|Azad Jammu and Kashmir
آزاد جموں و کشمیر
Azad Jammu o Kashmir
|Kotli, Azad Kashmir - Banjosa Lake - Mirpur, Azad Kashmir - Toli Pir - Mirpur City|
|• Type||Self-governing state under Pakistani control|
|• Body||Legislative assembly|
|• President||Sardar Muhammad Yaqoob Khan|
|• Prime Minister||Chaudhry Abdul Majid|
|• Total||13,297 km2 (5,134 sq mi)|
|Population (2008; est.)|
|• Density||340/km2 (890/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PKT (UTC+5)|
|ISO 3166 code||PK-JK|
Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Urdu: آزاد جموں و کشمیر Azad Jammu o Kashmir) abbreviated AJK or, for short, Azad Kashmir (literally "Free Kashmir") is the southernmost and the smaller of two political entities which together constitute the Pakistani-controlled part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, which ceased to exist as a result of the first Kashmir war in 1947. The northernmost and the larger of the two political entities is the Pakistani-controlled territory of Gilgit-Baltistan. Azad Jammu and Kashmir borders the Indian-controlled state of Jammu and Kashmir to the east (separated from it by the Line of Control), Pakistan's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province to the west, the Pakistani-controlled territory of Gilgit-Baltistan to the north, and Pakistan's Punjab Province to the south. With its capital at Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir covers an area of 13,297 square kilometres (5,134 sq mi) and has an estimated population of about four million.
Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan together constitute the region referred to as "Pakistani-controlled Kashmir" by the United Nations and other international organizations and as "Pakistan-occupied Kashmir" in India, in contrast to the names "Indian-administered Kashmir" and "Indian-occupied Kashmir" (in Pakistan), referring to the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. The area which comprises Azad Jammu and Kashmir was captured from the princely state by rebelling militias and the Pakistani army.
- 1 History
- 2 Government
- 3 Administrative divisions
- 4 Geography and climate
- 5 Tourist attractions
- 6 Culture
- 7 Ethnic groups
- 8 Languages
- 9 Economy and resources
- 10 Education
- 11 Prominent Kashmiris
- 12 Gallery
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
At the time of the Partition of India in 1947, the British abandoned their suzerainty over the princely states, which were left with the options of joining India or Pakistan or remaining independent. Hari Singh, the maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, wanted his state to remain independent. In order to buy some time, he signed a stand-still agreement, which sidestepped the encouragement of the princely states to join either India or Pakistan. Later, there was a revolution by Muslims in the western part of the state, as raiders from what was then the North-West Frontier Province and the tribal areas feared that Hari Singh might accede to the Union of India. In October 1947, they attacked Kashmir in an attempt to take control of the princely state. Initially, Hari Singh tried to counter the invasion but failed. He then requested the military assistance of India, which responded that it would not help him unless he acceded to India. On October 26, 1947, Hari Singh signed an Instrument of Accession, and Indian troops were immediately airlifted into Srinagar. Pakistan intervened subsequently. Fighting ensued between the Indian and Pakistani armies, with the two areas of control stabilized, more or less, around what is now known as the "Line of Control".
Later, India approached the United Nations, asking it to solve the dispute, and resolutions were passed in favor of the holding of a plebiscite with regard to Kashmir's future. However, no such plebiscite has ever been held on either side, since there was a precondition which required the withdrawal of the Pakistani Army along with the non-state elements and the subsequent partial withdrawal of the Indian Army. from the parts of Kashmir under their respective control – a withdrawal that never took place. In 1949, a cease-fire line separating the Indian- and Pakistani-controlled parts of Kashmir was formally put into effect.
Following the 1949 cease-fire agreement, the government of Pakistan divided the northern and western parts of Kashmir which it held into the following two separately-controlled political entities:
- Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) – the narrow, southern part, 250 miles (400 km) long, with a width varying from 10 to 40 miles (16 to 64 km).
- Gilgit–Baltistan formerly called the Federally Administered Northern Areas (FANA) – the much larger political entity to the north of AJK with an area of 72,496 square kilometres (27,991 sq mi). It was directly administered by Pakistan as a de facto dependent territory, i.e., a non-self-governing territory. However, it was ostensibly granted "full autonomy" on August 29, 2009.
An area of Kashmir that was once under Pakistani control is the Shaksgam tract, a small region along the northeastern border of Gilgit-Baltistan that was provisionally ceded by Pakistan to the People's Republic of China in 1963 and which now forms part of China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.
In 1972, the then-current border between the Indian- and Pakistani-controlled parts of Kashmir was designated as the "Line of Control". The Line of Control has remained unchanged since the 1972 Simla Agreement, which bound the two countries "to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations". Some political experts claim that, in view of that pact, the only solution to the issue is mutual negotiation between the two countries without involving a third party such as the United Nations.
A devastating earthquake hit Azad Kashmir in 2005.
Azad Kashmir Day is celebrated in Azad Jammu and Kashmir on October 24, which is the day that the Azad Jammu and Kashmir government was created in 1947. Pakistan has celebrated Kashmir Solidarity Day on February 5 of each year since 1990 as a day of protest against India's de facto sovereignty over its State of Jammu and Kashmir. That day is a national holiday in Pakistan.
Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) is a self-governing state under Pakistani control, but under Pakistan's constitution the state is not actually part of Pakistan.[clarification needed]. Azad Kashmir has its own elected President, Prime Minister, Legislative Assembly, High Court, with Khawaja Shahad Ahmad as its present chief justice, and official flag. The government of Pakistan has not yet allowed Azad Kashmir to issue its own postage stamps, meaning that those of Pakistan are used instead. Brad Adams the Asia director at Human Rights Watch has said in 2006
Although ‘azad’ means ‘free,’ the residents of Azad Kashmir are anything but, The Pakistani authorities govern Azad Kashmir with strict controls on basic freedoms.
Azad Kashmir's financial matters, i.e., budget and tax affairs, are dealt with by the Azad Jammu and Kashmir Council rather than by Pakistan's Central Board of Revenue. The Azad Jammu and Kashmir Council is a supreme body consisting of 11 members, six from the government of Azad Jammu and Kashmir and five from the government of Pakistan. Its chairman/chief executive is the president of Pakistan. Other members of the council are the president and the prime minister of Azad Kashmir and a few other AJK ministers.
The state is administratively divided into three divisions which, in turn, are divided into ten districts.
|Division||District||Area (km²)||Population (1998)||Headquarters|
|Haveli||600 (est.)||150,000 (est.)||Forward Kahuta|
|AJK Total||10 districts||13,297||2,972,501||Muzaffarabad|
Geography and climate
|This section requires expansion. (January 2010)|
The northern part of Azad Jammu and Kashmir encompasses the lower part of the Himalayas, including Jamgarh Peak (15,531 feet [4,734 meters]). However, Hari Parbat peak in the Neelum Valley is the highest peak in the state. Fertile, green, mountainous valleys are characteristic of Azad Kashmir's geography, making it one of the most beautiful regions on the subcontinent.
The southern parts of Azad Kashmir including Bhimber, Mirpur and Kotli districts has extremely hot weather in summers and moderate cold weather in winters. It receives rains mostly in monsoon weather.
In the central and northern parts of state weather remains moderate hot in summers and very cold and chilly in winter. Snow fall also occurs there in December and January.
This region receives rainfall in both winters and summers. Muzaffarabad and Pattan are among the wettest areas of the state. Throughout most of the region, the average rainfall exceeds 1400 mm, with the highest average rainfall occurring near Muzaffarabad (around 1800 mm). During the summer season, monsoon floods of the Jhelum and Leepa rivers are common, due to high rainfall and melting snow.
Kashmir as a whole is the one of the most beautiful regions in the world. Pakistani Kashmir has sometimes referred to as "Heaven on Earth" by tourists for its scenic beauty. Some well-known and popular tourist destinations are the following.
- Muzaffarabad, the capital city of Azad Kashmir, is located on the banks of the Jhelum and Neelum rivers. It is 138 kilometres (86 mi) from Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Well-known tourist spots near Muzaffarabad are the Red Fort, Pir Chinassi, Patika, and Subri Lake.
- The Neelam Valley is situated to the north and northeast of Muzaffarabad, The gateway to the valley. The main tourist attractions in the valley are Athmuqam, Kutton, Keran, Kel, Sharda and Taobat.
- Rawalakot city is the headquarters of Poonch District and is located 122 kilometres (76 mi) from Islamabad. Tourist attractions in Poonch District are Banjosa Lake, Devi Gali, Tatta Pani, and Toli Pir.
- Bagh city, the headquarters of Bagh District, is 205 kilometres (127 mi) from Islamabad and 100 kilometres (62 mi) from Muzaffarabad. The principal tourist attractions in Bagh District are Dhirkot, Sudhan Gali, Neela Butt, and Las Danna.
- The Leepa Valley is located 105 kilometres (65 mi) southeast of Muzaffarabad. It is the most charming and scenic place for tourists in Azad Kashmir.
- Mirpur city is the headquarters of Mirpur District. The main tourist attractions near Mirpur city are the Mangla Lake and Ramkot Fort.
The culture of Azad Kashmir has many similarities to that of northern Punjabi (Potohar) culture in Punjab province. The natives of Azad Kashmir speak Urdu, Potwari, and the Pahari languages. The traditional dress of Kashmiri women is the shalwar kameez in Pahari style. The shalwar kameez is commonly worn by both men and women. Women use the shawl or Kashmir shawl to cover their head and upper body.
The popular and traditional cuisines of Azad Kashmir are Kashmiri Raan (Fried leg of lamb in Kashmiri style), Rogan Josh, Balti Gosht, Kashmiri Dal Chawal (A mixture of split peas, split red lentils, and boiled rice), and Dam Aloo (Fried Potatoes in Kashmiri style).
The traditional drink of Kashmir is Kashmiri tea. Kashmiris are very fond of drinking tea.
Azad Jammu and Kashmir is predominantly Muslim. The majority of the population is culturally, linguistically, and ethnically related to the people of northern Punjab. The article, Ethnic groups of Azad Kashmir gives a breakdown of all the major tribes in the state. The principal languages spoken are Pahari, Gojri, Dogri, Potohari, Urdu, Kashmiri, Pashto, and Punjabi.
Economy and resources
|This section requires expansion. (June 2008)|
In the mid-1950s various economic and social development processes were launched in Azad Kashmir. In the 1960s, with the construction of the Mangla Dam in Mirpur District, the Azad Jammu and Kashmir Government began to receive royalties from the Pakistani government for the electricity that the dam provided to Pakistan. During the mid-2000s, a multi-billion dollar reconstruction began in the aftermath of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake.
Agriculture is a major part of Azad Kashmir's economy. Low-lying areas that have high populations grow crops like barley, mangoes, millet, corn (maize), and wheat, and also raise cattle. In the elevated areas that are less populated and more spread-out, forestry, corn, and livestock are the main sources of income.
There are mineral and marble resources in Azad Kashmir close to Mirpur and Muzaffarabad. There are also graphite deposits at Mohriwali. There are also reservoirs of low-grade coal, chalk, bauxite, and zircon. Local household industries produce carved wooden objects, textiles, and dhurrie carpets. There is also an arts and crafts industry that produces such cultural goods as namdas, shawls, pashmina, pherans, Papier-mâché, basketry copper, rugs, wood carving, silk and woolen clothing, patto, carpets, namda gubba, and silverware. Agricultural goods produced in the region include mushrooms, honey, walnuts, apples, cherries, medicinal herbs and plants, resin, deodar, kail, chir, fir, maple, and ash timber.
In addition to agriculture, textiles, and arts and crafts, remittances have played a major role in the economy of Azad Kashmir. One analyst estimated that the figure for Azad Kashmir was 25.1% in 2001. With regard to annual household income, people living in the higher areas are more dependent on remittances than are those living in the lower areas.
In the latter part of 2006, billions of dollars for development were mooted by international aid agencies for the reconstruction and rehabilitation of earthquake-hit zones in Azad Kashmir, though much of that amount was subsequently lost in bureaucratic channels, leading to considerable delays in help getting to the most needy. Hundreds of people continued to live in tents long after the earthquake. A land-use plan for the city of Muzaffarabad was prepared by the Japan International Cooperation Agency.
Remittances by British Pakistanis form an important part of the region's economy.
- Mirpur University of Science and Technology (MUST),Mirpur
- University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Muzaffarabad
- University of Poonch, Rawalakot
- Women University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir Bagh
Public medical colleges
- Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Medical College Mirpur-AJK
- Azad Jammu & Kashmir Medical College, Muzaffarabad-AJK
Private medical colleges
- Mohiuddin Islamic Medical College, Mirpur (Admission Stopped)
- Aziz Khan, former chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, Pakistan
- Baba Shadi Shaheed, Sufi saint
- Barrister Sultan Mahmood, former prime minister of Azad Kashmir
- Baba-e-Poonch Khansahib Col Khan Muhammad Khan, MLA for Bagh and Sudhonoti Tehsil, 1934–1946
- Karam Hussain, mayor of Kirklees, UK
- Khalid Mahmood, member of the UK parliament
- Kabir Ali, British-Kashmiri cricket player
- Mian Muhammad Bakhsh, Sufi saint
- Mohammad Sharif Chattar, educationist, botanist, author, poet
- Lord Nazir Ahmed, member of the UK House of Lords
- Sardar Sikandar Hayat Khan, former prime minister and president of Azad Kashmir
- Sardar Muhammad Anwar Khan, vice-chief of the General Staff
- Saif Ali Janjua, Hilal-e-Kashmir awardee
- "Azad Kashmir" at britannica.com
- Afghans in Pakistan: documenting a population on the move – UNHCR
- Humanitarian Appeal: About the CAP – Copy of CAP Pakistan 2010 – Flash Appeal (PIFERP) Rev2
- China has major presence in Pakistan-occupied Kashmir: Gilgit activist
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- Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. "Kashmir (region, Indian subcontinent) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2010-06-05.
- BBC News Kashmir dispute
- Prem Shankar Jha. "Grasping the Nettle". South Asian Journal.
- "UN resolution 47". Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "UNCIP Resolution of August 13, 1948 (S/1100) – Embassy of India, Washington, D.C.".[dead link]
- Miller, David (August 30, 2009). "Pakistan grants full autonomy to northern areas | Pakistan Daily". Daily.pk. Retrieved 2010-06-05.
- "UNMOGIP: United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan".
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- "Azad Jammu and Kashmir – Introduction". Archived from the original on Sep 27, 2007. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- Adams, Brad. "Pakistan: ‘Free Kashmir’ Far From Free". Human Rights Watch.
- "Administrative Setup.". ajk.gov.pk. Archived from the original on April 09 2010. Retrieved May 17, 2010.
- [dead link]
- Official website, Government of Azad Kashmir. "Facts and Figures". Archived from the original on January 7, 2008. Retrieved 2006-04-19.
- Moss, Paul (November 30, 2006). "South Asia | The limits to integration". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-06-05.
- "Urdu declared official language of Azad Kashmir.". Pakistan Times. August 21, 2005. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- "About Kashmir.". Prime Minister of AJ&K. Archived from the original on February 06 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- Manzoor Ali Shah. "26 languages spoken in NWFP, northern areas: Many face threat of extinction." Daily Times. February 22, 2010.
- "History of Planning & Development Department in AJK".
- Naqash, Tariq (October 1, 2006). "‘Rs1.25 trillion to be spent in Azad Kashmir’: Reconstruction in quake-hit zone". Dawn (Muzaffarabad).
- "Azad Jammu & Kashmir – Tourism". Archived from the original on May 29, 2008. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- Abid Qaiyum Suleri; Kevin Savage. "Remittances in crises: a case study from Pakistan" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-06-05.
- "'Literacy Rate in Azad Kashmir nearly 62 pc'". Pakistan Times (MUZAFFARABAD (Azad Kashmir)). September 27, 2004.
- Hasan, Khalid (April 17, 2005). "Washington conference studies educational crisis in Pakistan". Daily Times (Washington). "Grace Clark told the conference that only 2.9% of Pakistanis had access to higher education."
- "Our Institutions". Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- "Recognized medical colleges in Pakistan". Pakistan Medical and Dental Council. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
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