|This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2009)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Aymara, Andean Spanish|
|Related ethnic groups|
The Aymara or Aimara (Aymara: aymara listen (help·info)) are an indigenous nation in the Andes and Altiplano regions of South America; about 2 million live in Bolivia, Peru and Chile. Their ancestors lived in the region for many centuries before becoming a subject people of the Inca in the late 15th or early 16th century, and later of the Spanish in the 16th century. With the Spanish American Wars of Independence (1810–25), the Aymara became subjects of the new nations of Bolivia and Peru. After the War of the Pacific (1879–83), Chile acquired territory occupied by the Aymara. Aymaras themselves make significant distinctions between Bolivian and Chilean Aymaras.
Archeologists have found evidence that the Aymara have occupied the Andes, in what is now western Bolivia, southern Peru and northern Chile, for at least 800 years (or more than 5,000 years, according to some estimates, but it is more likely that they are descended from preceding cultures). Their origin is a matter of scientific dispute. The region where Tiwanaku and the modern Aymara are located, the Altiplano, was conquered by the Incas under Huayna Capac (reign 1483–1523), although the exact date of this takeover is unknown. It is most likely that the Inca had a strong influence over the Aymara region for some time. At the same time, the architecture for which the Inca are now known appears to have been influenced by the older Tiwanaku style. Though conquered by the Inca, the Aymara retained some degree of autonomy under the empire.
The Spanish later classified a number of ethnic groups as Aymara in their effort to identify the native peoples. These were identified by chieftainties and included the following: the Charqa, Qharaqhara, Quillaca, Asanaqui, Carangas, SivTaroyos, Haracapi, Pacajes, Lupacas, Soras, among others. At the time of Spanish encounter, these groups were living throughout the territory now included in Bolivia.
Linguists have learned that Aymara was once spoken much further north, at least as far north as central Peru. Most Andean linguists believe that it is likely that the Aymara originated or coalesced as a people in this area (see 'Geography' below). The Inca nobility may have originally been Aymara-speakers who switched to Quechua shortly before the Inca expansion. For example, the Cuzco area has many Aymara placenames. The so-called 'secret language of the Incas' referred to in historical texts appears to be a form of Aymaran.
Most present-day Aymara-speakers live in the Lake Titicaca basin, a territory from Lake Titicaca through the Desaguadero River and into Lake Poopo (Oruro, Bolivia) also known as the Altiplano. They are concentrated south of the lake. The capital of the ancient Aymara civilization is unknown. According to research by Cornell University anthropologist John Murra, there were at least seven different kingdoms. The capital of the Lupaqa Kingdom was the city of Chucuito, located on the shore of Lake Titicaca.
The present urban center of the Aymara region is El Alto, a 750,000-person city near the Bolivian capital, La Paz. For most of the 20th century, the center of cosmopolitan Aymara culture has been Chuquiago Marka (La Paz). Bolivia's capital was moved from Sucre to La Paz during the government of General Pando (died in 1917) and during the Bolivian Civil War.
The Aymara flag is known as the Wiphala; it consists of seven colors quilted together with diagonal stripes.
The native language of the Aymara is Aymara. Many Aymara speak Spanish as a second language, when it is the predominant language in the areas where they live. The Aymara language has one surviving relative, spoken by a small, isolated group of about 1,000 people far to the north in the mountains inland from Lima in Central Peru (in and around the village of Tupe, Yauyos province, Lima department). This language, whose two dialects are known as Jaqaru and Kawki, is of the same family as Aymara. Some linguists refer to this language as 'Central Aymara.' 'Southern Aymara' is the language spoken most widely and is spoken by people of the Titicaca region.
Most of contemporary Aymaran urban culture was developed in the working-class Aymara neighborhoods of La Paz, such as Chijini and others. Both Quechua and Aymara women in Peru and Bolivia took up the style of wearing bowler hats since the 1920s. According to legend, a shipment of bowler hats was sent from Europe to Bolivia via Peru for use by Europeans working on railroad construction. When the hats were found to be too small, they were given to the indigenous peoples. The luxurious, elegant and cosmopolitan Aymara Chola dress, which is an icon of Bolivia (bowler hat, aguayo, heavy pollera, skirts, boots, jewelry, etc.) began and evolved in La Paz. It is an urban tradition of dress. This style of dress has become part of ethnic identification by Aymara women. Many Aymara live and work as campesinos in the surrounding Altiplano.
The Aymara have grown and chewed coca plants for centuries, using its leaves in traditional medicine as well as in ritual offerings to the father god Inti (Sun) and the mother goddess Pachamama (Earth). During the last century, there has been conflict with state authorities over this plant during drug wars; the officials have carried out coca eradication to prevent the extraction and isolation of the drug cocaine. But, the ritual use of coca has a central role in the indigenous religions of both the Aymara and the Quechua. Coca is used in the ritual curing ceremonies of the yatiri. Since the late 20th century, its ritual use has become a symbol of cultural identity.
Chairo is a traditional stew of the Aymara. It is made of chuño (potato starch), onions, carrots, potatoes, white corn, beef and wheat kernels. It also contains herbs such as coriander and spices. It is native to the region of La Paz.
The Aymara and other indigenous groups have formed numerous movements for greater independence or political power. These include the Tupac Katari Guerrilla Army, led by Felipe Quispe, and the Movement Towards Socialism, a political party organized by the Cocalero Movement and Evo Morales. These and other Aymara organizations have led political activism in Bolivia, including the 2003 Bolivian Gas War and the 2005 Bolivia protests.
Quispe has said that one of their goals is to establish an independent indigenous state. They have proposed the name Qullasuyu, after the eastern (and largely Aymara) region of the Inca empire, which covered the southeastern corner of present-day Peru and western Bolivia.
Evo Morales is an Aymara coca grower from the Chaparé region. His Movement Toward Socialism party has forged alliances with both rural indigenous groups and urban working classes to form a broad leftist coalition in Bolivia. Morales has run for president in several elections since the late 20th century, gaining increasing support. In 2005 he won a surprise victory, winning the largest majority vote since Bolivia returned to democracy. He is the first indigenous president of Bolivia. He is credited with the ousting of Bolivia's previous two presidents.
- Bartolina Sisa
- Evo Morales
- Gregoria Apaza
- Kimsa Chata
- Roberto Mamani Mamani, contemporary Aymara artist
- Socialist Aymara Group
- Túpac Katari
- Bolivia National Census 2001, figures listed in Ramiro Molina B. and Javier Albó C., Gama étnica y lingüística de la población boliviana, La Paz, Bolivia, 2006, p 111.
- Peru National Census 1993, figures listed in Andrés Chirinos Rivera, Atlas Lingüístico del Perú, Cuzco: CBC, 2001.
- Chile National Census 2012.
- Vergara, Jorge Iván; Gundermann, Hans (2012). "Constitution and internal dynamics of the regional identitary in Tarapacá and Los Lagos, Chile". Chungara (in Spanish) (University of Tarapacá) 44 (1): 115–134. doi:10.4067/s0717-73562012000100009.
- Aaron I. Naar, Los Hombres del Lago". Note: This documentary film tells about the smallest community of Uru-Muratos, Puñaca Tintamaria. Narrated by ex-leader Daniel Moricio Choque, the movie recounts the history of their community, customs, and current problems: their continuous poverty, lack of land and representation, the contamination of Lake Poopó, and the effects of global warming. See a 12-minute piece from the film on YouTube.
- Martha Hardman has long argued that Jaqaru and Kawki are two separate languages, but most other linguists consider them to be two closely related dialects.
- Adelson, Laurie, and Arthur Tracht. Aymara Weavings: Ceremonial Textiles of Colonial and 19th Century Bolivia. [Washington, D.C.]: Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service, 1983. ISBN 0-86528-022-3
- Buechler, Hans C. The Masked Media: Aymara Fiestas and Social Interaction in the Bolivian Highlands. Approaches to Semiotics, 59. The Hague: Mouton, 1980. ISBN 90-279-7777-1
- Buechler, Hans C., and Judith-Maria Buechler. The Bolivian Aymara. Case studies in cultural anthropology. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971. ISBN 0-03-081380-8
- Carter, William E. Aymara Communities and the Bolivian Agrarian Reform. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1964.
- Eagen, James. The Aymara of South America, First peoples. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co, 2002. ISBN 0-8225-4174-2
- Forbes, David. "On the Aymara Indians of Bolivia and Peru," The Journal of the Ethnological Society of London. Vol 2 (1870): 193-305.
- Kolata, Alan L. Valley of the Spirits: A Journey into the Lost Realm of the Aymara. New York: Wiley, 1996. ISBN 0-471-57507-0
- Lewellen, Ted C. Peasants in Transition: The Changing Economy of the Peruvian Aymara : a General Systems Approach. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press, 1978. ISBN 0-89158-076-X
- Orta, Andrew. Catechizing Culture: Missionaries, Aymara, and the "New Evangelism". New York: Columbia University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-231-13068-6
- Rivera Cusicanqui, Silvia. Oppressed but Not Defeated: Peasant Struggles Among the Aymara and Qhechwa in Bolivia, 1900-1980. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, 1987.
- Tschopik, Harry. The Aymara of Chucuito, Peru. 1951.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aymara.|
- Aymara site in English
- Society: an essay
- Aymara worldview reflected in concept of time
- NGO Chakana
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Aymara". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Aaron I. Naar, Los Hombres del Lago", a documentary film. It tells about Puñaca Tintamaria, the smallest community of Uru-Muratos. Narrated by the community's ex-leader, Daniel Moricio Choque, the movie recounts the history of the community, customs, and current problems: their poverty, lack of land and representation, the contamination of Lake Poopó, and the impact of global warming. See a 12-minute piece from the film on YouTube.