprisa and Deprisa Empresarial, traditional mail, certified mail, shipment airport-to-airport and P.O. boxes.

On 10 December 1998, Avianca announced the inception of a new "connections center" in Bogotá, offering around 6,000 possible weekly connecting flights and an increased number of frequencies, schedules and destinations, taking advantage of the privileged geographical location of the country's capital, for the benefit of Colombian and international travellers between South America, Europe and North America.

In addition to its Avianca Connection, and alliance partnerships, Avianca offers frequent flyer partnerships with the following airlines:

Summa Alliance (2002–2004)[edit]

After a rigorous and complex process, the worldwide aviation industry came through after the September 11 attacks. Avianca, the regional carrier SAM Colombia and its major rival ACES Colombia, joined efforts to create Alianza Summa, which began merged operations on 20 May 2002. These three airlines decided to strategically merge their strengths, to offer a more efficient service, with concerns to quality, quantity, security and competition in a new struggling marketplace. However, adverse circumstances within the industry and markets, forced the alliance to disband and airline shareholders decided to initiate the liquidation of Alianza Summa in November 2003, to focus in strengthening the Avianca trademark. These decisions resulted in the liquidation of ACES Colombia altogether and the acquisition of SAM Colombia, as a regional carrier under Avianca's system.

American Continent Airways (2004–2009)[edit]

On 10 December 2004, Avianca concluded one of the most important and ambitious reorganization processes, undertaken after filing for 'Chapter 11' bankruptcy protection, by obtaining confirmation of its reorganization plan, which was financially backed by the Brazilian consortium, OceanAir/Synergy Group and the National Federation of Coffee Growers of Colombia, allowing the airline to obtain funds for US$63 million, in the 13 months following withdrawal from C-11.

Avianca Airbus A330 economy class cabin.

The plan, with the support of 99.8% of the voting creditors and which obtained the majority endorsement of the Creditors Committee, will enter into force once the Company emerges from bankruptcy. In accordance with United States laws, the administration has the trust obligation to consider any other investment proposal until the final term expiration stipulated. Notwithstanding, such an offer, besides being better than the one that has been approved by Avianca's domestic and international creditors and confirmed today by the Court, must be final, i.e. fully financed and backed with non-reimbursable cash deposits or equivalent mechanisms. Likewise, such proposal must be binding. As known, the only investment that complies with these requirements is that of OceanAir/Synergy Group and the National Federation of Coffee Growers of Colombia, which already makes part of the reorganization plan already voted favorably, by the creditors and confirmed by the Judge.

Synergy Group is an evidenced, credit-worthy Brazilian entrepreneurial conglomerate. Its strength lies in the oil sector, building, installing and offering maintenance to offshore oil platforms; it is currently carrying out exploration work in Brazil, Ecuador and Colombia. Other businesses include: the extraction of gas in the United States, naval construction, telephony infrastructure, hydroelectric power plants, communications and a hydrocarbons marine exploration company, which extends throughout nine countries, with more than 5,000 workers.

It also owns and operates OceanAir, which services around thirty cities in Brazil, as well as VIP, an airline in Ecuador, Taxi Aero, a charter airline in Brazil and the recently acquired Wayra, in Peru, as well as Turb Serv, dedicated to the maintenance of turbines.

In 2009, OceanAir and VIP Ecuador will be rebranded as Avianca, to consolidate as one airline, following the ambitious expansion plans of the airline.

Avianca-TACA Alliance (2009-2013)[edit]

The merger of Colombia's Avianca and Salvadoran-based TACA is the latest sign that consolidation in the Latin American airline sector is picking up.

The newly formed Holdco – which will be controlled jointly by Avianca and TACA – instantly becomes one of the region's largest airlines after Brazil's TAM and GOL, with 129 aircraft and flights to more than 100 destinations.

In November 2009, the airline's Chief Executive Fabio Villegas announced that the airline is looking to replace its Fokker 50 and Fokker 100 aircraft with newer aircraft of 100 seats or less. The 10 Fokker 50s and 15 Fokker 100s are currently operated on flights shorter than one-and-a-half hours. Aircraft manufactured by Brazil's Embraer, Canada's Bombardier Aerospace and the Airbus A318 are being considered for the replacement.[15]

In January 1, 2011, The airline made the decision to retire the Fokker 100 aircraft in 2011 and replace them with 10 Airbus A318 leased from GECAS. The aircraft will be delivered during February to April 2011.

Star Alliance (from 2012)[edit]

On 10 November 2010, Star Alliance announced Avianca (and its merger counterpart, TACA) to become full member in mid-2012. Due to Avianca's entry into Star Alliance, it has ended its codeshare agreement with Delta Air Lines and began a new codeshare agreement with United Airlines. TACA had been codesharing with United Airlines since 2006.[16] On June 21, 2012, Avianca and TACA were both officially admitted into Star Alliance.

Avianca Holdings S.A. (2013-Present)[edit]

Avianca and TACA changed their image to the Avianca brand on May 28, 2013 in order to have only one brand in the aviation industry. Avianca has been facing controversy during late 2013 and early 2014 mostly in Colombia due to several delays on their flights.

On 21 March 2013, at the annual general meeting, the shareholders approved the change of corporate name from AviancaTaca Holdings S.A. to Avianca Holdings S.A.[17]


Main article: Avianca destinations

Avianca's hub is in Bogotá at El Dorado International Airport and in San Salvador at Monseñor Óscar Arnulfo Romero International Airport. Its focus cities are: Medellín, Cali, Cartagena and Barranquilla, as well as Miami, where Avianca is the largest foreign carrier by number of passengers. The airline covers 87 destinations in 22 countries.


Avianca's subsidiaries destinations
Company № of destinations Coming destinations Notes
Avianca 69 Main article: Avianca destinations
Avianca Brazil 23 Main article: Avianca Brazil destinations
Avianca Ecuador 9 Main article: Avianca Ecuador destinations
Helicol  ? Main article: Helicol destinations
Tampa Cargo 20 Main article: Tampa Cargo destinations

Frequent Flyer Program[edit]

Avianca headquarters designed by Esguerra Saenz Urdaneta Samper

Avianca launched their new LifeMiles programme in 2011, replacing the old AviancaPlus system for frequent flyers. The levels include Silver, Gold and Diamond, replacing the old AviancaPlus Basic, AviancaPlus Gold, AviancaPlus Platinum, and AviancaPlus Platinum Executive levels. The new LifeMiles system also incorporates TACA passengers' flights, unifying the two rewards systems as a result of Avianca's recent merger with TACA.

Codeshare agreements[edit]

Avianca currently maintains codeshare agreements with airlines[18] in North America, South America, and Europe (October 2014):

Cargo Codeshare Agreements

From 2012 Avianca has codeshare agreements with all members of the Star Alliance.[28]

Other Agreements[edit]


As of October 2014, the Avianca fleet consists of the following aircraft:[34][35]

Avianca Fleet
Aircraft In Fleet Orders Options Passengers Notes
J Y Total
ATR 42 9 48 48 4 aircraft are to be sold
ATR 72-600 11 1 3 68 68
Airbus A318-100 10 12 88 100
Airbus A319-100 33 17 12 108 120 6 fitted with Sharklets
Airbus A320-200 58 17 12 138 150 6 fitted with Sharklets
Airbus A320neo 35
Airbus A321-200 8 10 12 182 194 5 fitted with Sharklets
Airbus A330-200 12 8 30






Airbus A350-900 10 10
First delivery scheduled for 2018 to Avianca Brazil.
Boeing 787-8 1 14 5
First 2 deliveries scheduled for October 2014.
Cessna 208 10 12 12
Embraer 190 12 3 8 88 96
Total 163 110 15

Avianca, Air France and British Airways are currently the only three airlines in the world to operate every variant of the Airbus A320 family.


Avianca fleet following the jet era[36][37]
Aircraft Introduced Retired Notes
Fokker 100 2005 2011 replaced by Airbus A318. Operated total of 15
McDonnell Douglas MD-11ER 1999 1999 All leased
Fokker 50 1993 2014 11 replaced by Airbus A319
McDonnell Douglas MD-83 1992 2011 Operated total of 31
Boeing 757–259 1992 2010 Operated total of 22
Boeing 767-359 1994 2010 Operated total of 10
Boeing 767–259 1989 2011 Operated total of 10
Boeing 727–159 1966 1992 -
Boeing 727–259 1978 1998 -
Boeing 707–359 1969 1993 Operated a total of 18 aircraft. One was written off as Avianca Flight 52[38]
Boeing 720 1961 1984 -
Boeing 747 1976 1995 Owned a total of 6. Initially had 1 -100, 2 -200M and 2 -100F.[39] One -200M written off as Avianca Flight 011 so Avianca leased an extra -100 as a replacement aircraft
Boeing 737–159 1968 1971 Operated a total of two. First Latin American airline to operate them
Avianca fleet prior to the jet era[36][37][40]
Aircraft Introduced Retired Notes
Hawker Siddeley HS 748 1968 1978 -
Lockheed L-1049G Super Constellation 1958 1968 -
Lockheed L-749 Constellation 1956 1968 -
Curtiss C-46 1950 ? -
Douglas C-54 Skymaster 1948 1975 -
Consolidated Catalina 1946 ? -
Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar C-60 ? ? -
Douglas DC-4 1945 1970 -
Douglas DC-3 1939 1975 -
Douglas DC-2/C-39 1944 ? -
Boeing 247D 1937 1947 -
Fokker Super Universal 1931 1934 -
Ford Trimotor 5-AT-DS 1932 1946 -
Sikorsky S-38 1929 ? -
de Havilland Tiger Moth ? ? -
de Havilland Giant Moth ? ? -
Junkers W 34 1929 1947 -
Junkers W 33 1928 1932 -
Dornier Do J ? ? -
Dornier Merkur 1927 ? -
Dornier Komet ? ? -
Junkers F.13 1920 1939 -
An Avianca Boeing 767-200ER taxiing at Madrid Barajas Airport, Spain in 2008.

Incidents and accidents[edit]

The airline suffered a few incidents during the 1980s and early 1990s. The deadliest of those incidents was Avianca Flight 203, which was bombed in 1989, following orders from Pablo Escobar to kill presidential candidate César Gaviria Trujillo. In the aftermath, it was found that Gaviria had not boarded the aircraft. Only one successful bombing has occurred in the airline's history, while most other gang related incidents were related to hijackings or shootings on board. In most hijackings, all passengers and crew members, unaffiliated with the hijacker's cause, were immediately released.

Other incidents include:

  • On 22 January 1947, Douglas C-53B (C-108) crashed in the Magdalena river valley, killing all 17 on board.[41]
  • On 9 August 1954, Lockheed L-749A Constellation (HK-163) crashed three minutes after take off from Lajes Field, Azores flew left into the hills instead of right towards the sea killing all 30 on board.[42]
  • On 9 March 1955, Douglas C-47A (HK-328) crashed at Trujillo, Colombia, killing all eight on board. The wreckage was found a month later, but some of the gold and platform cargo was missing.[43]
  • On 23 June 1959, Avianca Flight 667, a Douglas DC-4 (HK-135), struck Cerro Baco mountain while en route to Lima, Peru, killing all 14 aboard.[44]
  • On 21 January 1960, Avianca Flight 671, a Lockheed L-1049E, crashed and burned on landing at Montego Bay International Airport in Jamaica, killing 37 aboard.[45]
  • On 22 March 1965, Avianca Flight 676, a Douglas C-47-DL (HK-109) struck Pan de Azucar at 7200 feet, killing all 29 on board. The cause was the decision of the pilot to fly VFR in conditions that required IFR.[46]
  • On 15 January 1966, Avianca Flight 4 crashed shortly after takeoff from Cartagena-Crespo Airport. The cause was determined as maintenance problems, possibly compounded by pilot error.
  • On 22 September 1966, Avianca Flight 870, a Douglas DC-4 (HK-174) crashed while attempting to return to Eldorado Airport due to engine problems, killing both pilots. The cause was traced to a failure in the governor control unit. Improper supervision by the company was a contributing factor, as the pilot was briefed to make a night flight while he was in conversion training for the L-749.[47]
  • On 24 December 1966, Avianca Flight 729, a Douglas C-47A (HK-161) struck Tajumbina Peak at 11,600 feet while approaching Cali, killing all 29 on board. A combination of poor CRM, pilot intoxication, deviation from route, and pilot error was cited as the cause.[48]
  • On 21 May 1970, Douglas DC-3 (HK-121) was hijacked to Yariguíes Airport, Barrancabermeja whilst on a flight from El Alcaraván Airport, Yopal to Alberto Lleras Carmargo Airport, Sogamoso. The hijackers had demanded to be taken to Cuba.[49]
  • On 29 July 1972, Douglas C-53s HK-107 and HK-1341 were involved in a mid-air collision over the Las Palomas Mountains. Both aircraft crashed, killing 21 people on HK-107 and 17 people on HK-1341. Both aircraft were operating domestic scheduled passenger flights from La Vanguardia Airport, Villavicencio to El Yopal Airport.[50][51]
  • On 22 August 1973, Douglas DC-3A HK-111 crashed into a hill near Casanare, Colombia, killing 16 of the 17 people on board. The aircraft was operating a domestic scheduled passenger flight from La Vanguardia Airport, Villavicencio to El Alcaraván Airport, Yopal.[52]
  • On 12 August 1974, Douglas C-47 HK-508 flew into Trujillo Mountain killing all 27 people on board. The aircraft was on a domestic scheduled passenger flight from El Dorado Airport, Bogotá to La Florida Airport, Tumaco.[53]
  • On November 27, 1983, Avianca Flight 011, a Boeing 747–200 that crashed onto a mountain, just short of landing at Barajas Airport in Madrid, killed 181 of the 192 people aboard. The cause was determined to be pilot error.
  • On 17 March 1988, Avianca Flight 410, a Boeing 727 domestic flight, crashed into low mountains near Cúcuta – Norte de Santander, Colombia, after take-off, killing all 143 on board. It was determined that pilot error was also the cause of this crash, in a situation similar to Flight 011.
  • On 27 November 1989, a bomb destroyed Avianca Flight 203. All 110 passengers and crew were killed.
  • On 25 January 1990, Avianca Flight 52, a Boeing 707–320 jet en route from Bogotá to New York City via Medellín, crashed in the town of Cove Neck, New York, after running out of fuel while in a holding pattern, awaiting landing at New York's Kennedy Airport, killing 73 of the 158 people aboard. There was much controversy surrounding this crash.
  • On 26 April 1990, 19th of April Movement presidential candidate Carlos Pizarro was gunned down during a domestic Avianca flight.[54][55]
  • On 12 April 1999, Avianca Flight 9463, a Fokker 50 en route from Bogotà to Bucaramanga was hijacked by 6 ELN members and forced the plane to make an emergency landing on a clandestine runway in the Bolivar region. Only one passenger died during captivity, the rest were eventually liberated a year after the hijack.[56]


Avianca's current headquarters is on Avenida El Dorado and between Avenida la Esmeralda and Gobernación de Cundinamarca, located in the Ciudad Salitre area of Bogota. The building is located next to the Gran Estación. The current headquarters, which opened in 2009, is a 46 meters (151 ft) tall, 34,536 square meters (371,740 sq ft) building with a 13,800 square meters (149,000 sq ft) glass façade and a shading coefficient of 0.71% to allow natural air and lighting in the floors of the building. The first floor has stores and a parking area.[57] Its previous head office was at Avenida El Dorado No. 93-30.[58]


  1. ^ Avianca compró Aerounión:
  2. ^ "Resultados Avianca 2009". Retrieved 2012-0928.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  3. ^ Álvaro Uribe Vélez; Jorge Humberto Botero Angulo (March 7, 2005). "Decreto número 604 de 2005 por el cual se concede la Orden del Mérito Comercial en la Categoría de Gran Oficial a Avianca" [Decree number 604 of 2005 which grants to Avianca the Order of Commercial Merit in the Category of Great Officer] (PDF) (in Spanish). Bogotá, D.C. (Colombia): Ministerio de Comercio, Industria y Turismo de la República de Colombia. 
  4. ^ Álvaro Uribe Vélez (March 7, 2005). "Discurso de entrega de la Orden del Mérito Comercial en la Categoría de Gran Oficial a Avianca" [Presidential address on the Order of Commercial Merit in the Category of Great Officer to Avianca] (.htm) (in Spanish). Bogotá, D.C. (Colombia): Presidencia de la República de Colombia. "Nosotros no podemos perder la oportunidad de tener en Bogotá ese gran centro de conexiones. Y por supuesto, que lo haga la compañía bandera de Colombia, que es Avianca. Eso lo tiene que explicar el Gobierno a la opinión pública clara y paladinamente, sin malicias, sin cartas escondidas, y salir a defenderlo y decir por qué hay que hacerlo." 
  5. ^ Simón Rodríguez Rodríguez (September 21, 1989). "Sentencia del Honorable Consejo de Estado de la República de Colombia con relación al proceso número 132 que reposa en el expediente del año 1989 (ce-sec1-exp1989-n132)" [Sentence of the Honourable Council of State of the Republic of Colombia in relation to the process number 132 which rests on the record of 1989 (ce-sec1-exp1989-n132)] (.doc) (in Spanish). Bogotá, D.C. (Colombia): Consejo de Estado de la República de Colombia. pp. 10, 16, 5th paragraph. "Desde ningún punto de vista puede abrigarse duda alguna acerca del carácter eminentemente privado de la empresa Aerovías Nacionales de Colombia AVIANCA S. A. La prueba por excelencia en este caso, como es el certificado expedido por el Secretario de la Cámara de Comercio de Barranquilla así lo determina (fls. 2 a 10). En él se lee que la empresa se constituyó por escritura pública número 2374, otorgada ante Notaría Segunda de Barranquilla, el día 5 de diciembre de 1919, registrada en el Juzgado Tercero del mismo Circuito, llamada inicialmente Sociedad Colombo – Alemana de Transportes Aéreos -SCADTA-." 
  6. ^ Friedman, Max Paul (April 2000). "Specter of a Nazi Threat: United States-Colombian Relations, 1939–1945". The Americas. 4 (Washington, D.C. (United States): Catholic University of America Press on behalf of Academy of American Franciscan History) 56: 563–589 [566 2nd paragraph]. JSTOR 1008173. 
  7. ^ "Avianca-TACA joint venture ready for implementation". Flightglobal. 2010-02-02. Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  8. ^ "Flightgobal: Avianca-TACA joint venture ready for implementation". February 2, 2010. Retrieved 2012-09-28. 
  9. ^ "Avianca confirms 'strategic merger' with TACA". Flightglobal. 10 July 2009. Retrieved 10 July 2009. 
  10. ^ "Avianca cumple 90 años" (in Spanish). Avianca. 12 March 2009. Retrieved 12 March 2009. 
  11. ^ "90th anniversary sticker on Avianca's airliner". Retrieved 2011-12-04. 
  12. ^ Brown, Claire; Claire Brown (Director of Communications at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum) (1998-07-28). "National Air and Space Museum Exhibition Examines the Development of Latino Aviation". Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. Retrieved 1998-07-28. "SCADTA Junkers F 13, one of the first commercial airlines in Colombia. SCADTA (now known as AVIANCA) is the oldest, continuously operating airline in the Western Hemisphere." 
  13. ^ "Avianca, Taca Airlines and Copa Airlines join Star Alliance". Star Alliance. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-21. 
  14. ^ "Avianca-Taca and Copa Airlines to join Star Alliance". Star Alliance. 11 October 2010. Retrieved 11/10/2010.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  15. ^ "Avianca looking to replace Fokkers 100". 2009-11-30. Retrieved 2011-12-04. 
  16. ^ "Copa Airlines, Copa Airlines Colombia, United Airlines and Avianca-TACA announce their intention to establish close cooperation agreements". 2011-01-28. Retrieved 2011-12-04. 
  17. ^
  18. ^ (March 18, 2011). "Aerolíneas aliadas" [Alliance partners] (in Spanish). Bogotá, D.C. (Colombia): Avianca. 
  19. ^ Avianca (June 1, 2008). "Aerolíneas aliadas: Air Canada" (in Spanish). Bogotá, D.C. (Colombia): Avianca. 
  20. ^ Avianca (June 1, 2008). "Aerolíneas aliadas: Avianca Brasil" (in Spanish). Bogotá, D.C. (Colombia): Avianca. 
  21. ^ (June 14, 2008). "Iberia y Avianca en código compartido" (in Spanish). Buenos Aires (Argentina): aerospacio. 
  22. ^ Avianca (November 3, 2010). "Avianca y Lufthansa firman acuerdo de operación en código compartido" (PDF) (in Spanish). Bogotá DC (Colombia): 
  23. ^ Emisora Ejercito (July 18, 2007). "Satena y Avianca firman acuerdo de ampliación de servicios" (in Spanish). Bogotá DC (Colombia): 
  24. ^ "Chilean, Colombian airlines reach codeshare agreement – Colombia news". Colombia Reports. 23 November 2011. 
  25. ^
  26. ^ La Republica (January 27, 2011). "Avianca-Taca, Copa Airlines y United Airlines establecen acuerdos de cooperación" (in Spanish). Bogotá DC (Colombia): 
  27. ^ "Alianza Estrategica Deprisa – UPS". 
  28. ^ Star Alliance (March 18, 2011). "Star Alliance Members". Franckfort (Germany): 
  29. ^ "Payment at retailers". 
  30. ^ "Avianca and Grupo TACA to offer a leading network of routes throughout Latin America". 
  31. ^ "Avianca and Grupo TACA to offer a leading network of routes throughout Latin America". 
  32. ^ "Our history". 
  33. ^ "Our history". 
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