Ayros-Arbouix is part of the Pyrénées National Park and is located some 10 km south of Lourdes just east of Argelès-Gazost. Access to the commune is by road D821 from Lourdes which changes to the D913 at the commune border and passes down the western side of the commune continuing south to join the D921 near Villelongue. The D13 comes from Boô-Silhen in the north and passes through the centre of the commune before continuing south to Préchac. The D100 links the D821 to the D13 in the commune. Access to the village is by a country road east from the D13. Apart from the village there are the hamlets of Couture Bague south-west of the village and Arbouix in the south of the commune. The commune is mixed forest and farmland.
The Gave de Pau flows along the western border of the commune as it flows north to eventually join the Gave d'Oloron forming the Gaves Réunis at Peyrehorade. The Estau river flows west through the centre of the commune to join the Gave de Pau. The Ruisseau d'Aygueberden flows west though the south of the commune to join the Gave de Pau.
The Gave de Pau with the bridge from Ayros-Arbouix (left) to Argelès-Gazost
In 2010 the commune had 291 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]
^At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by Law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002, the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" allows, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force in 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.