Avro Shackleton

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Shackleton
Avro Shackleton MR3 in flight c1955.jpg
Avro Shackleton MR3, in 1955
Role Maritime patrol aircraft
Manufacturer Avro
First flight 9 March 1949
Introduction April 1951
Retired 1990
Primary users Royal Air Force
South African Air Force
Produced 1951–1958
Number built 185
Developed from Avro Lincoln

The Avro Shackleton was a British long-range maritime patrol aircraft for use by the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the South African Air Force (SAAF). It was developed by Avro from the Avro Lincoln bomber, itself being a development of the famous wartime Avro Lancaster bomber. The type is named after the polar explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton.[N 1]

Entering service with the RAF in 1951, it was originally used primarily in the anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and maritime patrol aircraft (MPA) roles. The Shackleton was subsequently adapted for airborne early warning (AEW), search and rescue (SAR) and other roles until the type's retirement in 1990. It was also procured by South Africa, operating in the SAAF from 1957 to 1984.

Development[edit]

Origins[edit]

During the Second World War, the "Battle of the Atlantic" had been a crucial element of the war, in which Britain sought to protect its shipping from the German U-boat threat. The development of increasingly capable diesel-electric submarines had been rapid, in particular the elimination of oxygen restrictions that had previously limited underwater endurance via the use of a snorkel to eliminate the need for surfacing when recharging a vessel's batteries. Aircraft that had once been highly effective submarine-killers had very quickly become incapable in the face of these advances.[3] In addition, lend-leased aircraft such as the Consolidated B-24 Liberator had been returned following the end of hostilities, several Avro Lancasters had undergone rapid conversion as a stop-gap measure for maritime search and rescue and general reconnaissance duties;[4] however RAF Coastal Command had diminished to only a third of its size immediately prior to the Second World War.[5]

In the emerging climate of the Cold War and the potential requirement to guard the North Atlantic from an anticipated rapid expansion of the Soviet Navy's submarine force, the need for a new aerial platform to adequately perform the anti-submarine mission was therefore present.[5][6] Work had begun on the requirement for a new maritime patrol aircraft in 1944, at which point there had been an emphasis for long range platforms for Far East operations, however with the early end of the war in the Pacific there was considerable refining of the requirement. In late 1945, the Air Staff had expressed interest in a conversion of the Avro Lincoln as general reconnaissance and air/sea rescue aircraft; they formalized their requirements for such an aircraft under Air Ministry specification R.5/46. Avro's Chief Designer Roy Chadwick initially led the effort to build an aircraft to this requirement, designated as the Avro Type 696.[2][7]

Interior of a Shackleton MR.3

The Type 696 was a significant development upon the Lincoln, elements of the Avro Tudor airliner were also reused in the design, both had been derivatives of the successful wartime Avro Lancaster bomber.[8][9] Crucially, the new aircraft was to be capable of a 3,000 nautical mile range while carrying up to 6,000 lb of weapons and equipment. In addition to featuring a large amount of electronic equipment, the Type 696 had a much improved crew environment over other aircraft types to allow them to be more effective during the lengthy mission times anticipated.[10][11] At one stage during development, the Type 696 was referred to as the Lincoln ASR.3 before this moniker was discarded in favour of the Shackleton name.

The first test flight of the prototype Shackleton GR.1, serial VW135, was made on 9 March 1949 from the manufacturer's airfield at Woodford, Cheshire in the hands of Avro's Chief Test Pilot J.H. "Jimmy" Orrell.[12] The GR.1 was later re-designated "Maritime Reconnaissance Mark I", or MR 1. The prototype differed from subsequent production Shackletons in a number of areas, it featured a number of turrets and was equipped for air-to-air refuelling using the looped-line method, these did not feature on production aircraft due to judgments of ineffectiveness or performance difficulties incurred.[13] However, the performance of the prototype had been such that, in addition to the go-ahead for the MR1's production, a specification for improved variant was issued in December 1949, before the first production Shackleton had even flown.[14] By 1951, the MR1 had become officially considered as an interim type due to several shortcomings.[15]

Further development[edit]

Shackleton MR.1 of 269 Squadron with dorsal turret in 1953
Shackleton MR.2 of No. 220 Squadron RAF in September, 1955

The MR 2 was an improved version of the Shackleton, featuring numerous refinements that had been proposed for the MR1. The radar was upgraded to ASV Mk 13, and the radome relocated from the aircraft's nose to a ventral position aft of the bomb bay, the radome was retractable and could only be fully extended with the bomb bay doors open, it had improved all-round radar coverage and minimise the risk of bird-strikes.[16] Both the nose and tail section were lengthened, the tailplane was redesigned, the undercarriage was strengthened and twin-retractable tail wheels were fitted. The dorsal turret was initially retained, but was later removed from all aircraft after delivery.[17] The prototype, VW 126, was modified as an aerodynamic prototype at the end of 1950 and first flew with the MR 2 modification on 19 July 1951.

VW 126 was tested at Boscombe Down in August 1951, particular attention was paid to changes made to improve its ground handling, like the addition of toe-brakes and a lockable-rudder system. One production Mk 1 aircraft was modified on the line at Woodford with the Mk 2 changes and first flew on 17 June 1952. After trials were successful, it was decided to complete the last ten aircraft being built under the Mk 1 contract to MR 2 standard and further orders were placed for new aircraft. In order to keep pace with changing submarine threats, the Mk 2 force was progressively upgraded, with Phase I, II and III modifications introducing improved radar, weapons and other systems, as well as structural work to increase fatigue life.[16] Production of the MR 2 ended in May 1954.[18]

The Type 716 Shackleton MR 3 was another redesign in response to crew feedback and observations. A new 'tricycle' undercarriage was introduced, the fuselage was increased in all main dimensions and had new wings with better ailerons and tip tanks.[19] The weapons capability was also upgraded to include homing torpedoes and Mk 101 Lulu nuclear depth bombs.[16] As a sop to the crews on 15-hour flights, the sound deadening was improved and a proper galley and sleeping space were included. Due to these upgrades, the take-off weight of the RAF's MR 3s had risen by over 30,000 lb (13,600 kg) (Ph. III) and assistance from Armstrong Siddeley Viper Mk 203 turbojets was needed on take-off (JATO).[20][21] This extra strain took a toll on the airframe, and flight life of the RAF MR 3s was so sufficiently reduced that they were outlived by the MR 2s. Due to the arms embargo against South Africa, the SAAF's MR 3s never received these upgrades but were maintained independently by the SAAF.

The Type 719 Shackleton IV, later known as the MR 4, was a projected variant intended to meet a Canadian requirement for a long range patrol aircraft. The MR 4 would have been a practically new aircraft, sharing only the nose, cockpit, and outer wings with earlier variants; it would have also been powered by the Napier Nomad compound engine.[22] The Shackleton IV was cancelled in 1955. In 1967, ten MR 2s were modified as training aircraft to replace the T 4 in-service with the Maritime Operational Training Unit; known as T 2s, the crew rest areas were replaced by additional radar equipment and the original radar fittings removed.[23]

Design[edit]

An RAF Shackleton in flight, 1978

The Shackleton was a purpose-built aircraft for the maritime patrol role, however the legacy of Avro's preceding aircraft is present in many aspects of the overall design. The center section of the Shackleton's wing originates from the Lincoln, while the outer wing and undercarriage were sourced from the Tudor outer wings; at one stage during development, the tail plane had closely resembled the Lincoln's, but were enlarged and changed soon after.[2] An entirely new fuselage was adopted, being wider and deeper to provide a large space in which to accommodate the crew, their equipment, and a large bomb-bay.[24][25] Later variants of the Shackleton were substantially redesigned, adopting a new nose-wheel undercarriage, redesigned wings and center-section, and a larger fuel capacity for more range.[26]

Various armaments and equipment was carried by the Shackleton in order to perform its missions. In ASW operations, the ASV Mk 13 radar was the primary detection tool; it could detect a destroyer at a range of 40 nautical miles, a surfaced submarine at 20 nautical miles, and a submarine's conning tower at 8 nautical miles, although rough seas considerably reduced the radar's effectiveness.[27][28] Other equipment included droppable sonobuoys, electronic warfare support measures, an Autolycus diesel fume detection system and an magnetic anomaly detector (MAD) system. A special camera bay housed several reconnaissance cameras capable of medium altitude and night time vertical photography, and low-altitude oblique photography. The crew would also perform visually searches using various lookout positions that were intentionally provided for this purpose.[29] Weapons carried included up to nine bombs, three homing torpedoes or depth-charges, the aircraft also had two 20 mm cannon in a Bristol dorsal turret. An in-flight refueling receptacle could be accommodated, however were not fitted on production aircraft.[27]

Front of a Shackleton AEW2. Note the contra-rotating propellers

The Merlin engines were replaced with the larger, more powerful and slower-revving Rolls-Royce Griffons with 13 ft (4 m)-diameter contra-rotating propellers, the engine's distinctive noise often caused pilots to develop high-tone deafness. Using the Griffon were necessitated by the Shackleton's greater weight and drag over the preceding Lincoln,[30][31] they provided equivalent power to the Merlins but at lower engine speed, which let to greater fuel efficiency in the dense air encountered at a low altitude, the Shackleton would often loiter for several hours at roughly 500 feet or lower when hunting submarines. This also made for less engine stress and hence greater reliability. Using conventional propellers would have needed an increase in propeller diameter to absorb the engine's power and torque, this was not possible due to space limitations imposed by the undercarriage length and engine nacelle positioning; the contra-rotating propellers gave greater blade area within the same propeller diameter.

MR3 Co-pilot position

Multiple issues were encountered during the Shackleton's operational service. In practice, the diesel fume detection system was prone to false alarms and thus received little operational use. The engines, hydraulics, and elements of the avionics were known for their unreliability, and the aircraft overall proved to be a fairly maintenance-intensive. The prototype MR 3 was lost due to poor stalling characteristics; this was rectified prior to production, although a satisfactory stall-warning device was not installed until 1969. The Shackleton had the unfortunate distinction of holding the record for the highest number of aircrew killed in one type in peacetime in the RAF.[32] Multiple programs to support and extend the fatigue life limits of the Shackleton's airframe were required, the fatigue life problems ultimately necessitated the rapid introduction of a whole new maritime patrol aircraft in the form of the Hawker Siddeley Nimrod, which began being introduced to RAF service in 1969.[33]

Operational history[edit]

Royal Air Force[edit]

8 Sqn RAF flew the Shackleton AEW 2 from 1973 to 1991. This example was pictured on 26 June 1982

On 30 March 1951, the first Shackleton was delivered to No. 120 Squadron RAF; by the end of 1952 seven squadrons were operating the type.[34] The first operational deployment of the Shackleton occurred in 1955 as a troop-transport for British Army movements to Cyprus; less than a year later, the type's first combat deployment took place during the Suez Crisis, codenamed Operation Musketeer.[35]

During the 1960s, the typical Shackleton crew comprised two pilots, two navigators, a flight engineer, an air electronics officer, and four air electronics operators.[36] During this period, equipment upgrades has become routine in order to keep pace with ever-increasingly capable submarines; separately issues with the fatigue life of the airframe had been identified, leading to multiple programs being carried out to strengthen the aircraft and thus extend its viable service life. In 1966, nuclear depth charges were introduced to the Shackleton's arsenal with the aim of countering the Soviet's development of deep-diving submarines.[37]

Maritime reconnaissance was a large element of the Shackleton's service, this mission was often performed to identify and monitor naval and merchant shipping and to demonstrate sovereignty. During the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation in the 1960s, Shackletons monitored the seas for vessels involved in arms smuggling, similar operations were conducted in Cyprus; Shackletons operating from bases in Madagascar cooperated with Royal Navy vessels to enforce a United Nation-mandated oil blockade of Rhodesia.[38]

A Shackleton performing a mail drop in Beira, July 1970

The Shackleton would often be used in to perform search and rescue missions, at all times one crew was kept on standby somewhere across the UK for this role. The Shackleton had also replaced the Avro Lincoln in the colonial policing mission, aircraft would often be stationed in the Aden Protectorate and Oman to carry out various support missions, including convoy escorting, supply dropping, photo reconnaissance, communication relaying, and ground attack missions; the Shackleton was also employed in several short-term bombing operations.[39] Other roles included weather reconnaissance and transport duties, in the latter role each Shackleton could carry freight panniers in the bomb bay or up to 16 fully equipped soldiers.[40]

In 1969, a jet-powered replacement patrol aircraft, the Hawker Siddeley Nimrod, began to enter RAF service, which was to spell the end for the Shackleton in most roles. While radically differing in external appearance, the Shackleton and the initial version of the Nimrod shared many of the same sensor systems and onboard equipment.[41]

The intention to retire the Shackleton was thwarted by the need to provide AEW coverage in the North Sea and northern Atlantic following the withdrawal of the Fleet Air Arm's Fairey Gannet aircraft used in the AEW role in the 1970s. As an interim replacement, the existing AN/APS-20 radar was installed in modified Shackleton MR 2s, redesignated the AEW 2, as an interim measure from 1972. These were operated by No. 8 Sqn, based at RAF Lossiemouth. All 12 AEW aircraft were given names from The Magic Roundabout and The Herbs TV series.[16] The intended replacement, the British Aerospace Nimrod AEW3, suffered considerable development difficulties which cumulated in the Nimrod AEW 3 being cancelled in favor of an off-the-shelf purchasing of the Boeing E-3 Sentry, which allowed the last Shackletons to be retired in 1991.[42]

South African Air Force[edit]

SAAF 1722, the last flying Shackleton, note the tricycle undercarriage

During the Second World War, the importance of securing the sea routes around the Cape of Good Hope had been made apparent, with over a hundred vessels being sunk in South African waters by enemy vessels between 1942 and 1945.[43] In the post-war situation, the South African Air Force sought a large and capable platform to perform the maritime patrol role. After evaluating four RAF MR 2s in 1953, an order was placed for eight Shackletons as a replacement for the SAAF's aging Short Sunderland maritime patrol aircraft. Modifications were required to fulfill South African conditions and requirements, such as the ability to operate over the Indian Ocean, the resulting aircraft was designated as the Shackleton MR 3.[26][44]

On 18 August 1957, the first two Shackletons were delivered to D.F. Malan Airport, Cape Town. Two more followed on 13 October 1957 and the remainder arrived in February 1958. Delivered to the same basic standard as the RAF's MR 3s, they were assigned single letter codes between "J" and "Q" and operated by 35 Squadron SAAF. The type typically patrolled the sea lanes around the Cape of Good Hope, often monitoring Soviet vessels traversing between the Indian and Atlantic oceans. The Shackleton was briefly used in low-level overland patrols along the Southern Rhodesian border, but these duties ended following concerns of the disturbance of wildlife.[43][45]

Often, the Shackleton would be called into perform search and rescue operations in the treacherous waters around the cape. In March 1971, Shackletons successfully intervened in the SS Wafra oil spill, deliberately sinking the stricken oil tanker with depth charges in order to prevent an ecological disaster.[46] The only operational loss incurred was 1718/"K", which crashed into the Wemmershoek mountains at night time on 8 August 1963 with the loss of all 13 crew.[43]

Due to an embargo imposed by the United Nations over South Africa's policy of apartheid, acquiring components for the Shackleton fleet became increasingly difficult and thus the aircraft serviceability suffered.[43] The fleet had been modified to Phase III standards prior to the implementation of the arms embargo, albeit without the auxiliary Viper engine.[46] A number of aircraft were re-sparred in South Africa, but the lack of engine spares and tyres, together with airframe fatigue, took a gradual toll. By November 1984, the fatigue lives of the aircraft had expired and the fleet was retired into storage.[16] Although the joke has been applied to several aircraft, the Shackleton was often described as "a hundred thousand rivets flying in close formation." [47][48]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

Variants[edit]

Avro 696 Shackleton prototypes[edit]

Three prototype Type 696s were ordered in May 1947 to meet specification R 5/46:

VW126
The first prototype which initially flew on 9 March 1949.[49]
VW131
First flown on 2 September 1949.
VW135
First flown on 29 March 1950.

Avro 696 Shackleton Mk.1[edit]

Shackleton MR.Mk.1
The first production model for the RAF with only on dorsal turret with two 20 mm cannon, 29-built.[49] First production aircraft flew on 28 March 1950 and the variant entered service with 120 Squadron at RAK Kinloss in March 1951.[49]
Shackleton MR.Mk.1A
Variant powered by four Griffon 57A V12 piston engines, in service from April 1951, 47-built and all surviving MR.1s converted.[49]
Shackleton T.4
Navigation trainer conversion from MR 1As between 1956 and 1961, removal of mid-upper turret, addition of radar and radio positions for trainees, 17 conversions.[49]

Avro 696 Shackleton Mk.2[edit]

Shackleton MR.Mk.2
Version with longer nose and radome moved to the ventral position. Look-out position in tail. Dorsal turret and two more 20 mm cannons in nose. Twin retractable tailwheels. One aircraft, WB833, originally ordered as a MR 1 was built as a MR 2 prototype and first flew on 17 June 1952 .[50] The last ten MR.1s on the production line were completed as MR.2s and orders for 80 new-build aircraft were place, the last 21 were completed as MR.3s and the total MR.2s built was 69.[51] The first aircraft entered service with 42 Squadron at RAF St Eval in January 1953.[51]
The aircraft were later modified, in parallel with phased modifications to the Mk.3:[52]
Shackleton MR.Mk.2 Phase 1 or MR.Mk.2C
As per Mk.3 Phase 1.[50] Also received the sonics plotting table from the Mk.3
Shackleton MR.Mk.2 Phase 2
As per Mk.3 Phase 2.[50]
Shackleton MR.Mk.2 Phase 3
As per Mk.3 Phase 3, except that the Viper engines were not fitted.[50]
Shackleton T.2
Ten MR 2 Phase 3 aircraft were modified in 1967 as T.2s at Langar to replace the T.4s with the Maritime Operational Training Units as radar trainers, with master and slave radar positions for training installed.[50]
Shackleton AEW.2

In 1971 Twelve MR 2s were converted at Woodford and Bitteswell as Airborne Early Warning aircraft, the first AEW.2 flew on 30 September 1971 and the type entered service with 8 Squadron on 1 January 1972.[50]

Avro 716 Shackleton Mk.3[edit]

MR3 on display in 2008
Shackleton MR.Mk.3
Maritime reconnaissance, anti-shipping aircraft. The tail wheel configuration was replaced by a tricycle undercarriage, addition of a nose entrance hatch, wingtip tanks to increase fuel capacity.[51] To increase crew comfort the inside was sound proofed, better crew seats and re-arranged tactical team positions.[51] To make room for some of the internal re-arrangement the dorsal turret was not fitted.[51] The first MR.3 flew on 2 September 1955, the aircraft had problems with stalling characteristics and crashed on 7 December 1956.[51] The variant entered service with 220 Squadron at RAF St Eval in August 1957.[51] The RAF ordered 52 aircraft but later following the 156 Defence Review it was reduced to 33 aircraft.[51] An additional aircraft was also built to replace the aircraft lost during stalling trials.[51] An additional eight aircraft were exported to South Africa.
The aircraft underwent several phased modifications:
Shackleton MR.Mk.3 Phase 1
The Phase 1 update introduced changes mainly to the internal equipment.[51]
Shackleton MR.Mk.3 Phase 2
The Phase 2 update introduced ECM equipment and an improved High Frequency radio.[51]
Shackleton MR.Mk.3 Phase 3
The third of three MR 3 modification phases including the addition of two Viper turbojet engines at the rear of the outboard engine nacelles to be used for assisted takeoff. The wing main spars had to be strengthened due to the additional engines. A new navigation system was also fitted and there were some modification to the internal arrangement, including a shorter crew rest area to give more room for the tactical positions.[51][53]

Projected designs[edit]

Avro 717 and 719 Shackleton MR.Mk.4
Project for a re-engined MR.Mk.1 using Napier Nomad engines. Two Nomads were installed in the outer nacelles of a Shackleton prototype to create the only Avro 717 example, but the program was cancelled before the aircraft could be flown. The Avro 719 would have replaced all four Griffons with Nomads.[52]
Shackleton MR.Mk.5
MR.Mk.5 was a suggested designation for a Nomad-powered variant of the Mk.2.[52]

Operators[edit]

Retired MR 3, SAAF 1721, on permanent display at Swartkop
The bomb aimer's position and bombsight on SAAF 1721
 South Africa
 United Kingdom

Survivors[edit]

A Shackleton AEW.2 on display at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester

Non-flying[edit]

  • SAAF 1722, commonly known as 'Pelican 22', is the only remaining airworthy Shackleton MR3. The aircraft is owned and operated by the South African Air Force Museum based at AFB Ysterplaat. It was one of eight Shackletons operated by the South African Air Force from 1957 to 1984. Airworthy but has been grounded for safety and preservation reasons as well as a lack of qualified crew.[67]
  • MR.2 WR963 (G-SKTN). In the care of the "Shackleton Preservation Trust", under long term restoration to a flightworthy condition. Based at Coventry Airport, England.[68]
  • MR.3 WR982 on display at the Gatwick Aviation Museum, England. Engines can be run on this airframe.[69]

Static display[edit]

MR.3 at the Gatwick Aviation Museumn
SAAF 1716 ('Pelican 16'), crashed in the Sahara in 1994

Specifications[edit]

Orthographic projection of the Avro Shackleton MR Mk 1A, with profile views of all the other major variants
Head on view. Note the two nose-mounted 20 mm Hispano cannons
Interior of a Shackleton's bomb bay
External video
1990s documentary on the Avro Shackleton
Engine run of a preserved Shackleton
Shackleton displaying at RAF Cosford, 1991

Data from Flight International,[79] Jones[80]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

  • Guns: 2 × 20 mm Hispano Mark V cannon in the nose
  • Bombs: 10,000 lb (4,536 kg) of bombs, torpedoes, mines, or conventional or nuclear depth charges, such as the Mk 101 Lulu

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The name of the aircraft came about due to the influence of Roy Chadwick, Chief Designer at Avro, who had initially worked alongside, and later became a close friend, of Ernest Shackleton.[1] The name was also inline with a Air Ministry policy of naming new general reconnaissance aircraft after explorers.[2]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Jones 2002, pp. 6-7.
  2. ^ a b c Flight 18 May 1950, p. 612.
  3. ^ Jefford et al. 2005, pp. 67-68.
  4. ^ Jones 2002, pp. 22, 27.
  5. ^ a b Jefford et al. 2005, pp. 68-69.
  6. ^ Jones 2002, p. 43.
  7. ^ Billings, Bill. "The Shackleton Story." The Shackleton Association. Retrieved: 10 July 2008.
  8. ^ Buttler 2004, p. 144.
  9. ^ Jones 2002, p. 30.
  10. ^ Jefford et al. 2005, pp. 70-71.
  11. ^ Flight 18 May 1950, p. 611.
  12. ^ Harlin and Jenks 1973, p. 164.
  13. ^ Jones 2002, pp. 34, 36-37, 39.
  14. ^ Jefford et al. 2005, pp. 71-74.
  15. ^ Jones 2002, p. 67.
  16. ^ a b c d e World Aircraft Information Files 1997.
  17. ^ Jefford et al. 2005, pp. 74-75.
  18. ^ Jones 2002, p. 85.
  19. ^ Jones 2002, pp. 93, 95-96.
  20. ^ "Shackletons in the SAAF – Retirement." The Shackleton Project. Retrieved: 10 July 2008.
  21. ^ Jefford et al. 2005, pp. 77-78.
  22. ^ Jefford et al. 2005, p. 88.
  23. ^ Jones 2002, pp. 84-85.
  24. ^ Jefford et al. 2005, p. 72.
  25. ^ Jones 2002, p. 31.
  26. ^ a b Jefford et al. 2005, p. 76.
  27. ^ a b Jefford et al. 2005, pp. 72-74.
  28. ^ Jones 2002, p. 34.
  29. ^ Flight 18 May 1950, p. 617.
  30. ^ Flight 18 May 1950, pp. 612-613, 616.
  31. ^ Jones 2002, p. 33.
  32. ^ Jones 2002, p. 86.
  33. ^ Jefford et al. 2005, pp. 73, 77-78, 87-88.
  34. ^ Jefford et al. 2005, pp. 70-72.
  35. ^ Jones 2002, pp. 121-122.
  36. ^ Jefford et al. 2005, p. 78.
  37. ^ Jefford et al. 2005, pp. 70-72, 74-77.
  38. ^ Jefford et al. 2005, pp. 82-83.
  39. ^ Jones 2002, p. 49.
  40. ^ Jefford et al. 2005, pp. 83-87.
  41. ^ Jefford et al. 2005, pp. 75, 89.
  42. ^ Jefford et al. 2005, pp. 71-72.
  43. ^ a b c d "The Shackleton in the SAAF." saafmuseum.org.za, 23 February 2011.
  44. ^ "Shackletons in the SAAF – Birth of a Legend." The Shackleton project. Retrieved: 10 July 2008.
  45. ^ Jones 2002, pp. 111-114.
  46. ^ a b Jones 2002, pp. 114-115.
  47. ^ "The Avro Shackelton and The SAAF Museum." SAAF Museum, 21 February 2010. Retrieved: 16 January 2012.
  48. ^ Jones 2002, p. 7.
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h "Avro Shackleton MR.Mk1, MR.Mk.1A and T.Mk.4 in Royal Air Force Service". Aeromilitaria (Air-Britain) (01). 1975. 
  50. ^ a b c d e f "Avro Shackleton MR.2 in Royal Air Force Service". Aeromilitaria (Air-Britain) (4/76). 1976. 
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Avro Shackleton MR.3 in Royal Air Force Service". Aeromilitaria (Air-Britain) (2/75). 1975. 
  52. ^ a b c Howard (1972)
  53. ^ Jefford et al. 2005, p. 103.
  54. ^ Jefford 1988, p. 37.
  55. ^ Jefford 1988, p. 38.
  56. ^ Jefford 1988, p. 39.
  57. ^ Jefford 1988, p. 58.
  58. ^ Jefford 1988, p. 67.
  59. ^ a b c Jefford 1988, p. 68.
  60. ^ Jefford 1988, p. 69.
  61. ^ Jefford 1988, p. 70.
  62. ^ Jefford 1988, p. 72.
  63. ^ Jefford 1988, p. 73.
  64. ^ Jefford 1988, p. 74.
  65. ^ Jefford 1988, p. 76.
  66. ^ Jefford 1988, p. 81.
  67. ^ Teale, Chris "Shackleton 1722 Video Launch." af.mil.za, 28 June 2007.
  68. ^ Jones, Geoff. "Shackleton To Fly?" Flight Journal, 19 July 2013.
  69. ^ a b "Avro Shackleton Mk3 PH3." gatwick-aviation-museum.co.uk, Retrieved: 12 April 2014.
  70. ^ "Exploring Royal Air Force History." Royal Air Force, Retrieved: 12 April 2014.
  71. ^ "The Air and Space Hall: A guide for teachers." Museum of Science and Industry, Retrieved: 12 April 2014.
  72. ^ "Aircraft list." Newark Air Museum, Retrieved: 12 April 2014.
  73. ^ "Shackleton." Pima Air & Space Museum, Retrieved: 12 April 2014.
  74. ^ "Pelican 16." South African Air Force Museum, 3 August 2008. Retrieved: 18 August 2010.
  75. ^ "Avro Shackleton 1716 forever missing-in-action." South African Air Force, 23 November 2006. Retrieved: 3 August 2008.
  76. ^ "Air Force criticised for carving up Shackleton". Cape Times. 14 March 2013. 
  77. ^ "SAAF Museum Shackleton 1721 shining bright." af.mil.za, Retrieved: 12 April 2014.
  78. ^ "Vickers Viking VC1A." saamuseum.co.za, Retrieved: 12 April 2014.
  79. ^ Flight 18 May 1950, p. 614.
  80. ^ Jones 2002, p. 108.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Buttler, Tony. British Secret Projects: Fighters and Bombers 1935–1950 (British Secret Projects 3). Hinckley, Lancastershire, UK: Midland Publishing, 2004. ISBN 978-1-85780-179-8.
  • "Shackleton: The New Avro General Reconnaissance Aircraft for Coastal Command". Flight International, 18 May 1950.
  • Harlin, E.A. and G.A. Jenks. Avro: An Aircraft Album. Shepperton, Middlesex, UK: Ian Allen, 1973. ISBN 978-0-71100-342-2.
  • Holmes, Harry. Avro: The History of an Aircraft Company. Wiltshire, UK: The Crowood Press, 2004. ISBN 1-86126-651-0.
  • Howard, Peter J. Aircraft Profile 243: Avro (Hawker Siddeley) Shackleton Mks 1 to 4, Windsor, Berkshire, UK:. Profile Publications Ltd., 1972. (Republished in compilation edition: Aircraft in Profile, Volume 13, 1973, pp. 193–217. ISBN 0-85383-022-3.)
  • Jackson, Aubrey J. Avro Aircraft since 1908. London: Putnam, 1965. ISBN 0-85177-797-X.
  • Jefford, C.G (ed.). "Seminar - Maritime Operations." Royal Air Force Historical Society, 2005. ISSN 1361-4231.
  • Jefford, C G. RAF Squadrons, first edition 1988, Airlife Publishing, UK, ISBN 1 85310 053 6.
  • Jones, Barry. Avro Shackleton. Crowood Press, 2002. ISBN 1-86126-449-6.
  • World Aircraft Information Files, File # 023. London: Bright Star Publishing Ltd, 1997.

External links[edit]