Azine

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This article is about the hydrazine derivatives. For the use of "azine" in the names of heterocyclic compounds, see Hantzsch–Widman nomenclature.
The generic formula of an azine. For an aldazine, R2 = H.

Azines are a functional class of organic compounds, formed from the condensation reaction of two equivalents of an aldehyde or ketone with one equivalent of hydrazine.[1][2] They may be further classified as aldazines or ketazines, depending on the nature of the carbonyl compound.[3][4]

Preparation[edit]

Azines may be prepared by the direct reaction of a carbonyl compound with hydrazine hydrate:[5] the reaction is exothermic.[6] The usual method of industrial production is the Pechiney-Ugine-Kuhlmann process, starting from the ketone, ammonia and hydrogen peroxide.[7][8]

Reactions and uses[edit]

Azines have been used as precursors to hydrazones[5][9] and diazo compounds.[9][10][11]

Acetone azine chem.png

Azines are also important intermediates in the industrial production of hydrazine hydrate by the Bayer hydrazine process[12][13] or the Pechiney-Ugine-Kuhlmann process.[7][8] They have been also used as sources of hydrazine produced in situ, for example in the production of herbicide precursor 1,2,4-triazole.[14]

The coordination chemistry of azines (as ligands) has also been studied.[15][16][17] Acetone is used to derivatize hydrazine, through formation of acetone azine, for analysis by gas chromatography: the method has been used to determine trace levels of hydrazine in drinking water[18] and pharmaceuticals.[19]

Nomenclature[edit]

Azines may be named by substitutive or functional class nomenclature.[20][21] In functional class nomenclature, the functional modifier "azine" is appended to the name of the carbonyl compound: hence, "acetone azine".[20] In older nomenclature, the functional class name "ketazine" has been used with the names of the hydrocarbyl substituents: e.g., "methyl ethyl ketazine". In substitutive nomenclature, azines are named as derivatives of hydrazine: hence, "diisopropylidenehydrazine".[20] In the presence of groups of higher seniority, the prefixes "hydrazinylidene" and "hydrazinediylidene" are used.[22]

Unsymmetrical azines, that is compounds of the type X=N–N=Y with X ≠ Y, are not named as azines: in the absence of other functional groups having higher seniority, they can be named as substituted hydrazones.[23]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Moss, G. P.; Smith, P. A. S.; Tavernier, D. (1995), "Glossary of class names of organic compounds and reactivity intermediates based on structure (IUPAC Recommendations 1995)", Pure Appl. Chem. 67 (8–9): 1307–75 at 1321, doi:10.1351/pac199567081307 .
  2. ^ IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (2006–) "azines"..
  3. ^ Moss, G. P.; Smith, P. A. S.; Tavernier, D. (1995), "Glossary of class names of organic compounds and reactivity intermediates based on structure (IUPAC Recommendations 1995)", Pure Appl. Chem. 67 (8–9): 1307–75 at 1312, 1348, doi:10.1351/pac199567081307 .
  4. ^ IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (2006–) "aldazines".. IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (2006–) "ketazines"..
  5. ^ a b Day, A. C.; Whiting, M. C. (1970), "Acetone hydrazone", Org. Synth. 50: 3 ; Coll. Vol. 6: 10 .
  6. ^ Gilbert, E. C. (1929), "Studies on Hydrazine. The Hydrolysis of Dimethylketazine and the Equilibrium between Hydrazine and Acetone", J. Am. Chem. Soc. 51 (11): 3394–3409, doi:10.1021/ja01386a032 .
  7. ^ a b US 3972878, Schirmann, Jean-Pierre; Jean Combroux & Serge Yvon Delavarenne, "Method for preparing azines and hydrazones", issued 1976-08-03 . US 3978049, Schirmann, Jean-Pierre; Pierre Tellier & Henri Mathais et al., "Process for the preparation of hydrazine compounds", issued 1976-08-31 . US 4093656, Schirmann, Jean-Pierre; Jean Combroux & Serge Yvon Delavarenne, "Method for making azines", issued 1978-06-06 .
  8. ^ a b US 4724133, Schirmann, Jean-Pierre; Jean Combroux & Serge Y. Delavarenne, "Preparation of a concentrated aqueous solution of hydrazine hydrate", issued 1988-02-09 .
  9. ^ a b Staudinger, H.; Gaule, Alice (1916), "Vergleich der Stickstoff-Abspaltung bei verschiedenen aliphatischen Diazoverbindungen", Ber. Dtsch. Chem. Ges. 49 (2): 1897–1918, doi:10.1002/cber.19160490245 .
  10. ^ Day, A. C.; Raymond, P.; Southam, R. M.; Whiting, M. C. (1966), "The preparation of secondary aliphatic diazo-compounds from hydrazones", J. Chem. Soc. C: 467–69, doi:10.1039/J39660000467 .
  11. ^ Andrews, S. D.; Day, A. C.; Raymond, P.; Whiting, M. C. (1970), "2-Diazopropane", Org. Synth. 50: 27 ; Coll. Vol. 6: 392 .
  12. ^ US 3965097, Eichenhofer, Kurt-Wilhelm & Reinhard Schliebs, "Production of ketazines", issued 1976-06-22 .
  13. ^ Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. (2001), Inorganic Chemistry, San Diego: Academic Press, p. 619, ISBN 0-12-352651-5 .
  14. ^ US 6002015, Nagata, Nobuhiro; Chiharu Nishizawa & Toshikiyo Kurai, "Method of producing 1,2,4-triazole", issued 1999-12-14 .
  15. ^ Gudkova, A. S.; Reutov, O. A.; Aleinikova, M. Ya. (1962), Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Otdel. Khim. Nauk (8): 1382–87 ; Gudkova, A. S.; Reutov, O. A.; Aleinikova, M. Ya. (1962), "Reactions of hydrazones and azines with metal salts 4. Reactions of azines of aldehydes and ketones with cupric salts", Russ. Chem. Bull. (Transl.) 11 (8): 1298–1302, doi:10.1007/BF00907973 .
  16. ^ Gudkova, A. S.; Aleinikova, M. Ya.; Reutov, O. A. (1966), Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Khim. (5): 844–48 ; Gudkova, A. S.; Aleinikova, M. Ya.; Reutov, O. A. (1966), "Reactions of hydrazones and azines with metal salts 5. Reactions of hydrazones and azines with mercuric halides", Russ. Chem. Bull. (Transl.) 15 (5): 807–11, doi:10.1007/BF00849376 .
  17. ^ King, Fiona; Nicholls, David (1978), "Complex of titanium halides with acetone azine and its isomer 3,5,5-trimethyl-pyrazoline", Inorg. Chim. Acta 28: 55–58, doi:10.1016/S0020-1693(00)87413-7 .
  18. ^ Davis, William E., II; Li, Yongtao (2008), "Analysis of hydrazine in drinking water by isotope dilution gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with derivatization and liquid-liquid extraction", Anal. Chem. 80 (14): 5449–53, doi:10.1021/ac702536d, PMID 18564853 .
  19. ^ Sun, Mingjiang; Bai, Lin; Liu, David Q. (2009), "A generic approach for the determination of trace hydrazine in drug substances using in situ derivatization-headspace GC–MS", J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 49 (2): 529–33, doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2008.11.009, PMID 19097722 .
  20. ^ a b c Panico, R.; Powell, W. H.; Richer, J. C., eds. (1993). A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds. IUPAC/Blackwell Science. p. 105. ISBN 0-632-03488-2. .
  21. ^ IUPAC, Chemical Nomenclature and Structure Representation Division (27 October 2004). Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry (Provisional Recommendations). IUPAC. .
  22. ^ IUPAC, Chemical Nomenclature and Structure Representation Division (27 October 2004). Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry (Provisional Recommendations). IUPAC. .
  23. ^ Rigaudy, J.; Klesney, S. P., eds. (1979). Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry. IUPAC/Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08022-3699. .