Botzinger complex

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In mammals, the Bötzinger complex (BötC) is a group of neurons located in the rostral ventrolateral medulla, and ventral respiratory column. In the medulla, this group is located caudally to the facial nucleus and ventral to nucleus ambiguous.[1][2]

The Bötzinger complex plays an important role in controlling breathing[3][4] and responding to hypoxia. [5][6] The BötC consists primarily of glycinergic neurons[7] which inhibit respiratory activity. Of the respiratory cycle phases BötC generates post-inspiratory (Post-I) activity and augments expiratory (aug-e) activity. [8][9] [10]

The Bötzinger Complex was named by UCLA Professor Jack Feldman in 1978. Feldman named this area after a bottle of white wine named Botzinger present at his table during a scientific meeting in Hirschhorn, Germany, that year. [11]

The Bötzinger Complex has projections to

Only augmenting expiratory neurons of BötC, which are exclusively glycinergic, project to the phrenic nucleus.[21][14]

Projections to the Bötzinger complex include the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS)[22][23] the DRG and the VRG.[24]

These neurons are intrinsic pacemakers.[25] Post-I neurons display an initial burst of activity followed by decrease in activity at the end of inspiration. Aug-E neurons begin firing during the E2 phase and end before the phrenic nerve burst. [26][19]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b Otake K, Sasaki H, Mannen H, Ezure K (1987). "Morphology of expiratory neurons of the Bötzinger complex: an HRP study in the cat.". J Comp Neurol 258 (4): 565–79. doi:10.1002/cne.902580407. PMID 3034989. 
  3. ^ Bongianni F, Corda M, Fontana GA, Pantaleo T (1991). "Reciprocal connections between rostral ventrolateral medulla and inspiration-related medullary areas in the cat.". Brain Res 565 (1): 171–4. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(91)91751-l. PMID 1773353. 
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  6. ^ Nitsos I, Walker DW (1999). "The distribution of FOS-immunoreactive neurons in the brainstem, midbrain and diencephalon of fetal sheep in response to acute hypoxia in mid and late gestation.". Brain Res Dev Brain Res 114 (1): 9–26. doi:10.1016/s0165-3806(99)00010-3. PMID 10209238. 
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  8. ^ Richter A, Heyne K, Sagebiel J, Weber M (1986). "[Respiratory emergency in the newborn infant: extreme laryngotracheo-esophageal cleft (esophagotrachea)].". Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 134 (12): 874–7. PMID 3821744. 
  9. ^ Richter DW (1982). "Generation and maintenance of the respiratory rhythm.". J Exp Biol 100: 93–107. PMID 6757372. 
  10. ^ Merrill EG (1981). "Where are the real respiratory neurons?". Fed Proc 40 (9): 2389–94. PMID 7250385. 
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  12. ^ a b Jiang C, Lipski J (1990). "Extensive monosynaptic inhibition of ventral respiratory group neurons by augmenting neurons in the Bötzinger complex in the cat.". Exp Brain Res 81 (3): 639–48. doi:10.1007/bf02423514. PMID 2226695. 
  13. ^ a b c d Otake K, Sasaki H, Ezure K, Manabe M (1988). "Axonal projections from Bötzinger expiratory neurons to contralateral ventral and dorsal respiratory groups in the cat.". Exp Brain Res 72 (1): 167–77. doi:10.1007/bf00248512. PMID 3169184. 
  14. ^ a b Tian GF, Peever JH, Duffin J (1998). "Bötzinger-complex expiratory neurons monosynaptically inhibit phrenic motoneurons in the decerebrate rat.". Exp Brain Res 122 (2): 149–56. doi:10.1007/s002210050502. PMID 9776513. 
  15. ^ Lipski J, Merrill EG (1980). "Electrophysiological demonstration of the projection from expiratory neurones in rostral medulla to contralateral dorsal respiratory group.". Brain Res 197 (2): 521–4. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(80)91140-3. PMID 7407571. 
  16. ^ Bryant TH, Yoshida S, de Castro D, Lipski J (1993). "Expiratory neurons of the Bötzinger Complex in the rat: a morphological study following intracellular labeling with biocytin.". J Comp Neurol 335 (2): 267–82. doi:10.1002/cne.903350210. PMID 8227518. 
  17. ^ Richter DW, Smith JC (2014). "Respiratory rhythm generation in vivo.". Physiology (Bethesda) 29 (1): 58–71. doi:10.1152/physiol.00035.2013. PMID 24382872. 
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  21. ^ Schreihofer AM, Stornetta RL, Guyenet PG (1999). "Evidence for glycinergic respiratory neurons: Bötzinger neurons express mRNA for glycinergic transporter 2.". J Comp Neurol 407 (4): 583–97. doi:10.1002/(sici)1096-9861(19990517)407:4<583::aid-cne8>3.0.co;2-e. PMID 10235646. 
  22. ^ Accorsi-Mendonça D, Bonagamba LG, Leão RM, Machado BH (2009). "Are L-glutamate and ATP cotransmitters of the peripheral chemoreflex in the rat nucleus tractus solitarius?". Exp Physiol 94 (1): 38–45. doi:10.1113/expphysiol.2008.043653. PMID 18931046. 
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