Avoparcin

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Avoparcin
Avoparcins.svg
α-Avoparcin (R=H)
β-Avoparcin (R=Cl)
Identifiers
37332-99-3 (α/β mix) YesY
73957-86-5 (α) YesY
73957-87-6 (β) YesY
ChemSpider 16736403 (α)
16736404 (β)
Jmol-3D images Image

(α)
Image (β)

Properties
C89H102ClN9O36 (α)
C89H101Cl2N9O36 (β)
Molar mass 1909.254 (α)
1943.699 (β)
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Avoparcin is a glycopeptide antibiotic effective against Gram-positive bacteria. It has been used in agriculture as an additive to livestock feed to promote growth in chickens, pigs, and cattle.[1] It is also used as an aid in the prevention of necrotic enteritis in poultry.[1]

Avoparcin is a mixture of two closely related chemical compounds, known as α-avoparcin and β-avoparcin, which differ by the presence of an additional chlorine atom in β-avoparcin. Avoparcin also shares a chemical similarity with vancomycin. Because of this similarity, concern exists that widespread use of avoparcin in animals may lead to an increased prevalence of vancomycin-resistant strains of bacteria.[2][3][4][5]

Avoparcin was once widely used in Australia and the European Union, but it is currently not permitted in either.[1][6] It was never approved for use in the United States.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Avoparcin". Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicine Authority. 
  2. ^ Acar, J.; Casewell, M.; Freeman, J.; Friis, C.; Goossens, H. (2000). "Avoparcin and virginiamycin as animal growth promoters: A plea for science in decision-making". Clinical Microbiology and Infection 6 (9): 477–82. doi:10.1046/j.1469-0691.2000.00128.x. PMID 11168181. 
  3. ^ Bager, F; Madsen, M; Christensen, J; Aarestrup, F.M (1997). "Avoparcin used as a growth promoter is associated with the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium on Danish poultry and pig farms". Preventive Veterinary Medicine 31 (1–2): 95–112. doi:10.1016/S0167-5877(96)01119-1. PMID 9234429. 
  4. ^ Peter J Collignon (1999). "Vancomycin-resistant enterococci and use of avoparcin in animal feed: is there a link?". Med J Aust 171 (3): 144–146. PMID 10474607. 
  5. ^ Lauderdale, TL; Shiau, YR; Wang, HY; Lai, JF; Huang, IW; Chen, PC; Chen, HY; Lai, SS; Liu, YF (2007). "Effect of banning vancomycin analogue avoparcin on vancomycin-resistant enterococci in chicken farms in Taiwan". Environmental microbiology 9 (3): 819–23. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2006.01189.x. PMID 17298380. 
  6. ^ Commission Directive 97/6/EC of 30 January 1997 amending Council Directive 70/524/EEC concerning additives in feedingstuffs, Official Journal L 035 , 05/02/1997 P. 0011-0013
  7. ^ Alex Koppelman (Nov 7, 2007). "Is the way we raise our food giving us MRSA?". Salon.com.