Aviation Division

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This article is about the Soviet Air Force formation. For the United States Army unit, see Aeronautical Division, U.S. Signal Corps. For the Timorese aviation authority, see Civil Aviation Division of East Timor.

An Aviation Division (Russian: авиационная дивизия) was a type of formation of the Military Air Forces of the Red Army during the Second World War, the Soviet Air Forces, Soviet Air Defence Forces (PVO) and Aviation of the Military Naval Fleet, and since 1991 remain major formations within the Military Air Forces of the Russian Federation.[1]

Before the start of the Second World War, the aviation divisions formed parts of the Long Range Aviation (13.5% of aircraft), and Frontal Aviation (Military Air Forces of the Military Districts in peacetime; 40.5% of aircraft) of the Red Army Fronts, and units assigned to the Combined Arms Armies as the Army Aviation (43.7% of aircraft). There was also a Forces Aviation (2.3% of aircraft) flying liaison aircraft as part of the Corps and Armies’ independent flights and squadrons.[2]

From 1942 the aviation divisions were combined into the Air Armies of the Red Army ground forces, assigned one to each Front, Air Defence Forces (PVO) Armies (including the 1st Fighter Army of the PVO), Soviet Naval Aviation and Aviation of the Reserve of the Supreme Command.

In organisational terms the aviation divisions were often combined into the aviation corps or an Air Army. In terms of combat assignment the aviation divisions were divided into the bombardment aviation divisions, assault aviation divisions, fighter aviation divisions, mixed aviation divisions (usually one to a Combined Arms Army) and transport aviation divisions.[3]

The composition of the aviation divisions during wartime was not uniform or constant. Although many divisions begun the war with 3 – 5 aviation regiments, due to the heavy losses suffered in the initial period of the Summer-Autumn Campaign of 1941 (22 June - 4 December), during Operation Barbarossa, from August this was reduced to two with consequent reduction in aircraft from 150-180 to 40-50. However, commencing with Autumn 1942 the size of the aviation divisions began to increase again, and some had four aviation regiments, or five in the PVO and mixed divisions. However the number of mixed divisions, and expediency of 1942, was gradually reduced and from 1944 the Frontal Aviation divisions adopted a 3-4 regiment structure, with the 3 regiments being the more common occurrence in the bombing divisions with some 100 aircraft while the fighter and assault divisions were issued 124 aircraft. The mission profile was flexible depending on the target, with the aviation division deploying as part of the aviation corps, Air Army or independently, utilising the entire aircraft complement, or by regiments, squadrons, flights and even individual aircraft.

Bonn et al. wrote in 2005 that the Soviet Air Forces included 10 basic air divisions at the start of the war, 37 basic air divisions were formed during it, of which only three survived to the end. Seven mixed air divisions existed at the start of the war, and 44 were generated during it. Thirteen were destroyed and disbanded, and the rest converted into other types of divisions. Not a single mixed air division was active at the end of the war. Only one was raised to Guards status, and that, the 1st Guards Mixed Air Division, was converted to the 16th Guards Fighter Aviation Division after November 1944. Seven bombardment air divisions were active at the beginning of the war, with 66 created during its course. Twenty-seven of the 66 were destroyed, disbanded, or otherwise converted. Eighteen became Guards divisions.

Twenty-two specialist long-range air divisions were created during the war, though all were converted to bomber divisions. Forty-eight ground-attack divisions were formed during the war, of which two were destroyed or disbanded and eighteen which became Guards. Eleven fighter divisions existed at the beginning of the war. A hundred and nine in total were formed, of which eleven were destroyed or disbanded, fifteen converted, and 18 became Guards.[4]

Soviet aviation divisions during the Second World War[edit]

The list below includes divisions of the Long Range Air Force.

  • 1st mixed Aviation Division
  • 1st ferry red banner Aviation Division GVF (Civilian Air Fleet)
  • 1st air transport division GVF
  • 1st transport Aviation Division
  • 1st Stalingrad long-range air division, later 1st bomber Stalingrad red banner air division ([2])
  • 1st night heavy bomber air division
  • 1st school bomber air division
  • 2nd mixed air division
  • 2nd Special Purpose Aviation Division
  • 3rd bombardment air division
  • 3rd long-range air division
  • 3rd special red banner communications air division GVF
  • 4th mixed air division
  • 5th mixed air division
  • 6th mixed air division
  • 7th mixed air division
  • 8th mixed air division
  • 8th bombardment air division
  • 9th mixed air division - Served with the Western Special Military District at the outbreak of war, comprising the 13th, 14th, 124th, 126th, 128th, and 129th Fighter Aviation Regiments. Just days before the attack the 9th Mixed Air Division had received 233 new MiG-3s, but they lost 347 of 409 operational aircraft on the first day of the war with almost all of the MiG-3s destroyed on the ground by bombs.
  • 10th mixed air division
  • 11th mixed air division
  • 12th bomber air division (1st form.)(22.6.41-23.7.41 formed from 12th Mixed Aviation Division)[5]
  • 12th Mginskaya long-range air division, later 12th bomber Mginskaya red banner air division (2nd form.)(formed from 12th Aviation Division, Long Range (ад ДД) 26.12.44-9.5.45)[5][6]
  • 12th mixed air division is
  • 13th bomber air division
  • 14th air division
  • 15th mixed air division
  • 16th air division
  • 17th air division
  • 17th long-range air division
  • 18th air division
  • 19th air division
  • 20th mixed air division
  • 21st mixed air division
  • 22nd air division
  • 23rd mixed air division
  • 23rd heavy bomber air division
  • 24th long-range air division, later 24th bombardment air division
  • 25th bombardment air division
  • 26th long-range bombardment air division
  • 27th bombardment air division
  • 28th mixed air division
  • 29th bombardment Amur air division
  • 30th long-range bombardment Khinganskaya red banner air division
  • 31st mixed air division
  • 32nd bombardment red banner air division
  • 33rd Bomber Aviation Division - Activated 5.11.40 in Vozdvizhenka, Primorskiy Kray, as the 33rd Aviation Division Long-Range. Under 9th Air Army until 1944. 26.12.44 renamed 33rd Bomber Aviation Division. Disbanded 1951.[7]
  • 34th bomber red banner air division
  • 35th long-range bombardment air division
  • 36th fighter air defence division (PVO)
  • 36th Smolensk long-range air division
  • 36th bomber Smolensk red banner air division
  • 38th bombardment air division
  • 38th mixed air division
  • 39th bombardment air division
  • 40th long-range bombardment air division
  • 41st air division
  • 42nd long-range bombardment air division
  • 43rd bombardment air division
  • 43rd mixed air division
  • 44th bombardment air division
  • 45th mixed air division
  • 45th Gomel air division of distant action
  • 45th Heavy Bomber Aviation Division - "Gomel"
  • 46th Aviation Division - Formed in accordance with an Ukaz of the VVS on 12.08.1940. Part of the Air Forces of the Moscow Military District. June-July 1941 assigned to the Air Forces of the 12th Army (Soviet Union). Reassigned to the Air Forces of the 22nd Army (Soviet Union) 10.07.41, and then Western Front Air Forces in August 1941. Disbanded 1 March 1942.[8]
  • 47th mixed air division
  • 48th long-range bombardment air division, later 48th Riga long-range air division
  • 48th bomber Riga air division
  • 49th mixed air division
  • 50th long-range bombardment air division
  • 50th Crimean long-range air division, later 50th bomber Crimean red banner air division
  • 51st long-range bombardment air division
  • 52nd long-range bombardment air division
  • 53rd long-range bombardment air division (DVF), later 53rd Stalingrad long-range air division, later 53rd bomber Stalingrad air division
  • 54th bombardment air division
  • 54th Orel long-range air division, later 54th bomber Orel air division
  • 55th Composite Aviation Division
  • 56th air division
  • 56th Breslavlskaya long-range air division fighters
  • 57th mixed air division
  • 59th bombardment air division
  • 60th mixed air division
  • 61st mixed air division
  • 62nd air division
  • 62nd Aviation Division Long-range
  • 63rd air division
  • 64th air division
  • 65th air division
  • 66th air division
  • 67th bombardment air division
  • 68th bombardment air division
  • 71st air division
  • 72nd bombardment air division
  • 73rd mixed air division
  • 74th mixed air division
  • 75th mixed air division
  • 76th mixed air division
  • 77th mixed air division
  • 78th bombardment air division
  • 81st long-range air division
  • 83rd bomber air division
  • 90th air division
  • 91st air division
  • 92nd air division
  • 96th assault Amur air division
  • 101st fighter air defence division (PVO)
  • 102nd fighter air defence division (PVO)
  • 103rd air division
  • 104th fighter air defence division (PVO)
  • 105th fighter air defence division (PVO)
  • 106th fighter air defence division (PVO)
  • 113th bomber Leningrad red banner air division
  • 113th long-range air division
  • 122nd fighter Pecenga air defence division
  • 123rd fighter air defence division (PVO)
  • 124th fighter air defence division (PVO)
  • 125th fighter air defence division (PVO)
  • 126th fighter air defence division (PVO)
  • 127th bombardment air division
  • 128th mixed Kurile air division
  • 129th bombardment Koenigsberg order of Kutuzov air division
  • 130th bombardment Insterburg order of Suvorov air division
  • 132nd Sevastopol Bomber Aviation Division ([3])
  • 133rd air division
  • 134th long-range bombardment air division
  • 135th mixed air division
  • 135th bombardment air division
  • 136th assault Nizhnednestrovskaya order of Suvorov air division
  • 140th air division
  • 141st fighter air defence division (PVO)
  • 142nd fighter air defence division (PVO)
  • 144th fighter air defence division (PVO)
  • 146th air division
  • 147th fighter air defence division (PVO)
  • 148th fighter air defence division (PVO)
  • 149th Fighter Aviation Division (PVO) - activated June 1942, later became a bomber aviation division and served with 4th Air Army and 76th Air Army before disbanding in 1998[9]
  • 179th bomber air division
  • 181st bombardment Chenstokhovskaya order of Kutuzov air division
  • 182nd assault Tilzitskaya orders of Suvorov and Kutuzov air division
  • 183rd bomber Berlin air division
  • 185th bombardment air division
  • 188th bomber Riga air division
  • 189th assault Nizhnednestrovskaya order of Suvorov air division
  • 190th bombardment Polotsk red banner order of Kutuzov air division
  • 193rd bombardment Demblinskaya order of Suvorov air division
  • 194th bombardment air division
  • 196th assault Zhlobinskaya red banner air division
  • 197th assault Demblinskaya red banner air division
  • 198th assault Warsaw red banner air division
  • 199th assault Slonimskaya red banner air division
  • 201st bombardment Stalingrad air division
  • 202nd bombardment air division
  • 202nd bomber Mid-Don red banner order of Suvorov air division in the name of Supreme Soviet of Tatarskaya ASSR
  • 203rd mixed air division
  • 203rd bombardment Znamenskaya air division
  • 204th mixed air division
  • 204th bomber air division
  • 205th Kirovograd Fighter Aviation Division - Activated 5.42 as the 205th Fighter Aviation Division. Under 7th Fighter Aviation Corps, June 1943 - 10.44; 6th Guards Fighter Aviation Corps, 10.44 - 3.47. On 27.10.44 renamed 22nd Guards Fighter Aviation Division. Disbanded March 1947.[10]
  • 206th bombardment air division
  • 206th assault Melitopolskaya red banner air division
  • 207th mixed air division
  • 207th bombardment air division
  • 208th mixed air division
  • 208th night bomber Kiev red banner air division
  • 209th bombardment air division
  • 210th bombardment air division (1st form.)
  • 210th bombardment air division (2nd form.)
  • 211th mixed air division
  • 211th short range bomber air division
  • 211th night bomber air division
  • 211th assault Nevelskaya order of Lenin red banner order of Suvorov air division
  • 212th mixed air division
  • 212th assault air division
  • 213th night bomber Vitebsk red banner orders of Suvorov and Kutuzov air division
  • 214th assault Kerch air division
  • 215th mixed air division
  • 215th bombardment Tannenbergskaya red banner air division
  • 216th bombardment air division
  • 216th mixed air division
  • 216th Fighter Air Division, later became 9th Guards Fighter Air Division.
  • 218th Yasskaya red banner Night Bomber Aviation Division - had 588th Night Bomber Aviation Regiment, the "Night Witches" under its command.[11]
  • 219th bomber Chenstokhovskaya orders of Suvorov and Kutuzov air division
  • 220th bombardment air division
  • 221st bomber Bakhmachskaya order of Suvorov air division
  • 222nd long-range aviation division, later 222nd long-range bombardment air division
  • 223rd bomber air division
  • 224th assault Zhmerinskaya red banner air division
  • 225th assault Riga air division
  • 226th Assault Aviation Division
  • 227th assault Berdichevskaya red banner air division
  • 228th assault air division
  • 229th bombardment Taman red banner air division
  • 230th assault Kuban red banner order of Suvorov air division
  • 231st assault Roslavl air division
  • 232nd assault air division
  • 233rd assault Yartsevskaya red banner order of Suvorov air division
  • 234th bombardment Mozyrskaya order of Suvorov air division
  • 235th bombardment Stalingrad air division
  • 236th bombardment Lvov red banner air division
  • 237th bombardment air division
  • 238th assault air division
  • 239th bombardment air division
  • 240th bombardment Nevelskaya red banner order of Suvorov air division
  • 241st bomber Rechitskaya order of Kutuzovair division
  • 242nd night bomber Lyublinskaya red banner order of Suvorov air division
  • 243rd assault air division
  • 244th bomber Lozovskaya red banner of Bogdan Khmelnitskiy's order air division
  • 245th bombardment Port-Arturskaya air division
  • 246th bombardment Mukdenskaya air division
  • 247th bomber air division
  • 248th assault Port-Arturskaya air division
  • 249th bombardment red banner air division
  • 250th bombardment red banner air division
  • 251st assault red banner air division
  • 252nd assault red banner air division
  • 253rd assault Amur air division
  • 254th bombardment Amur air division
  • 255th mixed Sakhalin air division
  • 256th bombardment Kiev red banner of orders of Suvorov and Bogdan Khmelnitskiy air division
  • 257th mixed Svirskaya air division
  • 257th bombardment Svirskaya air division
  • 258th bombardment Svirskaya aviation division
  • 258th mixed Svirskaya air division - became 16th Guards Fighter Aviation Division, which see.
  • 259th bombardment Gorodokskaya order of Lenin red banner order of Suvorov air division
  • 260th bomber air division
  • 260th mixed Svirskaya air division
  • 260th assault Svirskaya red banner order of Suvorov air division
  • 261st mixed air division
  • 261st assault Svirskaya order of Suvorov air division
  • 262nd night bomber Lozovskaya red banner order of Kutuzov air division
  • 263rd bombardment air division
  • 263rd bomber air division
  • 264th assault Kiev red banner air division
  • 265th bombardment Melitopolskaya red banner order of Suvorov air division
  • 266th bombardment air division
  • 266th assault Poltava air division
  • 267th assault air division
  • 268th bombardment air division
  • 269th bombardment Novgorod red banner air division
  • 270th bomber air division
  • 271st night bomber Stalingrad-Rechitskaya air division
  • 272nd night bomber air division
  • 273rd bombardment Gomel order of Suvorov air division
  • 274th bombardment air division
  • 275th bombardment Puskinskaya red banner air division
  • 276th bomber Gatchinskaya twice red banner of orders Suvorov and Kutuzov air division
  • 277th assault Krasnoselsk red banner of orders of Suvorov and Kutuzov air division
  • 278th bombardment Siberian-Stalin red banner order of Suvorov air division
  • 279th bombardment red banner air division
  • 280th bomber air division
  • 280th mixed Ostrovskaya air division
  • 280th assault Ostrovskaya air division
  • 281st assault Novgorod red banner air division - activated August 1942 from the VVS/4th Army, assigned to 13th Air Army April 1944. In May 1945, in the Lithuanian SSR, the division comprised three assault aviation regiments of Il-2s: the 448, 703rd, and 872nd. Redesignated the 281st Military Transport Aviation Division on 27 April 1946 and resubordinated to Headquarters Airborne Forces (which appears to have controlled all military transport aircraft at the time.)[12]
  • 282nd bombardment Gomel red banner order of Suvorov air division
  • 283rd bombardment Kamyshinskaya red banner order of Suvorov air division [13]
  • 284th night bomber Novosokolnicheskaya air division
  • 284th bombardment air division
  • 285th bomber air division
  • 286th bombardment Nezhinskaya red banner order of Suvorov air division
  • 287th bombardment air division
  • 288th bombardment Pavlograd- Viennese red banner order of Suvorov air division - also 288th Fighter Aviation Division[14]
  • 289th assault Nikopol' red banner air division
  • 290th Assault Aviation Division
  • 291st mixed air division
  • 291st assault Kiev air division
  • 292nd assault Krasnogradskaya air division
  • 293rd bomber Cherkass air division
  • 294th bombardment Poltavsko-Alexandriyskaya air division
  • 295th bombardment Novomoskovsk red banner order of Kutuzov air division
  • 296th bombardment air division
  • 297th fighter air defence division (PVO)
  • 298th fighter air defence division (PVO)
  • 299th assault Nezhinskaya red banner order of Suvorov air division
  • 300th assault Tomashuvskaya order of Suvorov air division
  • 301st bomber Gomel order of Kutuzovair division
  • 302nd bombardment Kirovograd air division
  • 303rd bombardment Smolensk red banner air division
  • 304th Cherkass Bomber Aviation Division - Activated March 1943 as the 304th Bomber Aviation Division. 6.43 renamed 304th Fighter Aviation Division. Under 7th Fighter Aviation Corps, 6.43 - 10.44; 6th Guards Fighter Aviation Corps, 10.44 - 3.47. On 27.10.44 renamed 23rd Guards Fighter Aviation Division. Disbanded March 1947.[15]
  • 305th assault Pavlograd red banner air division
  • 306th assault lower-Dneprovsk red banner order of Suvorov air division
  • 307th assault Leeds red banner order of Suvorov air division
  • 308th assault Kraków red banner order of Suvorov air division
  • 309th bombardment Smolensk red banner air division
  • 310th fighter air defence division (PVO)
  • 311th assault Molodechnenskaya red banner air division
  • 312th night bomber Znamenskaya order of Suvorov air division
  • 313th night bomber Bezhitskaya air division
  • 314th night bomber Polotsk red banner order of Kutuzov air division
  • 315th bombardment Riga air division
  • 316th assault Mukdenskaya air division
  • 317th fighter air defence division (PVO)
  • 318th fighter air defence division (PVO)
  • 319th fighter air defence division (PVO)
  • 320th fighter air defence division (PVO)
  • 321st bomber air division
  • 322nd bombardment Minsk red banner order of Suvorov air division
  • 323rd bombardment Baranovichskaya red banner air division
  • 324th bombardment Svirskaya red banner air division
  • 325th night bomber Osovetskaya red banner order of Suvorov air division
  • 326th night bomber Tarnopolskaya order of Kutuzov Aviation Division
  • 327th bomber Gdansk air division
  • 328th fighter air defence division (PVO)
  • 329th bombardment Kerch red banner air division
  • 330th bombardment Ostrovskaya air division
  • 331st bombardment Lvov air division
  • 332nd assault Vitebsk red banner air division
  • 334th bomber Leningrad red banner order of Suvorov air division
  • 335th assault Vitebsk order of Lenin red banner order of Suvorov air division
  • 336th bombardment Kovelskaya red banner air division

Guards[edit]

Guards Bomber[edit]

Guards Fighter[edit]

  • 1st Guards Fighter Stalingrad-Berlin red banner Aviation Division. Activated 5.42 as the 220th Fighter Aviation Division. 4 February 1943 renamed 1st Guards Fighter Aviation Division.[16]
  • 2nd guard fighter Stalingrad red banner air defence division
  • 3rd guard fighter Bryansk red banner order of Suvorov air division
  • 4th guard fighter Orsha red banner order of Suvorov air division
  • 5th guard fighter Valdai red banner order of Kutuzov air division
  • 6th guard fighter Don-Segedskaya red banner order of Suvorov air division
  • 7th guard fighter Rzhevskaya red banner of orders of Suvorov and Kutuzov air division
  • 8th guard fighter Kiev red banner of orders of Suvorov and Bogdan Khmelnitskiy Aviation Division
  • 9th guard Mariupolsko-Berlin order of Lenin red banner order of Bogdan Khmelnitskiy Fighter Aviation Division. Converted from 216th Fighter Aviation Division. Activated Dec 1942 as the 216th SAD; 7th Jun 1943 renamed 9th Guards IAD; 'Mariupol-Berlin,' orders of Lenin, Red Banner, Bogdan Khmelnitskiy.[17] As 9 Gds IAD, fought well using U.S. P-39 Airacobras.[18] Fought as part of 4th Air Army.
  • 10th guard fighter Stalingrad red banner order of Suvorov air division
  • 11th guards Dnipropetrovsk red banner order of Bogdan Khmelnitskiy fighter air division - Activated 5.42 as the 207th Mixed Aviation Division, but a few days later (20.5.42) renamed 207th Fighter Aviation Division. 24.8.43 renamed 11th Guards Fighter Aviation Division. 10.1.49 renamed 195th Guards Fighter Aviation Division; April 1968 renamed back to 11 GvIAD. Southern Group of Forces/36th Air Army 1956-1991.[19]
  • 12th guard fighter Znamenskaya red banner order of Bogdan Khmelnitskiy air division
  • 13th guard fighter Poltava-Alexandriyskaya red banner order of Kutuzov air division
  • 14th guard fighter Kirovograd- Budapest red banner order of Suvorov air division
  • 15th guard fighter Stalingrad red banner order of Bogdan Khmelnitskiy air division
  • 16th Guards Svirskaya Red Banner Fighter Aviation Division. Activated 11.42 as the 258th Fighter Aviation Division. 27.2.43 renamed 258th Mixed Aviation Division. 24.8.43 renamed 1st Guards Mixed Aviation Division. 11.11.44 renamed 16th Guards Fighter Aviation Division. Comprised 19th Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment, 20th Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment, and 152nd Fighter Aviation Regiment in MAy 1945. Moved to Damgarten, DDR, in October 1953 and remained as part of Group of Soviet Forces in Germany until 30 October 1993. On that date it was moved to Millerovo, in the North Caucasus Military District and became part of the 4th Air Army.[20]
  • 22nd guard fighter Kirovograd order of Lenin red banner order of Kutuzov air division
  • 23rd guard fighter Cherkass red banner order of Bogdan Khmelnitskiy air division

Guards Assault[edit]

  • 1st Guards Assault Stalingrad order of Lenin twice red banner of orders of Suvorov and Kutuzov Air Division
  • 2nd Guards Assault Chernigov-Rechitskaya order of Lenin red banner order of Suvorov Air Division

Aviation divisions formed post-war[edit]

Source : Holm

  • 4th Fighter Aviation Division - activated 1.12.73 in Ivano-Frankovsk, Ivano-Frankovsk Oblast. 14th Air Army/Carpathian Military District.
  • 10th Mixed Aviation Division - activated 1970 at Ucharal, Alma-Ata Oblast. Redesignated 10th Fighter Aviation Division in 1980.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ p.34, Kozlov
  2. ^ Svischev
  3. ^ pp.15-16, Wagner
  4. ^ Bonn, Keith E.; Scott McMichael; David Glantz; Yuri and Natalya Khonko (2005). Slaughterhouse: the Handbook of the Eastern Front. Bedford, PA: Aberjona Press. pp. 384–385. ISBN 0-9717650-9-X. 
  5. ^ a b Perecheni No. 6
  6. ^ See also Holm, http://www.ww2.dk/new/air%20force/division/vtad/12vtad.htm
  7. ^ Michael Holm, http://www.ww2.dk/new/air%20force/division/bad/33bad.htm
  8. ^ AllAces.ru, 46th Air Division, accessed December 2012.
  9. ^ http://www.ww2.dk/new/air%20force/division/bad/149bad.htm
  10. ^ Michael Holm, 22nd Guards Kirovogradskaya Fighter Aviation Division, accessed December 2012.
  11. ^ [1]
  12. ^ Michael Holm, 281st Military Transport Aviation Division, accessed August 2011
  13. ^ See Michael Holm, 283 IAD
  14. ^ Activated during Second World War, 1 July 1942, as 288th FAD. Redesignated 1 October 1949 as 138 FAD. http://www.ww2.dk/new/air%20force/division/iad/138iad.htm
  15. ^ Michael Holm, 23rd Guards Fighter Aviation Division, accessed December 2012.
  16. ^ http://www.ww2.dk/new/air%20force/division/iad/1gviad.htm
  17. ^ http://www.militar.org.ua/foro/otan-vs-pacto-de-varsovia-t693-270.html
  18. ^ LendLease.airforce.ru, http://lend-lease.airforce.ru/english/articles/spit/index.htm
  19. ^ http://www.ww2.dk/new/air%20force/division/iad/11gviad.htm
  20. ^ http://www.ww2.dk/new/air%20force/division/iad/16gviad.htm

Sources[edit]