Ayherre

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Ayherre
The Pelota Court
The Pelota Court
Coat of arms of Ayherre
Coat of arms
Ayherre is located in France
Ayherre
Ayherre
Coordinates: 43°23′35″N 1°15′11″W / 43.3931°N 1.2531°W / 43.3931; -1.2531Coordinates: 43°23′35″N 1°15′11″W / 43.3931°N 1.2531°W / 43.3931; -1.2531
Country France
Region Aquitaine
Department Pyrénées-Atlantiques
Arrondissement Bayonne
Canton La Bastide-Clairence
Intercommunality Pays d'Hasparren
Government
 • Mayor (2014–2020) Arnaud Gastambide
Area1 27.65 km2 (10.68 sq mi)
Population (2010)2 987
 • Density 36/km2 (92/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 64086 / 64240
Elevation 20–465 m (66–1,526 ft)
(avg. 86 m or 282 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Ayherre (Basque: Aiherre) is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Aquitaine region of south-western France.

The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aihertars.[1]

Geography[edit]

Ayherre is located in the Arberoue Valley in the former province of Lower Navarre some 23 km east by south-east of Bayonne and immediately east of Hasparren. Access to the commune is by the D10 road from Hasparren which passes through the west of the commune and continues north to La Bastide-Clairence. The D251 branches east off the D10 in the commune and goes to the village then continues east to Isturits. The D314 goes south-west from the village to Bonloc. The D14 from Bonloc to Saint-Esteben passes through the south of the commune. The commune is mainly farmland with scattered forests.[2]

The commune is located in the Drainage basin of the Adour with a dense network of streams covering the commune mostly flowing north-westwards and including the Joyeuse which forms part of the western border of the commune. The Arbéroue rises in the south of the commune and flows north gathering many tributaries before joining the Lihoury to the north.[2]

A Basque House

Places and Hamlets[3][edit]

  • Abarratia[4]
  • Ahounsbiscardeguy[5]
  • Aguerréa (3 places)
  • Aguerréko Borda
  • Ainguéroutéguia
  • Andérétéguia
  • Apairi[5] or Apahiri, from Apʰara-hiri
  • Apézénéa
  • Apeztéguia
  • Archidukénia
  • Arduarria
  • Arkhia
  • Arramendy
  • Arraydua
  • Auchotéa
  • Ayherregaraya
  • Ballade Etcheberry
  • Barné Uhartia[5]
  • Béhibidia
  • Belzunce[5]
  • Berhéta
  • Berhétako Borda
  • Berhoa[5]
  • Bicaldéguy
  • Bichartéa
  • Bidartéa
  • Bidegain Etchetoa
  • Bidegainia
  • Bildaraitz or Bildarraitz[6]
  • Bordalanda
  • Buztingorria
  • Celhaya
  • Chapitalborda[5]
  • Chapitalia (mill)
  • Chedarria
  • Chelhaya
  • Chocoa
  • Courtaut
  • Currioléko Borda
  • Curutzaldéa
  • Egyptoa
  • Erketa
  • Erregnétéa
  • Errékahoua
  • Errékartéa
  • Espertatea
  • Estekatea
  • Etchartéa
  • Etchébarnéko Borda
  • Etchébazterréa
  • Etchébéhéréa[5]
  • Etchébéhéreko Borda
  • Etchéberria (2 places)
  • Etcheberriko Borda
  • Etchéberstia
  • Etchéchouria
  • Etchégaraya
  • Etchégoïnéa
  • Etchénika
  • Etchenikako Borda
  • Etchéparéa
  • Etchétipia
  • Etchetoa
  • Eyhéra
  • Ezpildéa
  • Ferminéko Borda
  • Fermirénéa
  • Gandéramendia
  • Gandéramendiko Borda
  • Garralda
  • Gauhetchia
  • Granya
  • Granyagaraya
  • Haranbilléta
  • Haranburua
  • Haranéa
  • Harréguia
  • Harriéta
  • Harriétako Borda
  • Hastoya
  • Hégoa
  • Hergaitz[5]
  • Hiriartéa
  • Ichuria
  • Idiartéa
  • Idigoïnia
  • Ilharindéguia
  • Ipoutsaguerria
  • Irachiloa
  • Irazabalia
  • Iriart Urrutia
  • Iribarnéa
  • Iriberria
  • Issouribeherea
  • Jauberria (2 places)
  • Jaungaztenia
  • Jelossia
  • Kintalénéa
  • Kitendéa
  • Larrégaïnia
  • Larzabaléa
  • Leichorrénéa
  • Létouatéguia
  • Lohichundéa
  • Londaits[5]
  • Londaitsbehere
  • Londaïtzberria
  • Londaitzekoborda
  • Lukua[5]
  • Lur Berry
  • Manéchéka Borda
  • Manéchénéa
  • Mayartéguia
  • Mendia
  • Mendiberria
  • Mendiburua
  • Mendigorria[5]
  • Mendilarréa
  • Menta
  • Mentaberria
  • Mentachiloa
  • Mignotéguia
  • Négutéa
  • Notariaénia
  • Ourriola
  • Oyhana
  • Oyharartéa
  • Oyharitzéa
  • Oyharitséko Borda
  • Patindeya
  • Peña
  • Petchitea
  • Pipitea
  • Pompochénéa
  • Sallaberryborda
  • Sarcabaleko Borda
  • Sarhigaïnéa
  • Tuturrutéguia
  • Uhaldéa
  • Urgorria
  • Urquéta
  • Zabaloa
  • Zabalza
  • Zaliotéguia
  • Zokoa

Neighbouring communes and villages[2][edit]

Toponymy[edit]

The commune name in basque is Aiherra.[7] According to Jean-Baptiste Orpustan,[6] the name comes from the basque ailherr ("incline"), giving the meaning "place on a slope".

The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune.

Name Spelling Date Source Page Origin Description
Ayherre Sancti petri de ilarre 1236 Orpustan Village
San Per de Aiherre 1321 Raymond
18
Camara
ayherra 1344 Orpustan
ayheRe 1350 Orpustan
Ajarra 1513 Raymond
18
Pamplona
Ahyerie 1754 Raymond
18
Collations
Aiherre 1750 Cassini
L'Ahounbiscardéguy L'Ahunbiscardéguy 1863 Raymond
3
Stream
Apairi Apahiri 1863 Raymond
7
Hamlet
Aphara Apara 1621 Raymond
7
Biscay Farm
Aphara 1863 Raymond
7
***Bildarraitz beldarais 1249 Orpustan Hamlet
bildarays 1350 Orpustan
bildarraiz 1413 Orpustan
Bildariz 1513 Raymond
31
Pamplona
Bildarraïts 1863 Raymond
31
Belzunce Belçunze 1384 Raymond
27
Duchesne Chateau, fief of the Kingdom of Navarre
Belzunce 1384 Raymond
27
Duchesne
Velçunce 1621 Raymond
27
Biscay
Balzunze 1621 Raymond
27
Biscay
Belsunce 1863 Raymond
27
Berhoa Le Berho 1863 Raymond
28
Stream
Chapitalborda Chapitel 1621 Raymond
48
Biscay Farm
Chapital 1863 Raymond
48
Erquéta Erquéta 1863 Raymond
59
Hamlet
Etchebarnia Echabarne 1435 Raymond
63
Pamplona Farm
Etchebarnia 1863 Raymond
63
Etchebéhère Echevehere 1435 Raymond
63
Pamplona Farm
Etchebéhère 1863 Raymond
63
Hergaitz la croix d'Ergaïts 1863 Raymond
59
Place of Pilgrimage
Londaïtz Londayz 1621 Raymond
103
Biscay Farm
Londaïts 1863 Raymond
103
Lukua Le Lucu 1863 Raymond
106
Stream
Mendigorria Mendigorria 1621 Raymond
111
Biscay Farm
Mendigorry 1863 Raymond
111
La Place La Place 1863 Raymond
135
Hamlet
L'Uhartea L'Uhartea 1863 Raymond
170
Stream
***In the Middle Ages Bildarraitz was an independent area without a church but with its own council and a half-dozen homes were ennobled in 1435. The name may be the joining of bil- meaning "set" or "a round place" and araitz meaning "blackthorn", "prickly", or "briar".[6]

Sources:

Origins:

History[edit]

On 18 March 1450,[14] Labourd returned to the French crown after the signing of a peace treaty at the Château of Belzunce in Ayherre which marked the end of English influence in the region. On that the representatives of Labourd made their submission and, upon payment of 2,000 gold écus secured by the retention of 10 hostages, retained their privileges.

Heraldry[edit]

Arms of Ayherre
Adopted in 2001 based on the arms of the lords of Belzunce[15]

Blazon:
Quarterly, 1 and 4 Gules, 2 cows of Or horned and belled Azure posed in fesse; 2 Argent, an oak eradicated proper; 3 Azure a hydra Argent with 3 heads.



Administration[edit]

The Town Hall

List of Successive Mayors[16]

From To Name Party Position
1995 2014 Jean Paul Basterretche
2014 2020 Arnaud Gastambide

(Not all data is known)

Inter-communality[edit]

The commune is part of six inter-communal structures:

  • the Community of communes of Pays d'Hasparren: Hazparneko lurraldea;
  • the AEP association of Arberoue;
  • the sanitation association of Adour-Ursula;
  • the Energy association of Pyrénées-Atlantiques;
  • the inter-communal association for the building of a retirement home in the Alberoue Valley;
  • the inter-communal association for the crafts zone in Ayherre;

Demography[edit]

The declaration of rights in 1749 counted 162 fires in Ayherre (130 third estate, one priest, two members of the nobility (Arcangues and Belsunce) and 29 non-owners).[17]

In 2010 the commune had 987 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]

Evolution of the Population (See database)
1793 1800 1806 1821 1831 1836 1841 1846 1851
1,410 1,502 1,500 1,454 1,513 1,522 1,607 1,731 1,671
1856 1861 1866 1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896
1,619 1,507 1,505 1,508 1,490 1,392 1,244 1,157 1,153
1901 1906 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954
1,193 1,161 1,127 1,028 951 952 1,027 969 854
1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006 2010 -
842 810 765 812 791 841 955 987 -

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)


Population of Ayherre

Economy[edit]

The Lauak factory

Economic activity in the commune is mainly agricultural. The commune is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) zone of Ossau-iraty.

The Lauak company (Aeronautical and Aerospace industry) is located in the industrial zone of Ayherre.

The Uhagun Mill on the Aran dates to the 19th century and has been converted into a hydro-electric plant.

Culture and heritage[edit]

Chateau of Belzunce

Civil heritage[edit]

The commune has three sites that are registered as historical monuments:

  • The Chateau of Belzunce (13th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[18]
  • Prehistoric Fortifications on Mount AbarratiaLogo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[4]
  • Prehistoric Fortifications (Gaztelu Zahar of 3 levels)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[19]

Religious heritage[edit]

The Parish Church of Saint Pierre

The Parish Church of Saint Pierre (17th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg is registered as an historical monument.[20]

Education[edit]

The School

The commune has two primary schools: one in the town and one private school of the Immaculate Conception.

Notable people linked to the commune[edit]

  • Émile Larre, born in 1926 at Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry, was a priest, chronicler, Bertsolari, writer, and French academic in the Basque language. He was an active promoter of basque traditions and particularly attached to the basque modes of expression such as the bertsolarism and Basque Pelota. He was priest of Ayherre from 1969 to 1980.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by Law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002, the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" allows, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force in 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Inhabitants of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
  2. ^ a b c Google Maps
  3. ^ Géoportail, IGN (French)
  4. ^ a b Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00084328 Prehistoric Fortifications (French)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, Paul Raymond, Imprimerie nationale, 1863, Digitised from Lyon Public Library 15 June 2011 (French)
  6. ^ a b c d Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy, Presses universitaires de Bordeaux, 2006, ISBN 2 86781 396 4 (French)
  7. ^ Euskaltzaindia - Academy of the Basque language (Eu icon)
  8. ^ Cassini Map 1750 – Ayherre
  9. ^ Titles published by don José Yanguas y Miranda - Diccionario de Antiguedades del reino de Navarra, 1840, Pamplona (Spanish)
  10. ^ Titles published by don José Yanguas y Miranda (Spanish)
  11. ^ Manuscripts from the 17th and 18th centuries in the Departmental Archives of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (French)
  12. ^ Derecho de naturaleza que la merindad de San-Juan-del-pie-del-puerto, una de las seys de Navarra, tiene en Castilla, 1622 (Spanish)
  13. ^ Duchesne Collection, volumes 99 to 114, containing the papers of Oihenart, former Imperial Librarian - Bibliothèque nationale de France
  14. ^ Philippe Veyrin, The Basques, Arthaud, 1975, ISBN 2 7003 0038 6, p. 122 (French)
  15. ^ Arms of France
  16. ^ List of Mayors of France (French)
  17. ^ Census cited by Manex Goyhenetche, General History of Basque Country - Vol. 3, Elkarlanean, 2001, ISBN 2 9131 5634 7, p. 282. The same work by Manex Goyhenetche indicated (page 284) that tehre was an average of 5.5 inhabitants per fire. (French)
  18. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00084558 Chateau of Belzunce (French)
  19. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00084407 Prehistoric Fortifications (French)
  20. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA64000728 Parish Church of Saint Pierre (French)