Axis order of battle for the invasion of Yugoslavia

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graphic map overlay showing the German thrusts into Yugoslavia
The German-led Axis invasion of Yugoslavia as shown in the United States Government Why We Fight documentary series

The Axis order of battle for the invasion of Yugoslavia includes a listing (or order of battle) of all operational formations of the German Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS, Italian Armed Forces and Hungarian Armed Forces that were involved in the World War II invasion of Yugoslavia which commenced on 6 April 1941. It involved the German 2nd Army, with elements of the 12th Army and a panzer group combined with overwhelming Luftwaffe (German Air Force) support. The eighteen German divisions included five panzer divisions, two motorised infantry divisions and two mountain divisions. The German force also included two well-equipped independent motorised regiments and was supported by over 800 aircraft. The Italian 2nd Army and 9th Army committed a total of twenty-two divisions, and the Royal Italian Air Force (Italian: Regia Aeronautica) had over 650 aircraft available to support the invasion. The Hungarian 3rd Army also participated, with support from the Royal Hungarian Air Force (Hungarian: Magyar Királyi Honvéd Légierő, MKHL).

The Axis ground forces had effectively surrounded the Kingdom of Yugoslavia before the invasion began. The German 2nd Army, consisting of one motorised, one mountain, and two infantry corps was concentrated in southwestern Hungary and southeastern Austria, poised to drive south and east. One motorised corps of the German 12th Army was assembled near Sofia, Bulgaria, along with one motorised corps of the First Panzer Group, and these formations were assigned the task of striking the strongest Yugoslav formations stationed along the eastern border of the country. A further motorised corps was deployed near Timișoara in western Romania, ready to thrust south into the Banat region. The Italian 2nd Army, consisting of one fast (Italian: celere) corps, one motorised corps and three infantry corps was assembled in northeastern Italy, with the task of driving southeast down the Dalmatian coast. The Italian 9th Army, comprising two corps and a sector defence command was stationed in occupied northern Albania, and its stance was largely defensive. The Hungarian 3rd Army was concentrated along the Yugoslav border largely between the Danube and the Tisza, with the objective of seizing the Bačka and Baranja regions.

German, Italian and Hungarian air support was concentrated in Austria, Italy, southern Hungary, southern Romania, western Bulgaria and Albania. In total, over 1,500 Axis aircraft were available to support the invasion. Naval forces used to support the invasion were limited to a few destroyers of the Royal Italian Navy (Italian: Regia Marina) operating in the Adriatic Sea.

German[edit]

German land forces[edit]

The German formations committed to the invasion of Yugoslavia included over 337,000 men, and more than 2,000 mortars, 1,500 artillery pieces, 1,100 anti-tank guns, 875 tanks and 740 other armoured fighting vehicles.[1] The German land forces were under the overall direction of the commander of the German Army Generalfeldmarschall (Field Marshal) Walther von Brauchitsch.[2]

2nd Army[edit]

a shield-less mid-green artillery piece sitting on a concrete slab
The German 150cm sFH18 heavy howitzer was used by heavy artillery battalions during the invasion of Yugoslavia

The German 2nd Army was commanded by Generaloberst (General) Maximilian von Weichs, consisted of one motorised, one mountain, and two infantry corps, and was assembled in southwestern Hungary and southeastern Austria.[3][4] The LII Infantry Corps suffered significant delays in deploying to its assembly area and was initially held in reserve.[5] According to Schreiber, Stegemann and Vogel, three panzer divisions, four infantry divisions and one motorised infantry division were planned as reserves for the 2nd Army, but they did not participate in the fighting in Yugoslavia.[6] According to Niehorster, these divisions were held as theatre reserves or were allocated to various formations.[2][7] [a] 2nd Army was supported by three bridging battalions and a road construction battalion.[7]

Composition of German 2nd Army[6]
Corps Commander Assembly area Division
Nagykanizsa,[8] southwest Hungary
8th Panzer Division
14th Panzer Division
16th Motorised Infantry Division
southeast of Klagenfurt, Austria
1st Mountain Division
79th Infantry Division[b]
538th Frontier Guard Division
General der Infanterie
Hans-Wolfgang Reinhard
Leibnitz, Austria
101st Light Infantry Division[c]
132nd Infantry Division
183rd Infantry Division
LII Infantry[d]
General der Infanterie
Kurt von Briesen
Leibnitz, Austria
125th Infantry Division[e]

XLVI Motorised Corps was supported by three motorised heavy artillery battalions, a motorised pioneer battalion, a road construction battalion, six bridging columns and two Luftwaffe anti-aircraft battalions. XLIX Mountain Corps included two motorised heavy artillery battalions and a road construction battalion. LI Infantry Corps included seven motorised heavy artillery battalions, two assault gun battalions, two motorised pioneer battalions, two bridging battalions, two road construction battalions and twelve bridging columns.[7]

12th Army[edit]

an eight-wheeled armoured car on a dirt road with other vehicles in the background
An eight-wheeled Sd.Kfz. 231 armoured car of the Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler in Yugoslav Macedonia in 1941

The German 12th Army was commanded by Generalfeldmarschall Wilhelm List,[9] and consisted of one mountain, three infantry and two motorised corps.[10][f] Most of the 12th Army was deployed along the Bulgarian-Greek border in preparation for the invasion of Greece,[12] and of the corps commanded by List, only the two motorised corps were committed to the invasion of Yugoslavia. For the first phase of the invasion of Yugoslavia, the First Panzer Group was also assigned to the 12th Army.[10]

Corps of the 12th Army committed to the invasion of Yugoslavia[10][11]
Corps Commander Assembly area Division/Regiment
General der Panzertruppe
Georg Stumme
Kyustendil
southwest of Sofia, Bulgaria
9th Panzer Division
73rd Infantry Division
Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler
General der Panzertruppe
Georg-Hans Reinhardt
near Timișoara, in western Romania
SS Motorised Infantry Division Reich
Großdeutschland Motorised Infantry Regiment

XL Motorised Corps was supported by one motorised anti-tank battalion, three motorised heavy artillery battalions, two motorised pioneer battalions, two bridging battalions and three motorised bridging columns. XLI Motorised Corps included two motorised heavy artillery battalions and a motorised pioneer battalion.[11]

First Panzer Group[edit]
a black and white photograph of a tank driving along a dusty road
German Panzer III tank in Yugoslavia, 1941

The First Panzer Group was commanded by Generaloberst Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist, and according to Schreiber, Stegemann and Vogel, it consisted of XIV Motorised Corps with two panzer divisions, one mountain, one motorised infantry and one infantry division.[10] According to Niehorster, the XLI Motorised Corps was also assigned to First Panzer Group.[11][g] It assembled northwest of Sofia, Bulgaria.[10]

First Panzer Group[10]
Corps Commander Division
XIV Motorised
General der Infanterie
Gustav Anton von Wietersheim
5th Panzer Division
11th Panzer Division
294th Infantry Division
4th Mountain Division
60th Motorised Infantry Division

The First Panzer Group was supported by one motorised heavy artillery battalion, one motorised pioneer battalion, one pioneer battalion, two bridging battalions and two bridging columns. Supporting units of XIV Motorised Corps included two motorised heavy artillery battalions, a motorised pioneer battalion, two bridging columns and one Luftwaffe motorised anti-aircraft battalion.[11]

Commanders[edit]

Major German formation commanders
balding male in German uniform
Generalfeldmarschall Walther von Brauchitsch was in overall command of German land forces 
black and white photograph of a male in German uniform wearing a monocle
Generaloberst Maximilian von Weichs commanded the 2nd Army 
seated male in German dress uniform with gloves and sword
General der Panzertruppe Heinrich von Vietinghoff commanded the XLVI Motorised Corps 
male in German field uniform wearing a peaked cap with goggles resting above the peak
General der Infanterie Ludwig Kübler commanded the XLIX Mountain Corps 
Generalfeldmarschall Wilhelm List commanded the 12th Army 
General der Panzertruppe Georg Stumme commanded the XL Motorised Corps 
General der Panzertruppe Georg-Hans Reinhardt commanded the XLI Motorised Corps 
Generaloberst Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist commanded the First Panzer Group 

German Air Force[edit]

The Luftwaffe operated out of bases in Austria, Romania and Bulgaria during the invasion of Yugoslavia. In total, the Germans had over 809 aircraft available to support the invasion of Yugoslavia, more than half of which were positioned in Bulgaria to support the simultaneous invasion of Greece. In total, the Germans fielded 296 fighter aircraft, 89 light bombers, 26 medium bombers and 23 reconnaissance aircraft, and more than 318 dive bombers and 57 heavy fighters. In addition, a reconnaissance squadron equipped with Henschel Hs 126 two-seater reconnaissance aircraft was attached to most of the corps headquarters and every panzer division of the German ground forces.[13][14] Luftwaffe anti-aircraft units were also attached to the German land forces.[14]

4th Air Fleet[edit]

a twin engined aircraft in flight
Junkers Ju 88A divebombers were operated by the 51st Bomber Wing

The Luftwaffe 4th Air Fleet (German: Luftflotte IV) was commanded by General der Flieger (Lieutenant General) Alexander Löhr, had its headquarters in Vienna,[15] and direct command units based on airfields in western Austria. These units included one squadron (German: Staffel) of the 121st Reconnaissance Group (German: Aufklärungsgruppe 121), the entire 51st Bomber Wing (German: Kampfgeschwader 51, KG 51), and four bomber groups (German: Kampfgruppen) drawn from the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Bomber Wings (KG 2, KG 3 and KG 4). In total, the 4th Air Fleet had 25 medium bombers, 89 light bombers, 55 dive bombers, 6 reconnaissance aircraft and 1 heavy fighter available in Austria to support the invasion of Yugoslavia.[13][14]

Composition of 4th Air Fleet[13] [14]
Unit Location Aircraft type
4th Squadron/121st Long Range Reconnaissance Group 6 × Junkers Ju 88D Long-range photo-reconnaissance aircraft
1 × Messerschmitt Bf 110C heavy fighter
Headquarters 2nd Bomber Wing 6 × Dornier Do 17Z light bombers
I Group/2nd Bomber Wing
Zwölfaxing
28 × Dornier Do 17Z light bombers
III Group/2nd Bomber Wing
Zwölfaxing
29 × Dornier Do 17Z light bombers
III Group/3rd Bomber Wing 26 × Dornier Do 17Z light bombers
II Group/4th Bomber Wing 25 × Heinkel He 111P medium bombers
Headquarters 51st Bomber Wing 1 × Junkers Ju 88A dive bomber
I Group/51st Bomber Wing
Wiener Neustadt
17 × Junkers Ju 88A dive bombers
II Group/51st Bomber Wing
Wiener Neustadt
18 × Junkers Ju 88A dive bombers
III Group/51st Bomber Wing 19 × Junkers Ju 88A dive bombers

Fliegerführer Graz[edit]

Fliegerführer Graz was commanded by Oberstleutnant (Lieutenant Colonel) Karl Christ, commander of the 3rd Dive Bomber Wing (German: Sturzkampfgeschwader 3, StG 3). It was located in Graz, Austria, and consisted of the headquarters and II Group of StG 3, the headquarters and II Group (German: Jagdgruppe) of the 54th Fighter Wing (German: Jagdgeschwader 54, JG 54) (less one squadron), and I Group of the 27th Fighter Wing (JG 27). In total, Fliegerführer Graz had 54 fighters, 1 medium bomber and 35 dive bombers available to support the invasion of Yugoslavia.[13][14]

Composition of Fliegerführer Graz[13][14]
Unit Aircraft type
Headquarters 3rd Dive Bomber Wing 1 × Junkers Ju 87B dive bomber
1 x Heinkel He 111H medium bomber
II Group/3rd Dive Bomber Wing 34 × Junkers Ju 87B dive bombers
Headquarters 54th Fighter Wing 3 × Messerschmitt Bf 109E fighters
II Group/54th Fighter Wing (part) 24 × Messerschmitt Bf 109E fighters
I Group/27th Fighter Wing 27 × Messerschmitt Bf 109E fighters

Fliegerführer Arad[edit]

Fliegerführer Arad was commanded by Oberstleutnant Clemens Graf von Schönborn-Wiesentheid, commander of the 77th Dive Bomber Wing (StG 77). With its headquarters in Arad, Romania, it consisted of the headquarters, I and III Groups of StG 77, headquarters, II and III Groups of the 77th Fighter Wing (JG 77), one squadron of II Group of JG 54, III Group of JG 54 and I Group of the 26th Heavy Fighter Wing (German: Zerstörergeschwader 26, ZG 26). In total, Fliegerführer Arad had 116 fighters, 31 heavy fighters and 68 dive bombers available to support the invasion of Yugoslavia.[13][14]

Composition of Fliegerführer Arad[13][14]
Unit Location Aircraft type
Headquarters 77th Dive Bomber Wing
Arad
3 × Junkers Ju 87B dive bombers
4 × Messerschmitt Bf 109E fighters
I Group/77th Dive Bomber Wing
Arad
33 × Junkers Ju 87B dive bombers
1 × Messerschmitt Bf 110C heavy fighter
III Group/77th Dive Bomber Wing
Arad
32 × Junkers Ju 87B dive bombers
Headquarters 77th Fighter Wing 6 × Messerschmitt Bf 109E fighters
II Group/77th Fighter Wing
Deta
34 × Messerschmitt Bf 109E fighters
III Group/77th Fighter Wing
Deta
33 × Messerschmitt Bf 109E fighters
4th Squadron/II Group/54th Fighter Wing
Arad
Messerschmitt Bf 109E fighters
III Group/54th Fighter Wing
Arad
39 × Messerschmitt Bf 109E fighters
I Group/26th Heavy Fighter Wing
Szeged, Hungary
30 × Messerschmitt Bf 110C/D heavy fighters

VIII Air Corps[edit]

a biplane with Nazi German markings in flight
Henschel Hs 123 dive bombers were operated by the 10th Dive Bomber Squadron of the 2nd Demonstration Wing

The VIII Air Corps (German: Fliegerkorps VIII) was commanded by General der Flieger Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen, who had operational control of all air operations for the invasion.[15] With its headquarters in Gorna Dzhumaya, Bulgaria, it was based at various airfields in western Bulgaria, and consisted of one squadron of the 11th Reconnaissance Group, the headquarters, I and II Groups of the 2nd Dive Bomber Wing (StG 2), I Group of StG 3, the headquarters, II and III Groups of the 27th Fighter Wing, a fighter group and a ground attack group from the 1st Demonstration Wing (German: Lehrgeschwader 1, LG 1), and a reinforced dive bomber group from the 2nd Demonstration Wing. In total, the VIII Air Corps had 126 fighters and 17 reconnaissance aircraft, and more than 25 heavy fighters and 160 dive bombers available to support the invasions of both Yugoslavia and Greece.[13][14]

Composition of VIII Air Corps[13][14]
Unit Location Aircraft type
Headquarters 2nd Dive Bomber Wing 4 × Junkers Ju 87B dive bombers
6 × Dornier Do 17P long-range photo-reconnaissance aircraft
I Group/2nd Dive Bomber Wing
Belitsa and Krainici
30 × Junkers Ju 87B dive bombers
9 × Junkers Ju 87R long-range dive bombers
III Group/2nd Dive Bomber Wing
Belitsa and Krainici
35 × Junkers Ju 87B dive bombers
I Group/3rd Dive Bomber Wing
Belitsa
30 × Junkers Ju 87B dive bombers
9 × Junkers Ju 87R long-range dive bombers
I Group/1st Dive Bomber Wing
Krainici
23 × Junkers Ju 87R long-range dive bombers
II Dive Bomber Group/2nd Demonstration Wing 23 × Messerschmitt Bf 109E fighters
10th Dive Bomber Squadron/2nd Demonstration Wing
Krainici
20 × Henschel Hs 123A biplane dive bomber
II Group/26th Heavy Fighter Wing
Kraishte and Vrazhdebna
25 × Messerschmitt Bf 110C/E heavy fighters
Headquarters 27th Fighter Wing
Belitsa and Sofia
5 × Messerschmitt Bf 109E fighters
II Group/27th Fighter Wing
Belitsa and Sofia
37 × Messerschmitt Bf 109E fighters
III Group/27th Fighter Wing
Belitsa and Sofia
39 × Messerschmitt Bf 109E fighters
I Fighter Group/2nd Demonstration Wing
Vrazhdebna
22 × Messerschmitt Bf 109E fighters
I Group/1st Demonstration Wing
Vrazhdebna
Junkers Ju88A dive bombers
2nd Squadron/11th Long Range Reconnaissance Group
Sofia
11 × Dornier Do 17P long-range photo-reconnaissance aircraft
7th Squadron/2nd Demonstration Wing
Vrazhdebna
Messerschmitt Bf 110C heavy fighters
7th Sea Rescue Squadron various floatplanes
IV Group/1st Transport Group Junkers Ju 52/3m transport aircraft

X Air Corps[edit]

The X Air Corps (German: Fliegerkorps X) was based in Sicily, and consisted of four bomber groups, one heavy fighter group and one fighter squadron with a total of 168 aircraft.[16] It was available to provide on-call support to the 4th Air Fleet as required,[1] but only a few units played any part in supporting the invasion because the primary task of X Air Corps was interdicting Allied supply convoys to Malta.[17] Units earmarked for support to the invasion included 7th Squadron of 26th Fighter Wing (JG 26) equipped with Messerschmitt Bf 109E fighters, and III Group of ZG 26, flying Messerschmitt Bf 110C/D heavy fighters.[18]

Commanders[edit]

Major German Luftwaffe commanders
a standing male in Luftwaffe uniform
General der Flieger Alexander Löhr commanded the 4th Air Fleet during the invasion 
black and white picture of a male in Luftwaffe uniform
General der Flieger Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen commanded the VIII Air Corps 

Italian[edit]

Italian ground forces[edit]

The Italian 2nd Army and 9th Army committed a total of 22 divisions to the operation,[19] comprising around 300,000 troops.[20] The Italian ground forces included the Italian garrison of Zara, which was an Italian enclave on the Dalmatian coast.[21]

2nd Army[edit]

an artillery piece with no gun shield standing on gravel
The World War I-vintage Obice 149/13 heavy howitzer was used by several Italian artillery battalions during the invasion of Yugoslavia

The Italian 2nd Army (Italian: 2° Armata) was commanded by Generale designato d’Armata (acting General) Vittorio Ambrosio,[22] and consisted of one fast (Italian: celere) corps, one motorised corps and three infantry corps, and was assembled in northeastern Italy.[23][24] The 2nd Army was supported by a motorised engineer regiment including three bridging battalions, a chemical battalion, fifteen territorial battalions, and two garrison battalions.[25]

Composition of Italian 2nd Army[25]
Corps Commander Division
1st Cavalry Division Eugenio di Savoia
2nd Cavalry Division Emanuele Filiberto Testa di Ferro
3rd Cavalry Division Amedeo Duca d'Aosta
15th Infantry Division Bergamo
57th Infantry Division Lombardia
Guardia alla Frontiera (Border Guard)[h]
Generale di Corpo d'Armata
Lorenzo Dalmazzo
12th Infantry Division Sassari
20th Infantry Division Friuli
26th Mountain Infantry Division Assietta
Generale di Divisione
Mario Robotti
13th Infantry Division Re
14th Infantry Division Isonzo
3rd Mountain Infantry Division Ravenna
Guardia alla Frontiera (Border Guard)[i]
3rd Alpine Group[j]
Generale di Corpo d'Armata
Francesco Zingales
9th Motorised Division Pasubio
52nd Motorised Division Torino
133rd Armoured Division Littorio
black and white photograph of a military car and two motorcycles with dismounted soldiers, some with a plume of feathers attached to their helmets
German troops and Italian Bersaglieri in Yugoslavia, 1941

V Corps support units included three motorised artillery regiments comprising thirteen battalions, four machine gun battalions (two motorised and two pack animal), three Blackshirt legions of battalion size, a motorised anti-aircraft battalion, a sapper assault battalion and a road construction battalion. VI Corps included four motorised artillery regiments with a total of sixteen battalions, two machine gun battalions (one motorised, one pack animal) and a motorised anti-aircraft regiment. XI Corps included one motorised artillery regiment comprising four battalions, three machine gun battalions (one motorised, one pack animal and one static), and six Blackshirt legions of battalion size. The Motorised Corps was supported by a motorised artillery regiment consisting of three battalions, and an motorised engineer battalion.[25]

9th Army[edit]

The elements of the Italian 9th Army (Italian: 9° Armata) that were involved in the campaign were commanded by Generale d’Armata (General) Alessandro Pirzio Biroli, and consisted of two infantry corps and some sector troops assembled in northern Albania.[26][27]

Elements of Italian 9th Army[28]
Corps Commander Division
Generale di Divisione
Giovanni Vecchi
38th Infantry Division Puglie
4th Alpine Division Cuneense
Generale di Corpo d'Armata
Giuseppe Pafundi
18th Infantry Division Messina
32nd Infantry Division Marche
131st Armoured Division Centauro
Generale di Corpo d'Armata
Gabriele Nasci
53rd Infantry Division Arezzo
41st Infantry Division Firenze
24th Infantry Division Pinerolo
a dark green painted tank standing on a concrete slab inside a building
The Fiat M13/40 light tank was employed by the 131st Armoured Division Centauro and other Italian units during the invasion

XIV Corps was supported by a cavalry regiment, three Border Guard battalions, a Finance Guard battalion and two military police (Italian: Carabinieri Reali) battalions. The XVII Corps included the Diamanti Blackshirt group which incorporated six Blackshirt regiments comprising two battalions each, the Albanian-raised Skanderbeg Blackshirt regiment of two battalions, another Blackshirt regiment of two battalions, a cavalry regiment, a Bersaglieri motorcycle battalion, three Border Guard battalions, one Finance Guard battalion, a motorised artillery regiment of three battalions, a military police battalion, and a tank company equipped with Fiat M13/40 light tanks. The Librazhd Sector included a motorised artillery regiment of four battalions, a bicycle-mounted Bersaglieri regiment, a cavalry regiment, the Biscaccianti Blackshirt group which incorporated two Blackshirt regiments with a total of five battalions, the regimental-sized Agostini Blackshirt Forest Militia, and the Briscotto group, a regimental-sized formation consisting of one Alpini battalion and two Finance Guard battalions.[28]

Zara garrison[edit]

The Zara garrison numbered about 9,000 men under the overall command of Generale di Brigata (Brigadier) Emilio Giglioli.[29] The garrison consisted of two main groupings and an assortment of supporting units. The two main groupings were the regimental-sized Fronte a Terra (Land Front), which comprised three static machine gun battalions and a bicycle-mounted Bersaglieri battalion, and the battalion-strength Fronte a Mare (Sea Front), which consisted of two machine gun companies, an anti-aircraft battery, a coastal artillery battery and a naval artillery battery. Supporting units consisted of an artillery regiment of three battalions, two independent artillery battalions, a machine gun battalion, a motorised anti-aircraft battalion (less one battery), an engineer battalion, a company of Blackshirts, and a company of L3/35 tankettes.[21]

Commanders[edit]

Major Italian commanders
a standing male in Italian uniform with peaked cap
Generale designato d’Armata Vittorio Ambrosio commanded the Italian 2nd Army during the invasion 
black and white picture of a male in Italian uniform with peaked cap
Generale d’Armata Alessandro Pirzio Biroli commanded the Italian 9th Army during the invasion 

Royal Italian Air Force[edit]

The Royal Italian Air Force (Italian: Regia Aeronautica) operated out of bases in southeastern and northeastern Italy and Albania during the invasion of Yugoslavia. In total, the Italians had 658 aircraft available to support the invasion, 222 of which were positioned in Albania to also support the German invasion of Greece. These aircraft comprised 296 fighter aircraft, 40 dive bombers, 192 medium bombers, 12 bomber floatplanes and 118 reconnaissance aircraft.[30]

2nd Air Force[edit]

a single-engine monoplane with green and black mottled camouflage paint parked on the tarmac
Macchi C.200 fighters were operated by several Italian fighter wings and independent fighter groups

The headquarters of the 2nd Air Force (Italian: 2nd Squadra Aerea) was at Padua, in northeastern Italy under the command of Generale di Squadra Aerea (Lieutenant General) Tullio Toccolini. It comprised two fighter wings, one bomber wing, two independent bomber groups, three reconnaissance groups and one independent reconnaissance squadron. In total, the 2nd Air Force had 90 fighters, 61 medium bombers and 49 reconnaissance aircraft available to support the invasion of Yugoslavia.[30]

Composition of Italian 2nd Air Force[30]
Unit Location Aircraft
4th Fighter Wing 46 × Macchi C.200 fighters
54th Fighter Wing 44 × Macchi C.200 fighters
18th Bomber Wing 32 × Fiat BR.20 medium bombers
25th Bomber Group 15 × Fiat BR.20 medium bombers
99th Bomber Group 14 × Fiat BR.20 medium bombers
61st Reconnaissance Group
Gorizia
8 × Caproni Ca.311 reconnaissance aircraft
8 × IMAM Ro.37bis reconnaissance biplanes
63rd Reconnaissance Group
Udine
14 × IMAM Ro.37bis reconnaissance biplanes
71st Reconnaissance Group
Udine
12 × IMAM Ro.37bis reconnaissance biplanes
128th Reconnaissance Squadron
Gorizia
7 × Caproni Ca.311 reconnaissance aircraft

4th Air Force[edit]

a single-engine monoplane parked on grass with men in uniform seated under the fuselage
Junkers Ju 87 dive bombers were operated by two Italian dive bomber groups

The headquarters of the 4th Air Force (Italian: 4th Squadra Aerea) was at Bari, in southern Italy under the command of Generale di Squadra Aerea Augusto Bonola. It comprised two independent fighter groups and one independent fighter squadron, four bomber wings, one combined bomber and naval bomber wing, two independent bomber groups and one independent dive bomber equipped with German Junkers Ju 87B Stuka aircraft. In total, the 4th Air Force had 73 fighters, 20 dive bombers, 131 medium bombers and 12 bomber floatplanes available to support the invasion of Yugoslavia.[30]

Composition of Italian 4th Air Force[30]
Unit Location Aircraft
8th Independent Fighter Group 14 × Macchi C.200 fighters
153rd Independent Fighter Group 38 × Macchi C.200 fighters
9 × Fiat CR.42 biplane fighters
370th Independent Fighter Squadron 12 × Macchi C.200 fighters
13th Bomber Wing 24 × Fiat BR.20 medium bombers
35th Bomber/Naval Bomber Wing
Brindisi
15 × CANT Z.1007bis medium bombers
12 × CANT Z.1007bis bomber floatplanes
37th Bomber Wing 20 × Fiat BR.20M medium bombers
7 × Fiat BR.20 medium bombers
38th Bomber Wing 16 × Fiat BR.20 medium bombers
47th Bomber Wing
Grottaglie
26 × CANT Z.1007bis medium bombers
50th Bomber Group
Brindisi
8 × CANT Z.1007bis medium bombers
104th Bomber Group
Foggia
15 × Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 medium bombers
97th Dive Bomber Group
Lecce
20 × Junkers Ju 87B dive bombers

Air Command Albania[edit]

a single-engined monoplane in flight
Fiat G.50 fighters were operated by two fighter groups of Air Command Albania

The headquarters of Air Command Albania (Italian: Comando Aeronautica Albania) was located at Tirana, Albania under the command of Generale di Squadra Aerea Ferruccio Ranza. It comprised five fighter groups, one dive bomber group equipped with German Junkers Ju 87B Stuka aircraft, three independent reconnaissance groups and two independent reconnaissance squadrons. In total, the Italians had 133 fighters, 20 dive bombers and 69 reconnaissance aircraft available in Albania to support the invasions of Yugoslavia and Greece.[30]

Composition of Air Command Albania[30]
Unit Location Aircraft
22nd Fighter Group
Tirana
37 × Macchi C.200 fighters
24th Fighter Group 26 × Fiat G.50 fighters
1 × Caproni Ca.111 reconnaissance aircraft
150th Fighter Group 20 × Macchi C.200 fighters
154th Fighter Group
Devoli
20 × Fiat G.50 fighters
160th Fighter Group
Tirana
30 × Fiat CR.42 biplane fighters
101st Dive Bomber Group
Tirana
20 × Junkers Ju 87B dive bombers
5th Reconnaissance Group 18 × IMAM Ro.37bis reconnaissance biplanes
70th Reconnaissance Group
Tirana
17 × IMAM Ro.37bis reconnaissance biplanes
72nd Reconnaissance Group
Valona
9 × IMAM Ro.37bis reconnaissance biplanes
9 × Caproni Ca.311 reconnaissance aircraft
35th Reconnaissance Squadron 8 × IMAM Ro.37bis reconnaissance biplanes
87th Reconnaissance Squadron
Tirana
7 × Caproni Ca.311 reconnaissance aircraft

Royal Italian Navy[edit]

Three destroyers of the Royal Italian Navy (Italian: Regia Marina) were deployed into the Adriatic in direct support of the invasion, and other units were tasked to suppress the Royal Yugoslav Navy.[20]

Hungarian[edit]

Royal Hungarian Army[edit]

a green turret-less tracked vehicle inside a  building
The Hungarian Mobile Corps was equipped with Italian-made L3/35 tankettes armed with machine guns

The Hungarian Army (Hungarian: Magyar Honvédség) committed the Mobile, I, IV and V Corps of Altábornagy (Lieutenant General) Elemér Gorondy-Novák's 3rd Army to the invasion. The 1st Parachute Battalion was earmarked for airborne operations.[31] The Hungarian invasion force was deployed along the Yugoslav border largely between the Danube and the Tisza.[32]

Elements of the Hungarian 3rd Army[31]
Formation/Unit Brigade/Battalion
Mobile Corps
1st Motorised Brigade
2nd Motorised Brigade
1st Cavalry Brigade
I Corps
1st Infantry Brigade
13th Infantry Brigade
15th Infantry Brigade
IV Corps
2nd Infantry Brigade
10th Infantry Brigade
12th Infantry Brigade
V Corps
14th Infantry Brigade
19th Infantry Brigade
2nd Cavalry Brigade
Independent Brigade
9th Infantry Brigade
Independent Brigade
11th Infantry Brigade
Independent Battalion
1st Parachute Battalion

Royal Hungarian Air Force[edit]

A black and white photograph of a single-propeller biplane on the ground
Fiat CR.42 biplane fighters were used by the MKHL during the invasion

The Royal Hungarian Air Force (Hungarian: Magyar Királyi Honvéd Légierő, MKHL) committed its 1st Air Brigade to the invasion, consisting of four fighter groups of the 1st and 2nd Air Regiments flying Fiat CR.42 biplane fighters, one reinforced bomber group from the 3rd and 4th Air Regiments with Junkers Ju 86 and Caproni Ca.135bis twin-engined bombers, and one reconnaissance group from the 5th Air Regiment operating Heinkel He 170A reconnaissance aircraft.[31][33] Savoia-Marchetti SM.75 transports were used to transport the 1st Parachute Battalion.[33]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ According to Schreiber, Stegemann and Vogel, the divisions planned to be part of the 2nd Army reserve that did not reach Yugoslavia were the 4th, 12th and 19th Panzer divisions, the 20th Motorised Infantry Division, and the 100th, 169th, 179th and 197th Infantry divisions.[6] According to Niehorster, the three panzer divisions and the 100th Light Infantry Division were held as theatre reserves, the 169th and 197th Infantry divisions were assigned to 2nd Army. Niehorster does not mention the 20th Motorised Infantry Division or 179th Infantry Division.[2][7]
  2. ^ According to Niehorster, the 79th Infantry Division was allocated to the LII Infantry Corps.[7]
  3. ^ Only elements of the 101st Light Infantry Division were assigned to LI Infantry Corps on 5 April 1941. The remainder was not assigned until 10 April.[7]
  4. ^ According to Schreiber, Stegemann and Vogel, the LII Infantry Corps was only planned for assignment to the 2nd Army on 13 April, and did not actually take over command of any formations until 15 April, when it took command of the 125th Infantry Division and elements of the 101st Light Infantry Division.[6]
  5. ^ According to Schreiber, Stegemann and Vogel, the 125th Infantry Division did not reach Yugoslavia during the fighting.[6]
  6. ^ According to Niehorster, XLI Motorised Corps was assigned to the First Panzer Group.[11]
  7. ^ According to Schreiber, Stegemann and Vogel, the First Panzer group consisted of the XIV Motorised Corps comprising the 5th and 11th Panzer divisions, 4th Mountain Division, 60th Motorised Infantry Division and 294th Infantry Division.[10] According to Niehorster, the First Panzer Group consisted of the XIV Motorised Corps (comprising the 5th and 11th Panzer divisions), XLI Motorised Corps (comprising the SS Motorised Infantry Division Reich and the Großdeutschland Motorised Infantry Regiment), and the 4th Mountain Division and 294th Infantry Division, with the 60th Motorised Infantry Division assigned to 12th Army.[11]
  8. ^ This divisional-sized Border Guard formation consisted of three regimental-sized Border Guard Sectors based around the Timavo river, the Carnavo Gulf and the city of Fiume. It was supported by a Border Guard artillery regiment of seven battalions.[25]
  9. ^ This divisional-sized Border Guard formation consisted of four regimental-sized Border Guard Sectors. It was supported by two Border Guard artillery regiments, one of a single battalion, and the other comprising twelve battalions.[25]
  10. ^ This regimental-sized group consisted of three Alpini battalions and a mountain artillery battalion.[25]

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