|Date of depopulation||June, 1950|
|Cause(s) of depopulation||Expulsion by Yishuv forces|
Az-Zakariyya or Zakaria (Arabic: زكرية) was a Palestinian Arab village 25 km northwest from the city of Hebron (al-Khalil) in the Hebron Subdistrict, which was depopulated in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. The village had a population of 1,180 on 15,320 dunums in 1945. The village was named in honor of the prophet Zachariah.
The village was located on a hill approximately 275 meters above sea level. Situated on the northwest side of Wadi Sûr, Tell Zakariya lies on the other side of the valley. The village lay next to the road between Bayt Jibrin and the Jerusalem-Jaffa highway. The streams of Wadi Ajjur and al-Sarara were located a few kilometers north of the village.
A town called Caper Zacharia existed there in Roman times. According to legend, the body of the prophet Zachariah was found here in 415 C.E. and a church and monastery were established. The village was under the administrative jurisdiction of Bayt Jibrin. During the Mamluk era, the village was a dependency of Hebron, and formed part of the waqf supporting the Ibrahimi Mosque.
In 1517, Az-Zakariyya was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire with the rest of Palestine, and in 1596 the village appeared in the Ottoman tax registers listed as Zakariyya al-Battikh under the administration of the nahiya ("subdistrict") of Quds (Jerusalem), part of the Sanjak of Quds. It had a population of 47 Muslim households and paid taxes on wheat, barley, olives, beehives, and goats.
In 1863 the French explorer Victor Guérin found the place to have five hundred inhabitants, while in 1883, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described Zakariyya as sitting on a slope above a broad valley surrounded by olive groves.
British Mandate era
In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Zakaria had a population of 683, all Muslim, increasing in the 1931 census to 742, still all Muslims, in 189 occupied houses. In 1944/45 a total of 6,523 dunums of village land was allocated to cereals, while 961 dunums were irrigated or used for orchards, of which 440 dunums were planted with olive trees.
1948 and aftermath
In the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Az-Zakariyya was the longest lasting Arab community in the southern Jerusalem Corridor. The village was defended by the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, the Arab Liberation Army and local militiamen, who were defeated by the Israel Defense Forces on October 23, 1948. In the course of Operation Yoav, the 54th Battalion of the Givati Brigade, found the village "almost empty", as most of the residents had fled to the nearby hills. Two residents were executed by Israeli soldiers. In December 1948 the army evicted about 40 "old men and women" to the West Bank. In March 1949 the Interior Ministry requested the eviction of "145 or so" remaining villagers: the official in charge of the Jerusalem District said there were many good houses in the village which could be used to accommodate several hundred new immigrants. In January 1950 David Ben-Gurion, Moshe Sharett and Yosef Weitz decided to evict the villagers, "but without coercion." On March 19, 1950 the transfer of the Arabs of Zakariya was approved and the order was carried out on June 9, 1950.
The manner of expulsion of the villagers is not mentioned. Some of the villagers moved to Ramla and Lod, becoming internally displaced Palestinians, while others ("perhaps the majority") settled in the Dheisheh Refugee Camp in the West Bank.
During the 1960s, most of the buildings in the village were destroyed as part of a national program to "level" depopulated villages.
In 1992, Walid Khalidi described the remaining structures: "The mosque and a number of houses, some occupied by Jewish residents and others deserted, remain on the site. Large sections of the site itself are covered with wild vegetation. The mosque is in a state of neglect and an Israeli flag is planted on top of the minaret. [..] One of the occupied houses is a two-storey stone structure with a flat roof. Its second story windows have round arches and grillwork. Parts of the surrounding lands are cultivated by Israeli farmers."
The village was known for its Palestinian costumes. A wedding dress from Zakariyya (ca. 1930) is part of the collection in Museum of International Folk Art (MOIFA) at Museum of New Mexico at Santa Fe.
- Khalidi, 1992, p. 206
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 50
- Morris, 2004, p. xix, village # 295. Also gives the cause for depopulation
- Palmer, 1881, p. 338
- Khalidi, 1992, pp. 224-225
- van de Velde, 1858, p.115
- Petersen, 2001, p. 320
- al-'Ulaymi, 1876, pp. 230-1. Cited and translated in Petersen, 2001, p. 320
- Fabri, 1893, p.427
- Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 120
- Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol 2, pp. 343, 344
- Guérin, 1869, p. 371
- Conder and Kitchener, 1883, SWP III, p. 27. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, 225
- Barron, 1923, Table V, Sub-district of Hebron, p. 10
- Mills, 1932, p. 34
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 94
- Khalidi, 1992, p. 225
- Morris, 2004, p. 521
- Fourth Brigade \Intelligence, "Daily Summary 18.12.48, 19. Dec. 1948, IDFA 6647\49\\48. Quoted in Morris, 2004, p. 521
- A. Bergman, cited in Morris, 2004, p.521
- Entry for 14 Jan. 1950, Weitz, Diary, IV, p. 69. Cited in Morris, 2004, p. 521
- Mordechai Bar-On, officer in charge of the eviction. Quoted in Morris, 2004, p. 521
- Khalidi, 1992, p. 226
- Arnon Shai (2006). "The Fate of Abandoned Arab Villages in Israel, 1965-1969". History and Memory 18 (2): 86–106.
- Stillman, 1979, p. 60.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Az-Zakariyya.|
- Al Jundi, Sami; Marlowe, Jen (2011). Hour of Sunlight. Nation Books. ISBN 978-1-56858-631-1. Zakariyya: pp.1-17
- Barron, J. B., ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922. Government of Palestine.
- Conder, Claude Reignier; Kitchener, H. H. (1883). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology 3. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Fabri, Felix, Stewart (ed) (1893): The wanderings of Felix Faber Vol. 2
- Guérin, Victor (1869). Description Géographique Historique et Archéologique de la Palestine (in French). 1: Judee, pt. 2. Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale.
- Hadawi, Sami (1970). Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine. Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center.
- Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter; Abdulfattah, Kamal (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. ISBN 3-920405-41-2.
- Khalidi, Walid (1992). All That Remains. Washington D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies. ISBN 0-88728-224-5.
- Morris, Benny (2004). Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-00967-7
- Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas (PDF). Jerusalem: Government of Palestine.
- Palmer, E. H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Robinson, Edward; Smith, Eli (1841). Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea: A Journal of Travels in the year 1838 2. Boston: Crocker & Brewster.
- Stillman, Yedida Kalfol (1979). Palestinian Costume and Jewelry, ISBN 0-8263-0490-7
- Moudjir ed-dyn al-'Ulaymi (1876). Sauvaire, ed. Histoire de Jérusalem et d'Hébron depuis Abraham jusqu'à la fin du XVe siècle de J.-C. : fragments de la Chronique de Moudjir-ed-dyn.
- van de Velde, Carel Willem Meredith (1858). Memoir to Accompany the Map of the Holy Land. Gotha: Justus Perthes.