Born in Kulashi in the Soviet Union (today in Georgia), Michaeli made aliyah to Israel on 29 June 1971. He studied law at Bar-Ilan University, gaining an LLB in 1984. In 2006 he was placed twelfth on the Shas list for the Knesset elections that year, and became a Knesset member after the party won 12 seats. He retained his seat in the 2009 elections, having been placed eleventh on the Shas list. He was re-elected for a third term in 2013 after again being placed eleventh on the party's list.