Ayutthaya (full name Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Thai: พระนครศรีอยุธยา, pronounced ( [pʰráʔ na.kʰɔ̄ːn sǐː ʔa.jút.tʰa.jāː] Pronunciation); also spelled "Ayudhya") city is the capital of Ayutthaya province in Thailand. Located in the valley of the Chao Phraya River, the city was founded in 1350 by King U Thong, who went there to escape a smallpox outbreak in Lop Buri and proclaimed it the capital of his kingdom, often referred to as the Ayutthaya kingdom or Siam. Ayutthaya became the second Siamese capital after Sukhothai. It is estimated that Ayutthaya by the year 1600 CE had a population of about 300,000, with the population perhaps reaching 1,000,000 around 1700 CE, making it one of the world's largest cities at that time, [1 ] when it was sometimes known as the " [2 ] Venice of the East". [3 ] [4 ]
In 1767, the city was
destroyed by the Burmese army, resulting in the collapse of the kingdom. The ruins of the old city are preserved in the Ayutthaya historical park, which is recognized internationally as a [5 ] UNESCO World Heritage Site. The ruins, characterized by the prang (reliquary towers) and gigantic monasteries, give an idea of the city's past splendour. Modern Ayutthaya was refounded a few kilometers to the east. [6 ]
Etymology [ edit ]
Ayutthaya is shown in the
Fra Mauro map
of the world (approximately 1450 CE) under the name "Scierno", derived from the Persian "Shahr-I-Naw", meaning "New City"
Ayutthaya is named after the city of Ayodhya in India, the birthplace of Rama in the ( Ramayana Thai, ); Ramakien (from Khmer: ព្រះ Preah) is a Phra Thai royal and noble title; designates an important or capital city (from Sanskrit: Nagar); Nakhon Thai honorific is from the Indian term of veneration Sri or Si Sri.
Geography [ edit ]
The city is about 40 miles (64 km) north of
Bangkok. [8 ]
Ayutthaya Town Center [ edit ]
The city is located at the junction of the
Chao Phraya, Lopburi and Pa Sak rivers, and on the main north-south railway linking Chiang Mai to Bangkok. The old city is on an island formed by a bend of the Chao Phraya on the west and south sides, the Pa Sak on the east side and the Klong Muang canal on the northern side.
The approximate centre of the old city is
. 14°20′N 100°34′E / 14.333°N 100.567°E
In fiction [ edit ]
Gallery [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ "Historic City of Ayutthaya - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". UNESCO World Heritage Centre . Retrieved 24 August 2012.
^ George Modelski, World Cities: –3000 to 2000, Washington DC: FAROS 2000, 2003. ISBN 978-0-9676230-1-6. See also Evolutionary World Politics Homepage.
^ "Ayutthaya, Thailand's historic city". The Times Of India. 2008-07-31.
^ Derick Garnier (2004). Ayutthaya: Venice of the East. River books. ISBN 974-8225-60-7.
^ "Ayutthaya Historical Park". Asia's World Publishing Limited . Retrieved 2011-09-22.
^ "Historic City of Ayutthaya". UNESCO . Retrieved 2011-09-22.
^ Bellamy, Patrick. " The Hunt." Hambali: Mastermind of Terror. Crime Library. Retrieved on March 17, 2014.
^ Mortal Kombat (Laser disc) Audio Commentary, UPC: 014381302165.
^ "The Buddha Statue". Fightingstreet.com . Retrieved 2011-12-18.
Further reading [ edit ]
Stefan Halikowski Smith,
Creolization and Diaspora in the Portuguese Indies: The Social World of Ayutthaya, 1640-1720 (Leiden, Brill, 2011) (European Expansion and Indigenous Response, 8).
External links [ edit ]