Abol-Ghasem Kashani

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Abol-Ghasem Kashani
Abol-Ghasem Kashani.jpg
Chairman of the Parliament of Iran
In office
7 August 1952 – 12 March 1953
Monarch Mohammad-Reza Pahlavi
Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh
Preceded by Mohammad-Reza Hekmat
Succeeded by Hassan Emami
Personal details
Born 1882
Tehran, Iran
Died March 14, 1962
Tehran, Iran
Nationality Iranian
Political party National Front
Religion Shia Islam

Ayatollah Seyyed Abol-Ghasem Mostafavi Kashani (Persian: آیت‌الله سید ابوالقاسم مصطفوی کاشانی‎) (1882 in Tehran, Iran – 14 March 1962 in Tehran, Iran) was a prominent Twelver Shia Muslim cleric and former Chairman of the Parliament of Iran.

Early life[edit]

His father, Ayatollah Hajj Seyyed Mostafavi Kashani (Persian: آیت‌الله حاج سید مصطفی کاشانی‎), was a noted clergyman of Shiism in his time. Abol-Ghasem was trained in Shia Islam by his religious parents and began study of the Quran soon after learning to read and write.

At 16, Abol-Ghasem went to an Islamic seminary to study literature, Arabic language, logic, semantics and speech, as well as the principles of Islamic jurisprudence, or Fiqh. He continued his education at the seminary in an-Najaf in the Qur'an and Hadiths as interpreted in Shia law, receiving his jurisprudence degree when he was 25.

Later life[edit]

Personal life[edit]

His son Mostafa died in an accident in 1955; the new prime minister, Hossein Ala', escaped an assassination attempt at the funeral.[1] According to British intelligence, around this time two of his sons were involved in a lucrative business buying and selling import-export licenses for restricted goods.[2]

One of Kashani's children, Mahmoud Kashani, went on to become head of the Iranian delegation to the International Court of Justice in The Hague, Netherlands, in Iran's case with the United States and a presidential candidate in the Iranian presidential elections of 1988 and 2005. His second son is Ahmad Kashani, a former member of Iranian parliament.

Kashani is also the great grandfather of Iranian-American filmmaker Sam Ali Kashani.

Political life[edit]

Abol-Ghasem expressed Anti-capitalist leanings from early on in his career and opposed what he saw as "oppression, despotism and colonization." Because of these beliefs, he was especially popular with the poor in Tehran.[3] He also advocated the return of Islamic government to Iran, though this was most likely for political reasons.[4]

Due to nationalist positions, Ayatollah Kashani was arrested and exiled by the British and Soviets. He continued to oppose foreign, especially British, control of Iran's oil industry while in exile. After he returned from exile on 10 June 1950, he continued to protest. Angered by the fact that the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company paid Iran much less than it did the British, he organized a movement against it and was the "virtually alone among the leading mujtahids in joining" nationalist Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq, in his campaign to nationalize the Iranian oil industry in 1951.[5] [6] Kashani served as speaker of the Majles (or lower house of Parliament), during the oil nationalization.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Abbas Milani (2008), Eminent Persians: The Men and Women Who Made Modern Iran, 1941-1979, Volumes One and Two, Volume 1, Syracuse University Press, p348
  2. ^ Ervand Abrahamian (1993), Khomeinism: Essays on the Islamic Republic, I.B.Tauris, p108
  3. ^ Dabby, Elias. "The Ayatollah and Me." The Scribe - Journal of Babylonian Jewry. Issue 70, October 1998.
  4. ^ Samii, A.W. "Falsafi, Kashani and the Baha'is
  5. ^ MacKay, Sandra, The Iranians, (Plume, 1998) p.198
  6. ^ Abrahamian, Ervand, Khomeinism : essays on the Islamic Republic, University of California Press, c1993. p.107

External links[edit]