Ayane (Dead or Alive)
|Dead or Alive and Ninja Gaiden character|
Ayane in Ninja Gaiden 3: Razor's Edge
|First game||Dead or Alive (PlayStation) (1998)|
|Created by||Tomonobu Itagaki|
|Voiced by (English)||Gina DeVettori (DOA2:HC)
Janice Kawaye (Ninja Gaiden series)
Janna Levenstein (DOAX2, Paradise)
Wendee Lee (Dimensions)
Brittney Harvey (DOA5)
|Voiced by (Japanese)||Wakana Yamazaki|
|Motion capture||Samantha Jo (NG3)|
|Portrayed by||Natassia Malthe (film)|
|Fighting style||Mugen Tenshin Ninjutsu (Hajin Mon style)|
|Weapon name||Fuma Kodachi|
Ayane (Japanese: あやね 綾音?) is a video game character in the Dead or Alive and Ninja Gaiden series by Team Ninja and Tecmo Koei. She debuted as a hidden character in the PlayStation version of the fighting game Dead or Alive in 1998, and has appeared in all of its sequels and spin-offs so far, including an appearance as the protagonist of Dead or Alive 3. In the games, Ayane is a teenage master of ninjutsu and is characterised by her complex relationship with her half-sister Kasumi, the lead character of the Dead or Alive series.
Ayane is also prominently featured as a recurring supporting character in the Ninja Gaiden series since its revival in 2004 and has made multiple guest appearances in other games, especially in the extended Dynasty Warriors franchise. She is one of the most popular Tecmo characters and is one of Tecmo Koei's mascots, but has been a subject of controversies regarding her age and allegations of sexualisation.
In video games
In the Dead or Alive back story, Raidou raped Ayame, Kasumi's mother and wife of Shiden, leader of the Mugen Tenshin (霧幻天神流 Mugen Tenshin-ryū?, lit. "Mist Phantom Heavenly Deity Style") ninja clan, concluding in the conception and birth of Ayane. Ayane is overshadowed by her half-sister Kasumi and bears jealousy and hatred towards her and her privileged upbringing. The Mugen Tenshin villagers allowed Ayane to stay, but disliked and looked down on her. Since they were children, Ayane has secretly admired her half-brother Hayate as a way of increasing her self-esteem. Hayate is portrayed as fond of her in return. Besides on Kasumi, Ayame's ire focusses on Raidou who both created and ruined her life. Ayane's envy towards Kasumi is similar to the hatred Raidou had towards Shiden, Kasumi's father.
Depicted as quiet and reserved, Ayane has honed her skills in an attempt to make others see her as more than a "child of evil". With the death of her former master Genra (Omega) at the end of DOA3, Ayane becomes the strongest ninja of the Hajin Mon (覇神門?, lit. "Divine Conqueror Sect"), the dark side of the Mugen Tenshin clan, and pledges her existence to assist in Hayate's task of destroying the Dead or Alive Tournament Executive Committee (DOATEC). Through most of the series, Ayane was a deadly rival to Kasumi. She is fiercely loyal to Hayate and admires Ryu Hayabusa, the protagonist of the Ninja Gaiden series. Her deadly fighting style has given her the nickname "Female Tengu".
IGN's Hilary Goldstein opined in 2004 that visually the character "is most notable for her anime purple hair and jigglin' jumblies." Ayane wears a variety of mostly purple and black female ninja suits and other attires (including a schoolgirl uniform and a Carnival of Venice-style costume), often coming with a miniskirt or tunic and often featuring a butterfly motif (later even on her weapons). Among about 20 Ayane's outfits in the 2004 compilation game Dead or Alive Ultimate, one was inspired by the character Millennia from Kagero: Deception 2. One of her alternative costumes in Ninja Gaiden Sigma 2 also pays homage to Sun Shangxiang (Lady Sun) from Koei's Dynasty Warriors series. One of her new costumes for Dead or Alive: Dimensions reportedly upset fans when the game was announced in 2010.
Ayane is the youngest female to appear as a playable character in the Dead or Alive series, having been introduced at the age of only 16. She stands at 5'2" and weighs 104 lbs, with a bust size of 93 cm (37"), and has one of the most distinctive appearances out of DOA girls due to her unusually colored purple hair and red eyes. Her face changed slightly between Ninja Gaiden II and Ninja Gaiden Sigma 2, which "has the lovely Ayane at her sexiest" according to GamePro, but Kotaku called her "trashier looking". As in the case of other Dead or Alive 5 characters, her face and general aesthetics are noticeably different in this game, due to DOA5's more realistic design style in comparison to a more cartoonish style of the previous DOA games. Team Ninja leader Yosuke Hayashi said "Ayane and Hitomi retain their signature spirits while complimented by a new look that reflects amazing beauty, grace, and a strong sense of presence."
Ayane's fighting style is very different from Kasumi's Tenjin Mon style. Her signature weapons are a pair of twin short swords named Fuma Kodachi (風舞小太刀 Wind Dancer Short Swords?). According to Kung Fu Cult Masters by Leon Hunt, Ayane's "pirrouetting slaps are harder to imagine in a film, but draw from a spinning/twisting dynamics of martial arts choreography." Team Ninja founder Tomonobu Itagaki described Ayane's character and personality as much "harder" than Kasumi's, making her fit better in the "very hard-edged" universe of the Ninja Gaiden series.
Dead or Alive
Ayane was originally introduced as an unnamed training dummy in the Sega Saturn version of Dead or Alive, before she became a player character in the 1998 PlayStation port, in which she is an opponent character in the practice and tournament modes (Ayane was later included in the Dead or Alive ++ arcade edition) as well as an unlockable secret character. In the original DOA, Ayane has had neither a written background nor in-game plot-line (according to the later canon, Ayane was sent to secretly follow Kasumi).
In Dead or Alive 2 (1999), Ayane joins in the Dead or Alive World Combat Championship as an assassin in pursuit of her half-sister Kasumi, a runaway shinobi who has left the Mugen Tenshin behind and been branded a "traitor" to their clan. Ayane encounters and rescues an amnesiac Hayate, who goes by the name "Ein". When confronting Helena, Ayane is accused of murdering Helena's mother Maria, but the assassin is later revealed to be Christie.
In Dead or Alive 3 (2001), the leader of the Mugen Tenshin's Hajin Mon sect (also written as Hajinmon) and Ayane's former teacher and beloved foster parent, Genra, has disappeared. Ayane, now the most powerful member and de facto leader of Hajin Mon, learns that Genra has been turned into a puppet by the DOATEC and its sinister Omega Project and realises that fate commands her to put Genra out of his misery. Achieving this, she emerges as official winner of the third DOA championship. Itagaki also described her as the game's protagonist character. The introductory sequence to Dead or Alive Ultimate, accompanied by Aerosmith's "Dream On", was the first to hint at the origins of Ayane and Kasumi's enmity.
In Dead or Alive 4 (2005), Ayane has pledged her life to her half-brother and Mugen Tenshin clan leader Hayate, in his cause to destroy the DOATEC for the suffering the company has caused the ninja clans. Ayane has a threefold stake in this plot: she wants revenge for Raidou being changed into a monster, for Hayate being brainwashed in their attempt to realize Project Epsilon, and for the manipulation and death of Genra. At the end of the game, Ayane uses her ninpo ("ninja arts") spell to blow up the DOATEC Tri-Tower.
She returns as a playable character in Dead or Alive 5, set two years after the events of Dead or Alive 4. Ayane follows Kasumi upon Hayate's orders, and later discovers that she is in fact really an Alpha clone. Ayane and Hayate learn from Helena that Victor Donovan and his new organization, MIST, plan to sell his Alpha clones as super soldiers to various countries around the world. They infiltrate the oil rig platform where Helena believes MIST's secret laboratory is hidden. After Ayane and Hayate kill Kasumi's clone, they breach into the lab, but Hayate is captured by Rig and Ayane is forced to flee. After Ryu summons the real Kasumi to battle and Hayate is rescued, they destroy the laboratory and Alpha-152.
Besides the main DOA series, Ayane appears as one of the player characters in the beach volleyball spin-off games Dead or Alive Xtreme Beach Volleyball (2003), Dead or Alive Xtreme 2 (2006) and Dead or Alive Paradise (2010), pursuing Kasumi. Dead or Alive: Cronus, the series' prequel project which was intended to tell the story of Kasumi's and Ayane's childhoods and explore "the innocence and cruelty of children," was officially cancelled in 2010 after Itagaki left Team Ninja and Tecmo.
In Ninja Gaiden (2004), a younger Ayane (aged 14; she is 16-year-old in the DOA series) plays a minor role as a non-player character, serving Murai and the Shadow Clan as a stealthy infiltrator and courier assisting Ryu Hayabusa during his bloody vengeance. In the 2005 Ninja Gaiden Black edition, Ayane stars in the "Ninja Dog" easy mode, where she treats the disgraced Ryu as her pet and leaves him various items through the game. Ayane can be killed by the player when Ryu finds her wounded in Murasma's shop, but this results in a game over.
In Ninja Gaiden II (2008), Ayane appears only in a cutscene near the end of the game to give the Eye of the Dragon jewel to Ryu, turning his Dragon Sword into the more powerful True Dragon Sword. Ninja Gaiden Σ 2, the enhanced port of NGII for the PlayStation 3, features Ayane as a single player mode's playable character in one level, which shows how she obtained the Eye of the Dragon and defeated the remnants of the Black Spider Clan. She is also available as one of three new alternative player characters for the game in a cooperative multiplayer mode, and appears in the game's prologue digital comic, The Vampire War. An unlockable costume for Ayane in Sigma 2 is her outfit from Ninja Gaiden Sigma.
In the original edition of Ninja Gaiden 3 (2012), Ayane only appears in one cutscene, in which she loans Hayate's sword to Ryu. Ninja Gaiden 3: Razor's Edge, an expanded version of the game, features Ayane as a playable character with her own new missions: a campaign involving the returning Black Spider Clan, as well as being available to fight alongside Ryu—like in Σ 2—in an online cooperative multiplayer mode. A new Chapter Challenge mode also allows the player to attempt any part of the game using Ayane.
Ayane also makes a brief cameo appearance in Ninja Gaiden: Dragon Sword (2008). She is featured in Zen Pinball: Ninja Gaiden Sigma 2, a 2009 pinball game for the PlayStation Network, and in the 2013 smart phone action card game Hyakuman-nin no Ninja Gaiden ("Ninja Gaiden 1,000,000 People").
Ayane made her debut in Koei's Dynasty Warriors franchise in 2009 with a non-player character guest appearance in Dynasty Warriors: Strikeforce, where her Fuma Kodachi swords are also available as the player's optional weapons. Ayane appears as a player character in the series' 2011 spin-off game Warriors Orochi 3 (Musou Orochi 2 in Japan) in her design and primary costume from Ninja Gaiden Sigma 2. In this game, set after DOA4, Ayane enters another world, named Orochi; she stars in the Siege of Hasedō-themed stage and joins Yoshitsune Minamoto's party to find a way back home, then follows Sima Zhao's army and helps them to locate and rescue the prisoners at Xuchang. She returned—together with Ryu—as a playable character in the 2012's Shin Sangoku Musou VS (which was abortively planned to be released in English as Dynasty Warriors Vs. or Dynasty Warriors 3DS), as a free downloadable content (DLC) character, once again wearing her Sigma 2 costume. Her classic purple dress outfit is an unlockable costume for the character Kooh in Tecmo's Super Swing Golf: Season 2.
Ayane is often regarded as a top-tier character in many of the games she is playable in, especially in the DOA fighting games. In Prima Games' official guide for Dead or Alive Ultimate (a remake version of Dead or Alive and Dead or Alive 2), Eric Mylonas opined Ayane is "tougher of the two siblings" as she "brings strings of blindingly fast combos into play and has devastating holds and throws." He wrote Ayane has a major weakness in that she can not stop moving without becoming "an easy prey," and she may not be favored by those who prefer "huge, over-the-top moves," but for a "more patient sort, there's probably no better character in the game." According to GameSpy's guide by Andrew Alfonso, Ayane's key moves include her high kick—which is "a lot" better than Kasumi's—with another move so powerful "it's almost unfair to use it." He also noted how she can be actually more effective with her back turned towards her opponent, despite the fact that the characters cannot block when facing away from an enemy. In his guide for Dead or Alive 3, Alfonso wrote Ayane is a very unpredictable and quick attacker, even more than in the previous games in the series, and should be played primarily for her backwards position, hers being the best such stance of all the characters in the game. Ayane's speed and deceiving attacks make her a "pretty good" partner for slower fighters for tag team battles, but her primary partners are other ninja characters. In Prima Games' official guide for Dead or Alive 4, Bryan Dawson wrote that while in the previous games Ayane has been "one of the easiest characters to use and was very difficult to fight against," in this game she "now requires much more skill in high-level players, as her best attack as nowhere as dominant as they were in the past." She was rated overall 7/10. According to GameSpot's guide by Matthew Rorie, Ayane is "one of the more devious characters" of the game, "capable of devastating speed and some ingenious little fake-out animations," but she requires "a lot more practice than is apparent at first glance." In GameSpy's guide, David McCutcheon wrote that "widely regarded as the [Street Fighter characters] Ken/Ryu of the Dead or Alive series, Ayane can be both incredibly cheap and remarkably skilled," as "rolling and spinning will work wonders" for the player's countering effects and one "can juggle enemies to endless amounts of pain." Ayane's move set in an early version of Dead or Alive 5 seems almost identical to this in DOA4, but she has some new moves. In an official description of the character, Tecmo Koei wrote that "her mastery of ever-changing moves means her opponents never know what is coming."
Ayane's gameplay abilities in other games were regarded more variably. In the DOA Xtreme and Paradise beach volleyball games, Ayane has excellent technique and jump abilities, at the cost of poor defence, power and speed. According to Official Xbox Magazine, "she's not exactly who you want to spike at the net or try to blow past blocks, but she's excellent at long spikes, digging, and soft dinks." As such, she is most effective as a supporting player. In Ninja Gaiden Σ 2, Ayane's attacks (many of her Fuma Kodachi combos resemble her combos from Dead or Alive) and finishing moves are far faster than these of Ryu, but the player has to learn to dodge much more as she has worse blocking abilities. The official guide to this game by Prima's Bryan Dawson states that Ayane's short range and limited attack power "make her the worst choice of the three new characters for almost every mission" and "her only saving graces" are a powerful ninpo spell and deadly Flash Kunai projectiles. In addition, if controlled by the console in the co-op mode, the character "doesn't seem to know what to do in any situation." Mitch Dyer of IGN opined that a vastly improved Ayane from Ninja Gaiden 3: Razor's Edge is "a damn fine addition" to the game, where she is "just as capable as Ryu Hayabusa" with her "quick and vicious" melee attacks and explosive kunai projectiles, adding that she is "functionally similar to Hayabusa in terms of combos and skills, complete with a screen-clearing special move." Similarly, Retro Gamer described her simply as "a nimbler version of Ryu." David Lynch of X360 wrote all the "girls" of Razor's Edge (Ayane, Kasumi and Momiji) became "just as deadly" in it as Ryu Hayabusa has been through the Ninja Gaiden series.
In the live-action film DOA: Dead or Alive, Ayane is a ninja assassin and Kasumi's former servant who is dedicated to seeking out and killing her, as Kasumi is considered an outcast to the clan. Ayane first confronts Kasumi before she flees the temple, then several times on the island. She has romantic feelings towards Hayate (she is not his half-sister in the movie, and neither she is Kasumi's), and initially believes him to be dead. Ayane fails to kill Kasumi but finds Hayate and aids him against DOATEC. During the film's finale, she saves him from a potentially fatal fall.
Ayane was controversially portrayed by Natassia Malthe, a half-Norwegian half-Filipina actress who was also much older than Ayane is portrayed in the games. Malthe's Ayane uses a Japanese long sword and also wields two longs swords in the various promotional images in and out of character. Malthe said she has undergone "weeks of martial arts training in China" for the film. Tomonobu Itagaki later said he "wanted to have Japanese actresses portray Kasumi and Ayane" but the film's director Corey Yuen "believed strongly in his casting choices." Itagaki said he would have chosen Aya Ueto to play Ayane.
Ayane's purple dress is included in the Director's Cut version of Fatal Frame II: Crimson Butterfly as an alternate costume for Mayu, one of this game's two protagonist sisters (the other one, Mio, may wear Kasumi's costume). Dead or Alive 4 pre-order bonuses in Japan included "the most beautiful slipcase in the world" and "the most beautiful poster in the world", the slipcase having an almost-naked Kasumi on one side and Ayane in her standard fighting outfit on the other. In 2011, Ayane's Ninja Gaiden Sigma 2 costume parts were made available as exclusive DLC for Dynasty Warriors Online during the game's first anniversary promotion campaign. The first batch of the unreleased Dynasty Warriors Vs. was supposed to contain DLC codes for Ayane's judo and volleyball outfit costumes. Free downloadable costumes for Ayane were offered as pre-order bonuses for 2013's Dead or Alive 5 Ultimate at Amazon. First-print copies of Tecmo Koei's Musou Orochi 2 Ultimate (Japanese version of Warriors Orochi 3 Ultimate) will be bundled with DLC codes for Ayane's special “Orochi” themed costume in DOA5U (with blond hair for first time).
A demo version of Dead or Alive 5 featuring Ayane and Hayate as playable characters was added as a downloadable bonus to the pre-order version of Ninja Gaiden 3 for the PlayStation 3, as well as the collector's edition release for both the PS3 and Xbox 360. A demo version of Ninja Gaiden 3: Razor's Edge available at the New York Comic Con 2012 featured Ayane fighting against an endless stream of enemies inside a closed room; a different playable demo, also featuring Ayane, was shown at Tecmo Koei press event in Tokyo. She is one of the four playable characters available from the start in the free game Dead or Alive 5 Ultimate: Core Fighters.
The merchandise items featuring Ayane include a variety of statuettes and action figures for the Dead or Alive and Ninja Gaiden series, with notable examples including the figures by Shunya Yamashita, Kotobukiya, Volks, Mr Big, an UFO Catcher claw crane figure by Sega, and others, such as one of which came with the limited edition Japanese release of Ninja Gaiden, and another which could be undressed to a bikini. Other merchandise include a "3D" coffee mugs for Banpresto's arcade redemption games, posters, 3D mousepads and a body towels, wall scrolls, arcade sticks by Hori decorated with a graphic of Ayane and Kasumi (released in two versions, for the PlayStation 3 and the Xbox 360), credit cards, and a Dead or Alive talking clocks which was bundled with another figure of either Ayane or Kasumi. More Ayane-themed 3D mousepads were released as merchandise for DOA5, along with dakimakura pillow cases. She was also featured in the special edition of Playboy magazine in 2004.
Since her introduction, Ayane remains a face of the series alongside her older half-sister. Ayane was described as a fan-favourite by GMR in 2003, and was called "everyone's favorite purple haired ninja" by GameAxis in 2006. She was featured through the fan-made computer-animated series Dead Fantasy from the start and has become a popular subject of cosplay. In 2012, Angelo M. D'Argenio of Cheat Code Central, listing Ayane among the top ten hidden characters in fighting games, noted that she "is now one of the poster characters for both series, and it seems she becomes more popular by the day." Regarding the preferences of Dead or Alive online multiplayer players, Official Xbox Magazine wrote in 2005: "Of all the stats and figures, one of the most unusual is a rating for the most popular characters in America, Asia and the rest of the world. At the moment, Ayane is the most popular character to use by a long way."
While awarding the Annual GameSpy E3 Award to Dead or Alive Ultimate in 2004, Raymond 'Psylancer' Padilla wrote, "Ayane should be my new girlfriend." He later elaborated: "To be honest, I always thought Ayane was an uptight bitch with a massive chip on her shoulder. I always rooted for Kasumi in their feud. Then a funny thing happened when I saw the trailer for Dead or Alive Ultimate during E3 2004 -- I started to care about Ayane. Learning more about her story, her upbringing, and the root of her feud with Kasumi made me change sides." In 2005, she was described as his favourite Dead or Alive character by James Mielke from 1UP.com. Featuring Ayane as a "videogame babe of the day" in 2009, IGN's Chris Carle commented: "After that awkward goth stage in high school, not many people continue to rock the violet locks, but Ayane is different… she's hot enough to get away with it." "Kayane", pseudonym of the professional gamer Marie-Laure Norindr comes from a mix of "Kasumi" and "Ayane". Kayane said: "She has a lot of charisma and is pretty. She’s full of anger but has a sweet heart in fact. I think she has the most interesting story and personality in the game."
Ayane was ranked as the seventh top fictional ninja in a 2009 list by Fandomania. In 2010, Mikel Reparaz of GamesRadar ranked hers, Ryu's and Momiji's guest appearance in Strikeforce as the 49th "most awesome" character cameo in gaming history. In 2012, Gelo Gonzales of FHM listed Ayane among the nine "sexiest ninja babes in games", commenting that she is "like Kasumi, only moodier ... about as punk as ninjas get, and carries a get-the-fuck-outta-my-way-or-I-snap-your-arm-in-two-places attitude," comparing her to Ellen Adarna. In 2013, Jon Ledford of Sushi Arcade included her among the ten best video game "ninjas" in all her roles, "whether she’s playing volleyball, fighting her sister or helping Ryu Hayabusa save the world."
Sex appeal and film
Numerous publications commented noted Ayane's sex appeal, often including her among the most attractive female characters in video games. In 2003, Bryan 'Sir Crossforge' Johnson collectively placed her with the other Dead or Alive girls at second spot on GameSpy's list of "top babes in games". The Polish edition of GameStar included her as one of 20 candidates in a poll for the title of Miss of the Video Game World (Miss Świata Gier) 2006. In 2011, Complex ranked her as the 14th best looking "sideline chick" of video games, stating, "Kasumi's cool and all, but we definitely prefer Ayane's cold and killer demeanor." That same year, Jeremy Render of Cheat Code Central featured her among the top ten sexiest female video game characters, where Ayane shared number six spot with Hitomi. In 2012, Kristie Bertucci of Gadget Review ranked this "underage ninja that can kick ass while wearing skimpy clothing" as the 19th "hottest" female video game character. Also in 2012, Ayane and the other DOA girls were collectively placed at number ten spot on the list of the "hottest women in video games" by Complex. That same year in Poland, Ayane was included among the 20 "sexiest girls in games" by Wirtualna Polska, as well as among the "sexiest game heroines" of the year by Interia.pl. Austin Wood of Cheat Code Central declared this "one awesome female ninja" in Razor's Edge as number one sexiest game character of 2012.
In 2009, Gelo Gonzales of FHM listed her among the nine "sexiest bad girls of videogame land", commenting that "with her cute suplada looks, this deadly ninja soon became a mainstay of the series. Dead or Alive is one of the pioneers of boob-bouncing technology, and thankfully, Ayane has the curves to take full advantage of that." Some also commented on her breasts specifically, such as when Gavin Mackenzie of PLAY joked them to be two of the top ten best things one could expect to see in Dead or Alive 5. Ayane and Rachel shared the seventh place on the 2011 list of "most incredible chests" by Joystick Division. In 2012, ZoominGames rated Ayane's bosom in Ninja Gaiden Sigma 2 as number one in gaming.
Ayane's portrayal by Natassia Malthe in the film DOA: Dead or Alive was panned by many fans and critics alike (even as, prior to the premiere, IGN stated that "DOA is HOT... and Nastassia Malthe proves it"). Mikel Reparaz of GamesRadar dubbed the motion picture version of Ayane as "White Girl Who is Somehow Also Japanese", Roger Moore wrote in Orlando Sentinel that Malthe's purple hair "makes her look even less Japanese than [Kasumi's actress] Aoki", and UGO.com wrote about Malthe's role as Ayane: "Defining Moment: Zzzzzzzz."
Some criticised the visual allure of the character, up to allegations of sexual objectification. In 2009, Joe Newman of GamesRadar ranked the series of Team Ninja's controversial Sigma 2 commercials, designed to draw attention to the fact that the "notoriously big-breasted" Ayane was a playable character (one of which was called by Destructoid "the best and worst thing to have ever been created"), as the fourth most blatantly sexist game advertisement ever, adding: "God forbid a moment goes by where any part of her body might be covered up." In 2012, Team Ninja's post-Itagaki head Yosuke Hayashi dismissed the criticism, stating: "With the representation of female characters in the Dead or Alive franchise, we've always wanted to make the girls look as attractive as possible, and that's something that's not going to change for us at all." Hayashi explained: "We are a Japanese developer, and we're making the female characters with our common sense and our creative sense. When you take that to countries outside of Japan, it tends to be very misinterpreted in some cases, people considering it sexist or derogatory, etc."
As with Kasumi's, Ayane's age has not been listed in the Western versions of the games to avoid backlash regarding characters portrayed as underage; according to Itagaki, Ayane's age in Ninja Gaiden would "cause problems with the ESRB." Nevertheless, some outlets raised this issue and questioned the extent of adolescent Ayane's sexualization in the games (in Ninja Gaiden Sigma 2 players were even given control over the movement of her breasts through use of the Sixaxis game controller). Destructoid's Jim Sterling has voiced concern about how a supposedly 14-year-old character (Ayane's Sigma 2 age) has such "huge busters", as well as joking he was "worried that this now means I'm a pedophile." In 2011, Nintendo of Europe decided to not distribute Dead or Alive: Dimensions in Sweden (this also meant the game would not be released in Norway and Denmark), apparently because of a local child pornography law encompassing drawn and animated characters (and despite the age of consent in Sweden being only 15). ABC News mistakenly used GamesRadar's joke image of Ayane "with the newly attached pterodactyl head and wings of Metroid boss Ridley" as an illustration for their article while reporting on this story. Reacting to the Nordic ban, Sterling (writing for GameFront) called her a "big-eyed lump of grade-A jailbait" and added: "Would it murder the fantasy of the fanbase if the girl was canonically 21, despite still looking like an eleven-year-old hormone pill addict? Instead, 21-year-olds are designated as 'old' women in Japanese games, usually playing a villainous, antagonistic role compared to the sweet, innocent, sexually desirable teenager." He further wrote that his proposed practice of "bumping up the age be part of the localization process," besides helping to avoid "silly controversies like we’ve seen in Sweden," would have "the added benefit of narratives that are far more sensible — having Ayane as an accomplished ninja at sixteen just doesn’t make much sense." Ayane became canonically 18-year-old in Dead or Alive 5.
- "Characters - Voice Of Ayane". Behindthevoiceactors.com. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- "Resume". Ginadevettori.com. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- "Janice Kawaye Profile". Metacritic.com. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- "Dead or Alive Paradise Details and Credits for PSP". Metacritic.com. 2010-03-30. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- "Dead or Alive Dimensions - Credits". Allgame.com. 2010-10-03. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- "Wakana Yamazaki Profile". Metacritic.com. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- Dead or Alive 2 game manual (Dreamcast version), p. 28.
- Dead or Alive Xtreme 2 manual, page 10.
- Dead or Alive 4 manual, page 16.
- Kalata, Kurt. "Dead or Alive". Hardcore Gaming 101. Retrieved 2014-06-19.
- Eric Mylonas, Dead or Alive Ultimate (Prima Official Game Guide), Prima Games 2004 (p. 72).
- "Ayane (Dead or Alive)". Uk.ign.com. 2006-11-17. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- Sebastian Haley, Team Ninja studio head talks DLC costumes and Tekken vs. Dead or Alive, VentureBeat, December 9, 2011.
- Ernest Lin, Dead or Alive 5 Review, PSU.com, September 26, 2012.
- Hilary Goldstein, Girls of DOAU: Ayane, IGN, September 23, 2004.
- Dead or Alive 2 Schoolgirl Outfits Revealed, IGN, March 8, 2000.
- Mike Fahey, Ninja Gaiden Sigma 2 Gets Fashionable DLC, Kotaku, November 13, 2009.
- Pete Haas, Ninja Gaiden 3: Razor's Edge Has Playable Ayane, Gaming Blend, 2012-09-12.
- DOA Ultimate Preview, 1UP.com, 07/23/2004.
- "Deception". Hardcoregaming101.net. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- Jim Sterling, Ninja Gaiden invades Dynasty Warriors, Destructoid, 09.23.2009.
- Jim Sterling, Ayane & Kasumi's new costumes in Dead or Alive Dimensions, Destructoid, 09.27.2010.
- "Dead or Alive 5 roster - Meet all the announced fighters for the game". GamesRadar. 2012-09-11. Retrieved 2014-02-05.
- Brian Ashcraft, Ayane, Your Face Looks A Little Different, Kotaku, July 27, 2009.
- Jim Sterling, NG Sigma 2: 14-year-old has huge boobs, new face, Destructoid, 06.29.2009.
- McKinley Noble, Motion-controlled breast jiggling in PS3 Ninja Gaiden 2, GamePro, September 11, 2009.
- Michael McWhertor, Ninja Gaiden Sigma 2’s Momiji In Action, Kotaku, July 2, 2009.
- Nate Ming, "Dead or Alive 5" Aims for Realistic Female Characters and a Possible "Virtua Fighter" Crossover, Crunchyroll, February 17, 2012.
- Nick Tan, Team Ninja Takes Away Dismemberment and Booby Physics, GameRevolution, December 8, 2011.
- The Babes of DOA, IGN, March 26, 2010.
- Leon Hunt, Kung Fu Cult Masters, Wallflower Press, 2003 (p. 187).
- Kikizo, Itagaki: The Kikizo Interview 2005, Video Games Daily, February 15, 2005.
- "Retro/Active - Dead or Alive Series". 1up.com. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- Jason Rybka, Dead or Alive Cheats - PlayStation (PS1), About.com.
- Dead or Alive 5 Official Site: The story so far..., Team Ninja.
- Anthony Chau, Dead or Alive 3 - xbox - Walkthrough and Guide - Page 20, GameSpy, January 15, 2001.
- Raymond Padilla, Itagaki Speaks on Dead or Alive Ultimate, GameSpy, May 16, 2004.
- Ayane's ending cutscene in Dead or Alive 4.
- Dale North, The girls of Dead or Alive 5: Ayane and Hitomi, Destructoid, 12.08.2011.
- Jordan Mallory, Ayane whomps Hitomi in this new DOA5 trailer, Joystiq, March 16, 2012.
- Xbox News: Tecmo speaks out on Dead Or Alive: Cronus, ComputerAndVideoGames.com, 4 February 2004.
- JC Fletcher, Team Ninja's Dead or Alive: Code Cronus and Project Progressive canceled, Joystiq, November 5, 2010.
- Matt Edwards, Ninja Gaiden Sigma Plus Review, Eurogamer, 23 February 2012.
- Hilary Goldstein, Ninja Gaiden Black: Dog Days - Xbox Preview, IGN, August 6, 2005.
- GameAxis Unwired, December 2005, page 36.
- "Ninja Gaiden II - Ninja Gaiden 2 Ayane cameo". Gametrailers.com. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- "GDC 09: New Characters and Co-Op Interview GDC 09: New Characters and Co-Op Interview". Gametrailers.com. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- "E3 09: Exclusive Ayane Gameplay Part I". Gametrailers.com. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- "Ninja Gaiden Sigma 2 Ayane/Momiji Co-Op Gameplay HD Video". Gamevideos.1up.com. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- Yosuke Hayashi, Ninja Gaiden Sigma 2 – “Team Missions” Co-op (with video!) and More –, PlayStation Blog, July 24, 2009.
- Ninja Gaiden 3 Screen Drop, TheGamersHub, December 19, 2011.
- Kevin Dunsmore, Ayane confirmed for Ninja Gaiden 3: Razor’s Edge, GameSector, September 13, 2012.
- Mike Jackson, Ninja Gaiden 3: Razor's Edge video shows Ayane and dismemberment | The two best additions to the enhanced Wii U version, CVG UK, 13 September 2012.
- Ninja Gaiden 3: Razor’s Edge Trailer Shows Playable Ayane, Siliconera, September 13, 2012.
- Ayane leaps out of the shadows into Ninja Gaiden 3: Razor's Edge... and you can play as her!, ScrewAttack.com, 9/14/12.
- Mike Fahey, Ninja Gaiden Sigma 2 Gets Its Own Pinball Table, Kotaku, October 6, 2009.
- "― 「100万人のNINJA GAIDEN」画面写真と共にゲームの流れやバトルシステムをチェック". 4gamer.net. 2012-09-20. Retrieved 2014-05-04.
- Ayane Brings A Purple Haze Into Warriors Orochi 2, Siliconera, November 18, 2011.
- Official screenshots of Ayane in Musou Orochi 2 gets online, Tecmo Koei Players, November 18, 2011.
- Alex Culafi, Ryu Hayabusa and Ayane Appearing in Dynasty Warriors 3DS, Nintendo World Report, March 1, 2012.
- Ayane Joins Dynasty Warriors Vs. As A Free DLC Character, Siliconera, May 24, 2012.
- JC Fletcher (2007-09-28). "Super Swing Golf sequel features a Tecmo-tastic costume". Joystiq. Retrieved 2014-06-19.
- "Super Swing Golf Season 2 Cheats". GameSpot. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- Andrew Alfonso, Dead or Alive Ultimate - xbox - Walkthrough and Guide - Page 31, GameSpy, January 24, 2004.
- Andrew Alfonso, Dead or Alive 3 - xbox - Walkthrough and Guide - Page 20, GameSpy, January 15, 2001.
- Bryan Dawson, Dead or Alive 4 (Prima Official Game Guide), Prima Games 2006 (p. 61).
- Matthew Rorie, Dead or Alive 4 Walkthrough - Page 9 - Game Guides, GameSpot.
- David McCutcheon, Dead or Alive 4 - xbox360 - Walkthrough and Guide - Page 14, GameSpy, January 24, 2006.
- David Hinkle, Beautiful brawling in Dead or Alive 5, Joystiq, December 10, 2011.
- "Dead or Alive Official Site: Ayane, The Killer Kunoichi". Teamninja-studio.com. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- "Official Xbox Magazine Issue 16". Archive.org. Retrieved 2014-05-04.
- Hands-on | Ninja Gaiden Sigma 2, Resolution Magazine, June 27, 2009.
- Bryan Dawson, Ninja Gaiden Sigma 2: Prima Official Guide, Prima Games 2009 (p. 28, 51).
- Mitch Dyer, TGS: Ninja Gaiden 3: Razor's Edge Repairs Past Mistakes: Violet violence., September 19, 2012.
- Retro Gamer 113, page 100.
- X360 Magazine UK 97, page 75.
- Alexander Villafania, Movie review: The girls of Dead or Alive, Philippine Daily Inquirer, 2 February 2007.
- "Natassia". Uk.ign.com. Retrieved 2014-03-02.
- TyphoidFever, Philippine Daily Inquirer, January 22, 2005.
- E3 2006: Tomonobu Itagaki Interview, IGN, May 8, 2006.
- Carle, Chris (2004-09-24). "TGS 2004: New Fatal Frame 2 Details - IGN". Uk.ign.com. Retrieved 2014-05-21.
- "Xbox Review - 'Fatal Frame 2: Crimson Butterfly'". Worthplaying. Retrieved 2014-05-21.
- David Karlin, DoA4 Pre-Order Goodies, 1UP.com, 11/14/2005.
- Anoop Gantayat, Dynasty Warriors Online Has Ninja Gaiden Sigma Costumes, Andriasang.com, 2011-11-02.
- Mike Jackson, EU: Dead or Alive 5 Ultimate gets pre-order-only costumes, CVG UK, 12th July 2013.
- Dead or Alive 5 Ultimate Orochi DLC Costumes to Be Bundled with Musou Orochi 2 Ultimate in Japan, Shoryuken, August 30, 2013.
- Ninja Gaiden 3 to Include Exclusive DOA5 Demo, Shoryuken, December 14, 2011.
- Jordan Mallory, Here's the Ninja Gaiden 3 collector's edition (with bonus screenshots), Joystiq, January 12, 2012.
- Alexa Ray Corriea, 'Ninja Gaiden 3: Razor's Edge' brings protagonist Ayane to the foreground, GamePad controls to the back, The Verge, October 11, 2012.
- Dale North, Ninja Gaiden 3: Razor's Edge: Getting bloody with Ayane, Destructoid, 09.19.2012.
- Andrew Yoon, Dead or Alive 5 Ultimate: Core Fighters is free-to-play, coming to PS3, Shacknews.com, June 3, 2013.
- Brain Ashcraft, Catch These Dead or Alive Figures!, Kotaku, September 4, 2008.
- Brain Ashcraft, No, Not A Kasumi Figure, An Ayane One, Kotaku, December 22, 2009.
- Michael McWhertor, Finally, Dead Or Alive Toys With Removable Clothing, Kotaku, July 20, 2007.
- Brian Ashcraft, Ayane Is Not Cheap, Kotaku, January 26, 2010.
- Hamza CTZ Aziz, Volks, Ninja Gaiden 2 Sigma Ayane figure is looking good, Destructoid, 01.27.2010
- This Bayonetta Figure Pistol Kicks Out A Whopping Price Tag, Kotaku, February 8, 2011.
- Jim Sterling, Crane claws + big titties = Happy pervoids indeed, Destructoid, 09.04.2008.
- "セガダイレクトには話題のグッズが満載!! - ファミ通.com". Famitsu.com. 2004-01-15. Retrieved 2014-05-04.
- Take Off Ayane's Top and Skirt, Kotaku, November 12, 2007.
- Jim Sterling, Strippable Dead or Alive figures for the dirty, shameful win, Destructoid, 07.21.2007.
- Brian Ashcraft, Dead or Alive Mugs With 3D Humps, Kotaku, December 5, 2007.
- "DSX2 : : Gateway to a gamer's world". Dragonbox.ca. 2006-10-04. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- "Heat Up This Christmas With These Dead Or Alive 5 Swimsuit Posters". Siliconera. 2013-10-25. Retrieved 2014-06-19.
- "Buy Dead or Alive 5 Stick for PS3". Play-asia.com. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- "Buy Dead or Alive 5 Stick for Xbox360". Play-asia.com. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- "DOA 10th ANNIVERSARY CARD". Tecmo.co.jp. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- Tecmo Announces Dead or Alive Voice Clock | When the Kasumi huggable pillow just isn't enough to fill that void in your heart., GamePro, November 4, 2004.[dead link]
- Dead or Alive 5 Gets 3D Mousepads, Anime News Network, 2012-10-20
- Jenni Lada, Dead or Alive 5 pillow cases coming to Japan, GamerTell, December 11, 2012.
- "Computer idea 122". Archive.org. Retrieved 2014-05-04.
- Videogame Babes of the Day: Ninja Gaiden Black | What could be better than ninja ladies?, IGN, September 16, 2005.
- Matt Cundy, Sexiest game fan art, GamesRadar, February 5, 2008.
- GMR The Masked Issue (August 2003).
- GameAxis Unwired, October 2006, page 73.
- Hamza CTZ Aziz, Dead Fantasy 1: From the guy who did Haloid. Also, CHICK FIGHT, Destructoid, 10.10.2007.
- Phil Owen, 40 Ayane (Dead or Alive/Ninja Gaiden) Cosplay Pics, GameFront, May 24, 2011.
- Angelo M. D'Argenio, Top Ten Hidden Characters In Fighting Games, Cheat Code Central, February 22, 2012.
- Official XBOX Magazine 40, page 112.
- The Annual GameSpy E3 Awards!, GameSpy, May 19, 2004.
- GameSpy Staff, Case File 26: Are storylines in fighting games worth the trouble?, GameSpy, August 30, 2004.
- James Mielke, DOA Meets Halo, 1UP.com, 11/17/2005.
- Chris Carle, Videogame Babe of the Day: Ayane | Purple haired ninjas rule, IGN, November 17, 2006.
- Chris Bahn, Kayane Interviews DOA5 Team, Put That Back, August 17, 2012.
- "DOAWorld Best Shot: Interview with Kayane - Dead or Alive Community". Doaworld.com. Retrieved 2013-10-04.
- Jason Dorough, Top 10 Fictional Ninjas, Fandomania, December 4, 2009.
- Mikel Reparaz, 55 awesome character cameos, GamesRadar, April 30, 2010.
- Gelo Gonzales, 9 Sexiest Ninja Babes in Games, FHM, March 29, 2012.
- Jon Ledford (2013-06-15). "10 Best Video Game Ninjas". Arcadesushi.com. Retrieved 2013-12-21.
- Johnson, Bryan (2003-05-04). Top Ten Babes in Games. GameSpy. Retrieved on 2008-12-29.
- Michał "Songo" Berezowski, Dominik Błaszczykiewicz, Znamy Miss Gier Komputerowych 2006!, 15 December 2006.
- Elton John, The 25 Best Looking Sideline Chicks in Games, Complex.com, August 25, 2011.
- Jeremy Render, Top 10 Sexiest Female Video Game Characters, Cheat Code Central, 2011.
- Kristie Bertucci, 20 hottest female video game characters (list), Gadget Review, July 5, 2012
- The 50 Hottest Women In Video Games, Complex.com, June 27, 2008.
- "Ayane (Ninja Gaiden 3) - 20 najseksowniejszych dziewczyn z gier". Gry.wp.pl. Retrieved 2014-05-04.
- "Najseksowniejsze bohaterki gier 2012 roku - Gry w INTERIA.PL - zdjęcia i screeny z gier". Gry.interia.pl. Retrieved 2014-05-04.
- Austin Wood, Top 8 Sexiest Characters of 2012: 1. Ayane (Ninja Gaiden 3: Razor’s Edge), Cheat Code Central, December 28, 2012.
- Gelo Gonzales, The bad girls of videogame land, FHM, September 11, 2009.
- Gavin Mackenzie, Dead Or Alive 5 – Top 10 things you can expect to see, PLAY Magazine, 4 August 2010.
- Rich Shivener, 10 Incredible Chests in Video Games, Joystick Division, August 1, 2011.
- Top 5 - Best boobs in gaming, Zoomin.TV, August 8, 2012.
- DOA: Dead or Alive Babe of the Day: Ayane, IGN, May 22, 2007.
- Mikel Reparaz, The 16 most awesomely bad videogame movie moments, GamesRadar, April 29, 2009.
- Roger Moore, DOA: Dead or Alive is DBR: Dumb as a bag of rocks, Orlando Sentinel, June 15, 2007.
- Natassia Malthe in DOA: Dead or Alive, UGO.com, September 14, 2010.
- Amanda Greenslade, Fantasy Women: The Literary Roots of Phallocentrism in Modern Fantasy Computer Games, 2011.
- Jim Sterling, Ninja Gaiden Sigma 2 'boob jiggle' commercial is amazing, Destructoid, 09.16.2009.
- Joe Newman, Top 7... Blatantly sexist game advertisements, GamesRadar, November 25, 2009.
- Jessica Conditt, DOA5 lead: Japanese view of women in games 'not going to change', Joystiq, August 22, 2012.
- Jim Sterling, Japan and its Sexy, Sexy Children, GameFront, May 23, 2011.
- Dead or Alive 3DS canceled in Sweden over...child porn laws?, MMGN, 25/05/2011.
- Brian Ashcraft, Report: Dead or Alive: Dimensions Is Kiddy Porn in Sweden?, Kotaku, May 20, 2011.
- Justin Towell, ABC News uses our ridiculous big-boobed pterodactyl joke as serious DoA screenshot, GamesRadar, June 1, 2011.
- Official website (DOA5)