Arabic names of calendar months

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Aylūl)
Jump to: navigation, search

The Arabic names of calendar months of the Gregorian calendar are usually phonetic Arabic pronunciations of the corresponding month names used in European languages. An exception is the Aramaic calendar used in Iraq and the Levant, which names most of its Gregorian months after Aramaic names for months of the Babylonian calendar that occur at roughly the same time of year.[1]

The Gregorian calendar is and has been used in nearly all the countries of the Arab world, in many places long before European occupation of some of them[citation needed]. Currently, all Arab states except Saudi Arabia (which uses the Islamic calendar for all purposes) use the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes[citation needed]. The names of the Gregorian months as used in Egypt, Sudan, and Yemen are widely regarded as standard across the Arab world[citation needed], although the Syro-Mesopotamian names are often used alongside them[citation needed]. In other Arab countries some modification or actual changes in naming or pronunciation of months were observed. The names of the Gregorian calendar months in the different countries of the Arab world were as follows:

Levant and Mesopotamia[edit]

These names are used primarily in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine and Jordan. These months are likely derived from the Aramaic names of the Babylonian calendar, and the names Šubāṭ, Āḏār, Nīsān, Ayyār, Tammūz, Āb, Aylūl, and Tišrīn are cognate with the names of the approximately equivalent months of the Hebrew calendar: Shevat, Adar, Nisan, Iyar, Tammuz, Av, Elul, and Tishrei, which is used by Jews.

Nine of these names were used in the Ottoman Rumi calendar, of which five remain in use in modern Turkish.

No. Month Arabic name Transliterated
1 January كانون الثاني Kānūn aṯ-Ṯānī
2 February شباط Šubāṭ
3 March آذار Āḏār
4 April نيسان Nīsān
5 May أيار Ayyār
6 June حزيران Ḥazīrān / Ḥuzayrān
7 July تموز Tammūz
8 August آب Āb
9 September أيلول Aylūl
10 October تشرين الأول Tišrīn al-Awwal
11 November تشرين الثاني Tišrīn aṯ-Ṯānī
12 December كانون الأول Kānūn al-Awwal

Egypt, Sudan, Arabia[edit]

No. Month In Arabic Transliteration Egyptian pronunciation
1 January يناير yanāyir [jæ'næːjer]
2 February فبراير fibrāyir [febˈɾˤɑːjeɾ]
3 March مارس māris [ˈmæːɾes]
4 April أبريل/إبريل abrīl/ibrīl [ʔebˈɾiːl, ʔæb-]
5 May مايو māyū [ˈmæːjo]
6 June يونيو/يونية yūniyū/yūniyya [ˈjonjæ, -jo]
7 July يوليو/يولية yūliyū/yūliyya [ˈjoljæ, -jo]
8 August أغسطس ağusṭus [ɑˈɣostˤos, oˈ-]
9 September سبتمبر sibtambir [sebˈtæmbeɾ, -ˈtem-, -ˈtɑm-]
10 October أكتوبر uktūbar [okˈtoːbɑɾˤ, ek-, ɑk-]
11 November نوفمبر nūfambir [noˈvæmbeɾ, -ˈvem-, -ˈfæm-,
-ˈfem-, -ˈvɑm-, -ˈfɑm-]
12 December ديسمبر dīsambir [deˈsæmbeɾ, -ˈsem-, -ˈsɑm-]

Libya (1969–2011)[edit]

The names of months used in Libya were derived from various sources, and were assembled after Muammar al-Gaddafi's seizure of power in 1969 and abolished after the 17th February 2011 revolution. The decision of changing calendar names was adopted on June 1986.[2] Although the Libyan calendar follows the same sequence of the (renamed) Gregorian months, it counts the years from the death of the prophet Muhammad.[3] This choice is totally peculiar, being neither in line with the Islamic calendar, which starts from the Hijra.

No. Month Arabic name transliterated meaning[4]
1 January أي النار ayy an-nār
2 February النوار an-nuwwār
3 March الربيع ar-rabīʿ Spring note: this name might have changed. A UN source [5] indicates for March a different name.
4 April الطير aṭ-ṭayr bird
5 May الماء al-mā' water
6 June الصيف aṣ-ṣayf summer
7 July ناصر nāṣir from Gamal Abd el-Nasser
8 August هانيبال hānībāl from Hannibal
9 September الفاتح al-fātiħ conqueror
10 October التمور، الثمور at-tumūr; aṯ-ṯumūr dates
11 November الحرث al-ħarṯ tillage
12 December الكانون al-kānūn

Algeria and Tunisia[edit]

The names of the Gregorian months in Algeria and Tunisia are based on the French names of the months, reflecting France's long colonization of these countries (1830-1962, 132 years, in Algeria and 1881-1956, 75 years, in Tunisia). The original French names are therefore listed below.

No. Month Arabic name In Arabic In French
1 January جانفي Jānfī Janvier
2 February فيفري Fīfrī Février
3 March مارس Mārs/Māris Mars
4 April أفريل Afrīl Avril
5 May ماي Māy Mai
6 June جوان Juwān Juin
7 July جويلية Juwīliyya Juillet
8 August أوت Ūt Août
9 September سبتمبر Sibtambir Septembre
10 October أكتوبر Uktūbir Octobre
11 November نوفمبر Nūfambir Novembre
12 December ديسمبر Dīsambir Décembre

Morocco[edit]

As Morocco was long part of the Roman Empire, the long-standing agricultural Berber calendar of the country preserves the Julian calendar and (in modified form) the names of its months. When Morocco adopted the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes, the names of the months were taken from this local tradition.

No. Month Arabic name In Arabic
1 January يناير yannāyir
2 February فبراير fibrāyir
3 March مارس mārs
4 April إبريل ibrīl
5 May مايو māyū
6 June يونيو yūniyū
7 July يوليو yūliyū
8 August غشت ğušt
9 September شتمبر šutambir
10 October أكتوبر uktūbir
11 November نونبر nuwanbir
12 December دجمبر dujambir

References[edit]

  1. ^ The months of the Gregorian (Christian) calendar in various languages: Arabic
  2. ^ "Libya Changes Names Of Months On Calendar - Sun Sentinel". Articles.sun-sentinel.com. Agence France-Presse. 1986-06-23. Retrieved 2013-03-25. 
  3. ^ "ACM: Months". Library.princeton.edu. Retrieved 2013-03-25. 
  4. ^ "Libyan Arab Jamahiriya - الموقع غير الرسمى للقنصلية الليبية بالاسكندرية". Sites.google.com. Retrieved 2013-03-25. 
  5. ^ "Tratamiento del árabe". Conf-dts1.unog.ch. Retrieved 2013-03-25.