Foreign relations of Azerbaijan
||It has been suggested that List of people declared personae non gratae in Azerbaijan be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since August 2013.|
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Azerbaijan is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, NATO's Partnership for Peace, Euro-Atlantic Partnership, the World Health Organization, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; the Council of Europe, CFE Treaty, the Community of Democracies; the International Monetary Fund; and the World Bank.
Azerbaijan has formal involvement with senior ex-U.S. government officials including James Baker and Henry Kissinger, as they serve on the Honorary Council of Advisors of the U.S.-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce (USACC). USACC is co-chaired by Tim Cejka, President of Exxon Mobil Corporation and Reza Vaziri, President of R.V. Investment Group and Chairman of the Anglo Asian Mining Plc (LSE Ticker: AAZ).
- 1 International organization participation
- 2 Countries
- 3 Information on some of the countries with which Azerbaijan maintains formal relations
- 4 Disputes
- 5 See also
- 6 Further reading
- 7 References
- 8 External links
International organization participation
AsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, United Nations, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Azerbaijan currently has diplomatic relations with 160 countries: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, the People's Republic of China, Denmark, Egypt, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Republic of Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Kuwait, Libya, Luxembourg, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Netherlands, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Poland, Qatar, Republic of India, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Togo, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uzbekistan and Vietnam.
Azerbaijan is one of the few countries with predominantly Muslim populations that shares a strategic alliance with Israel. Today, Israel is a major arms supplier to the country. (See Azerbaijan–Israel relations).
Information on some of the countries with which Azerbaijan maintains formal relations
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
||See Azerbaijan–Belarus relations
||See Azerbaijan-Denmark relations|
||See Azerbaijan-Estonia relations|
||See Azerbaijan–Greece relations
|Italy||See Azerbaijan–Italy relations
||See Azerbaijan-Poland relations|
||See Azerbaijan–Romania relations|
||See Azerbaijan–Russia relations|
|Serbia||See Azerbaijan–Serbia relations
|Switzerland||See Azerbaijan–Switzerland relations
||See Azerbaijan–Ukraine relations
||See Azerbaijan – United Kingdom relations
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
Armenia and Azerbaijan do not have diplomatic relations today.
|See Armenia–Azerbaijan relations, Nagorno-Karabakh War, Khojaly Massacre, Khachkar destruction in Nakhchivan
The neighboring nations of Armenia and Azerbaijan have had formal governmental relations between 1918–1921, when both countries were briefly independent. The two nations have fought two wars in 1918–20 (Armenian–Azerbaijani War) and in 1988–94 (Nagorno-Karabakh War), in the past century, with last one ended with provisional cease fire agreement signed in Bishkek. There are no formal diplomatic relations between the two countries, because of the ongoing Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and dispute. In 2008, Azerbaijani president Ilham Aliyev declared, "Nagorno Karabakh will never be independent; the position is backed by international mediators as well; Armenia has to accept the reality," and "in 1918, Yerevan was granted to the Armenians. It was a great mistake. The khanate of Iravan was the Azeri territory, the Armenians were guests here."
During the Soviet period, many Armenians and Azeris lived side by side in peace. However, when Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the policies of Glasnost and Perestroika, the majority of Armenians from the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) of the Azerbaijan SSR began a movement to unify with the Armenian SSR. In 1988, the Armenians of Karabakh voted to secede and join Armenia. This, along with mutual massacres in Azerbaijan and Armenia resulted in the conflict that became known as the Nagorno-Karabakh War. The violence resulted in de facto Armenian control of former NKAO and seven surrounding Azerbaijani regions, which was effectively halted when both sides agrees to observe a cease-fire, which has since been in effect since May 1994, and in late 1995 both also agreed to mediation of the OSCE Minsk Group. The Minsk Group is currently co-chaired by the U.S., France, and Russia and comprises Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, and several Western European nations. Despite the cease fire, up to 40 clashes are reported along the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict lines of control each year.
The two countries are still technically at war. Citizens of the Republic of Armenia, as well as citizens of any other country who are of Armenian descent, are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan. If a person's passport shows any evidence of travel to Nagorno-Karabakh, they are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan.
In 2008, in what became known as the 2008 Mardakert Skirmishes, Armenia and Azerbaijan clashed over Nagorno-Karabakh. The fighting between the two sides was brief, with few casualties on either side.
Azerbaijan formally recognizes the government of the Republic of Cyprus, as the sole representative of the island, but has not yet established diplomatic relations with Cyprus.
Azerbaijan, like all other countries except Turkey, formally recognizes the government of the Republic of Cyprus (with whom it has not yet established diplomatic relations), which under UN and EU law represents the entire island, but interestingly enough, the parliament of Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic issued a resolution recognizing the Turkish Cypriot North (The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus) as a sovereign state. While this recognition is not regarded by Azerbaijan and internationally as 'official state-to-state', Azerbaijan itself maintained cordial unofficial relations with the TRNC. In 2004, Azerbaijan threatened to formally recognize the TRNC if the Annan Plan was voted down by the Greek Cypriots (who rejected the plan in one of twin referendums held 24 April 2004 in both the Greek and Turkish zones simultaneously), but Azerbaijan backed off the threat when it was pointed out by Cyprus that doing so would be hypocritical, as a portion of its territory just like that of Cyprus itself is under occupation and would probably result in negative impact on its ongoing dispute with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh. Recently, in July 2005, Azerbaijan announced its intentions to recognize TRNC passports and to commence direct flights from Baku to Ercan Airport in the TRNC (by-passing both Turkey and the Republic of Cyprus); however, aside from a flight handled by the private company Imair in August 2005, none have taken place. Azerbaijan has become very cool towards the Turkish Cypriot North, due to tensions arising from the possible normalization of diplomatic ties between Turkey and Armenia, which Azerbaijan fears will mean the loss of key leverage in the resolution of the Nagorno-Karabakh War.
||See Azerbaijan–Georgia relations
||See Azerbaijan–Iran relations
||See Azerbaijan–Israel relations|
||See Azerbaijan–Kazakhstan relations|
|United Arab Emirates||
||See Azerbaijan–Pakistan relations
|People's Republic of China||
||See Azerbaijan–Turkey relations
Turkey has been a staunch supporter of Azerbaijan in its efforts to consolidate its independence, preserve its territorial integrity and realize its economic potential arising from the rich natural resources of the Caspian Sea. All this however has recently come under threat due to tensions arising from the possible normalization of diplomatic ties between Turkey and Armenia, which Azerbaijan fears will mean the loss of key leverage in the resolution of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
North and South America
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Trinidad and Tobago||
||See Azerbaijan – United States relations|
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
- Bahamas, Barbados
- Cyprus, Armenia
- Nigeria, Central African Republic, Congo, Tanzania, Botswana, Namibia, Lesotho, São Tomé and Príncipe
- Palau, Micronesia, Federated States of, Kiribati, Niue, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Cook Islands, Tonga, Samoa, Papua New Guinea
- Sovereign Military Order of Malta
- the rest of states with limited recognition
The frozen conflict over the largely Armenian autonomous region of Nagorno-Karabakh within the republic of Azerbaijan began when in 1988 the Armenian majority of Nagorno-Karabakh demanded autonomy with demonstrations following in Armenia. This led to anti-Armenian rioting in Azerbaijan, with Azerbaijani militias beginning their effort to expel Armenians from the enclave. In 1992 a war broke out and pogroms of Armenians and Azeris forced both groups to flee their homes. In 1994, a Russian-brokered ceasefire ended the war but more than 1 million ethnic Armenians and Azeris are still not able to return home. The conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh remains unresolved despite negotiations, that are ongoing since 1992 under the aegis of the Minsk Group of the OSCE, to resolve the conflict peacefully.
The European Stability Initiative (ESI) has revealed in a report from 2012 with the title "Caviar Diplomacy: How Azerbaijan silenced the Council of Europe", that since Azerbaijan's entry into the Council of Europe, each year 30 to 40 deputies are invited to Azerbaijan and generously paid with expensive gifts, including caviar (worth up to 1.400 euro), silk carpets, gold, silver and large amounts of money. In return they become lobbyists for Azerbaijan. This practice has been widely referred to as "Caviar diplomacy".
ESI also published a report on 2013 Presidential elections in Azerbaijan titled "Disgraced: Azerbaijan and the end of election monitoring as we know it". The report revealed the ties between Azerbaijani government and the members of certain observation missions who praised the elections. Azerbaijan's "Caviar diplomacy" at 2013 presidential elections sparked a major international scandal, as the reports of two authoritative organizations Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe/European Parliament and OSCE/ODIHR completely contradicted one another in their assessments of elections.
Non-governmental anti-corruption organization Transparency International has regularly judged Azerbaijan to be one of the most corrupt countries in the world and has also criticized Azerbaijan for the "Caviar diplomacy".
- Azerbaijan and the European Union
- List of diplomatic missions in Azerbaijan
- List of diplomatic missions of Azerbaijan
- Visa requirements for Azerbaijani citizens
- Valiyev, Anar: "Azerbaijan and the North Caucasus: A Pragmatic Relationship" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 27
- Hübner, Gerald: "Foreign Direct Investment in Azerbaijan—the Quality of Quantity" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 28
- Abbasov, Shahin: "Azerbaijan's Eurovision Story: Great Chances to Improve, But No Political Will" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 32
- Mazziotti, Marius; Sauerborn, Djan; Scianna, Bastian Matteo: "Multipolarity is key: Assessing Azerbaijan's foreign policy"
- CIA World Factbook 2000 and the 2003 U.S. Department of State website
- USACC. Honorary Council of Advisors
- "Anglo Asian Mining Floats on AIM". RNS. 29 July 2005. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- "Azerbaijan International. Directory. Foreign Embassies in Baku". Retrieved 21 April 2010.[dead link]
- "Azerbaijan International. Directory. Azerbaijan Embassies Abroad". Retrieved 21 April 2010.[dead link]
- National Holiday of Uzbekistan marked in Baku, AzerTAj
- Azerbaijani embassy in Vienna
- Austrian embassy in Baku
- Embassy of Azerbaijan in Belarus
- Embassy of Azerbaijan in Belgium
- Embassy of Azerbaijan in Bulgaria
- Embassy of Bulgaria in Azerbaijan
- Embassy of Azerbaijan in Croatia
- Embassy of Azerbaijan in the Czech Republic
- "Bilateral relations between Azerbaijan and Denmark". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
- Azerbaijani embassy in Paris
- French embassy in Baku
- Azerbaijani embassy in Berlin
- Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Azerbaijan
- Azerbaijan embassy in Athens
- "Missions and representations accredited to Ireland". Department of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- Azerbaijani embassy in Italy
- Italian embassy in Azerbaijan
- Azerbaijani embassy in Riga
- Embassy of the Russian Federation in Baku
- Ministry for Foreign Affairs / Embassies and consulates / Azerbaijan
- Azerbaijani embassy in Bern
- Swiss embassy in Baku
- State Secretariat for Economic Affairs SECO, Economic Cooperation and Development Azerbaijan
- Embassy of Azerbaijan in Ukraine
- Embassy of Ukraine in Azerbaijan
- Azerbaijani embassy in London
- British embassy in Baku
- Azerbaijani president: Armenians are guests in Yerevan, REGNUM News Agency, 17 January 2008
- Azerbaijan Country Page. NCSJ: Advocates on Behalf of Jews in Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States & Eurasia. Accessed 23 May 2010.[dead link]
- "Azerbaijani president: Armenians are guests in Yerevan". REGNUM News Agency. 17 January 2008. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- Turkey and Azerbaijan: The Honeymoon is Over by Fariz Ismailzade. Turkishpolicy.com
- James P. Nichol. Diplomacy in the Former Soviet Republics, Praeger/Greenwood, 1995, ISBN 0-275-95192-8, p. 150
- "Country Studies/Azerbaijan/The Foreign Policy Establishment". http://countrystudies.us. Retrieved 18 January 2008.
- Lili Di Puppo. "Israel interested in strategic cooperation with Azerbaijan", Caucaz Europenews, Online Publication, June 8, 2006
- Embassy of Azerbaijan in Japan
- Embassy of Japan in Azerbaijan
- Культурный обмен "Russian Emirates Advertisement"
- Embassy of Pakistan in Azerbaijan
- Embassy of Azerbaijan in Pakistan
- [dead link]
- Embassy of Azerbaijan in the PRC
- Азербайджан установил дипломатические отношения с Буркина-Фасо, Руандой и Кенией "Рол" 31 мая 2004 г.
- Азербайджан установил дипломатические отношения с Союзом Коморских островов "Region plus" 2 February 2010
- Азербайджан установил дипломатические отношения с Доминиканкой Республикой "1news.az " 13 November 2007
- Азербайджан установил дипотношения с Республикой Малави Day.Az 27 Мая 2004
- Азербайджан и Свазиленд установили дипломатические отношения Day.Az 7 января, 2010
-  "Topix" 29 December 2010
- Между Азербайджаном и Гренадой подписано коммюнике об установлении дипломатических связей "Информационное агентство TREND " 24 September 2010
- Bilateral relations between Azerbaijan and Mexico
- Embassy of Azerbaijan in Mexico City
- Embassy of Mexico in Turkey
- Азербайджан и Сент-Люсия установили дипломатические отношения 1NEWS.az 12.03.2010
- "Azerbaijan, Fiji establish diplomatic relations" news.az 18 March 2010 Link accessed 21 March 2010
- Азербайджан и Маршалловы острова установили дипломатические отношения "1NEWS.az " 12.03.2010
- Между Азербайджаном и Тувалу установились дипломатические отношения "AZE.Az " 16 Сентября 2009
- Azerbaijan MFA – diplomatic relations[dead link]
- "Fighting Intensifies in Armenian-Azerbaijani War". The New York Times. p. 10. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
- Armenia and Azerbaijan still skirting war in Nagorno-Karabakh. thestar.com. 20 February 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013
- Aserbaidschan: Die Kaviar-Diplomatie (German). Der Tagesspiegel. Retrieved August 3, 2013
- ESI Caviar Diplomacy: How Azerbaijan silenced the Council of Europe Part 1
- Europe's caviar diplomacy with Azerbaijan must end. EUobserver. Retrieved April 6, 2014
- "Disgraced. Azerbaijan and the end of election monitoring as we know it." 5 November 2013, Berlin
- Who Are The Shadowy Western Observers Weighing In On Azerbaijan's Election? October 09, 2013
- Europe, Azerbaijan, and caviar
- European MPs' praise for Azerbaijan election sparks row BBC News, 17 October 2013
- Plush hotels and caviar diplomacy: how Azerbaijan's elite wooed MPs The Guardian 24 November 2013
- CORRUPTION BY COUNTRY: Azerbaijan
- How Baku’s ‘caviar diplomacy’ neutered Europe’s rights standards. Democracy Digest. Retrieved August 4, 2013
- U.S. Embassy in Azerbaijan in Baku
- Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan in Washington
- Tajikistan & Kyrgyzstan relations