Mohammad Beheshti

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"Shahid Beheshti" redirects here. For the village in Iran, see Shahid Beheshti, Iran.
Mohammad Beheshti
محمد بهشتی‏
Beheshti1.jpg
Chief Justice of Iran
In office
3 June 1979 – 28 June 1981
Appointed by Ruhollah Khomeini
Preceded by Vacant
Succeeded by Abdul-Karim Mousavi Ardebili
Chairman of the Assembly of Experts
In office
1 November 1979 – 15 November 1979
Preceded by Hussein-Ali Montazeri
Succeeded by Ali Meshkini
Leader of IRP
In office
18 February 1979 – 28 June 1981
Deputy Hassan Ayat
Mir-Hossein Mousavi
Preceded by New party
Succeeded by Mohammad-Javad Bahonar
Personal details
Born 1929
Isfahan, Iran
Died 28 June 1981(1981-06-28) (aged 52)
Tehran, Iran
Nationality Iranian
Political party Islamic Republican Party
Spouse(s) Ezatolsharie Motlagh
Children Ali-Reza
Mohammad-Reza
Molok Soltan
Mahbobe Soltan
Alma mater Tehran University
Religion Shia Islam
Signature

Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti (1929 – 28 June 1981) (Persian: سیّد محمد حسینی بهشتی‎) was an Iranian scholar, writer, jurist and one of the main architects of the constitution of the Islamic Republic in Iran. He was the secretary-general of the Islamic Republic Party, and the head of Iran's judicial system. He was assassinated together with more than seventy members of the Islamic Republic party on 28 June 1981.

Early years and education[edit]

Beheshti was born in Isfahan in 1929.[1] He studied both at the University of Tehran and under Allameh Tabatabaei in Qom. Between 1965 and 1970, he led the Islamic Center in Hamburg where he was responsible for the spiritual leadership of religious Iranian students in Germany and Western Europe. In Hamburg, he also worked with Mohammad Khatami and was among his influences. Since the early 1960s, he was involved in activities against the monarchy and was arrested several times by the Shah's secret police, the SAVAK.

Beheshti joined Ayatollah Khomeini in Najaf, Iraq, where the latter was in exile. There he became part of Khomeini's underground movement.[2]

Career[edit]

Following the Islamic Revolution, he became one of the original members of the Council of Revolution of Iran and soon its chairman. As vice-president, he played a particularly important role in promoting the principle of velayat-e faqih as the basis for the new constitution. In the first post-revolutionary Iranian parliament, he led the Islamic Republic party together with Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani. (He never campaigned for the parliament though, as he was already the head of Iran's Supreme Judicial System). Behesti was the founding member, first general secretary and a central committee member of the party.[3] He was also planning to run for the presidency in the first presidential elections, but withdrew after Ayatollah Khomeini told a delegation of Rafsanjani and Khamenei that he preferred non-clerics as presidents, which led to the Islamic Republic party's endorsement of first Jalaleddin Farsi and then, Hasan Habibi as candidate.[4]

Assassination[edit]

Beheshti died in an attack on 28 June 1981, when a bomb exploded during a party conference (Hafte tir bombing). The Islamic Republic at first claimed the bomb was planted by the Tudeh Party, then by the People's Mujahedin of Iran organization. The assassin was identified, per the official version, as Mohammad Reza Kolahi, an operative of the People's Mujahedin of Iran.[5]

Ayatollah Khomeini was very moved by his death. During the excavations of the bodies of the bombing victims, Khomeini was walking calmly in the garden of his house. Regularly his trustees would update the Ayatollah with new information on the death toll; Khomeini would not show any reaction to this. But when they told Khomeini about the possible death of Ayatollah Beheshti, Khomeini turned around, put his hands on his back and showed some signs of affection.[6]

Legacy[edit]

Each year a commemoration ceremony is organized on the day of assassination of Behesti.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jessup, John E. (1998). An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945-1996. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 62.   – via Questia (subscription required)
  2. ^ Samii, Abbas William (1997). "The Shah's Lebanon policy: the role of SAVAK". Middle Eastern Studies 33 (1): 66–91. doi:10.1080/00263209708701142. Retrieved 21 August 2013. 
  3. ^ Asayesh, Hossein; Adlina Ab. Halim, Jayum A. Jawan and Seyedeh Nosrat Shojaei (March 2011). "Political Party in Islamic Republic of Iran: A Review". Journal of Politics and Law 4 (1). Retrieved 29 July 2013. 
  4. ^ Rouleau, Eric (1980). "Khomenei's Iran". Foreign Affairs 59 (1). Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  5. ^ صفحهٔ اول > Pictures > محمدرضا كلاهي، عامل انفجار هفتم تيرماه 60، دفتر حزب جمهوري Shahsawandi
  6. ^ Video Iran Negah
  7. ^ Mahtafar, Tara (28 June 2009). "Beheshti's Ghost". PBS (Tehran). Retrieved 1 August 2013. 

External links[edit]

Party political offices
Preceded by
Office established
Leader of the Islamic Republican Party
1979–1981
Succeeded by
Mohammad-Javad Bahonar
Legal offices
Preceded by
Vacant
Head of Judiciary System of Iran
1979–1981
Succeeded by
Abdul-Karim Mousavi Ardebili
Political offices
Preceded by
Hussein-Ali Montazeri
Speaker of Assembly of Experts
1979
Succeeded by
Ali Meshkini