BAE Systems Taranis
|Manufacturer||BAE Systems Military Air & Information|
|First flight||10 August 2013|
|Primary user||United Kingdom|
|Program cost||£185 million (first prototype)|
The BAE Systems Taranis (also nicknamed Raptor) is a British demonstrator programme for Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) technology, under development primarily by the defence contractor BAE Systems Military Air & Information. The aircraft, which is named after the Celtic god of thunder Taranis, first flew in 2013. A semi-autonomous unmanned warplane, the Taranis is designed to fly intercontinental missions, and will carry a variety of weapons, enabling it to attack both aerial and ground targets. It will utilise stealth technology, giving it a low radar profile, and it will be controllable via satellite link from anywhere on Earth. An operational derivative of the Taranis is expected to enter military service some time after 2030.
The development of UAVs was a key part of the UK's Defence Industrial Strategy, which was announced in December 2005, and specified the need for the UK to maintain its "sovereign" aircraft and UAV/UCAV construction skills. The Strategic Unmanned Air Vehicles (Experiment) Integrated Project Team, or SUAV(E) IPT, was given responsibility for auditing and overseeing the Taranis project.
Design and development
The Taranis project is led by BAE Systems, and also involves Rolls-Royce, GE Aviation Systems, QinetiQ and the Ministry of Defence (MoD). As the prime contractor, BAE Systems is responsible for the overall programme, and also for many of the component technologies, including stealth technology, systems integration and system control infrastructure. BAE Systems and QinetiQ collaborated on all aspects relating to the autonomy of the system.
GE Aviation Systems (formerly Smiths Aerospace) is responsible for providing Taranis' fuel-gauging and electrical power systems. Rolls-Royce is responsible for the UCAV's propulsion system, having a 5% workshare in the project, while the Integrated Systems Technologies (Insyte) subsidiary of BAE Systems is providing C4ISTAR support.
At the project's inception, BAE Systems stated that "Taranis will make use of at least 10 years of research and development into low observables, systems integration, control infrastructure and full autonomy. It follows the completion of risk-reduction activities to ensure the mix of technologies, materials and systems used are robust enough for the 'next logical step'." These "risk-reduction activities" included several earlier BAE stealth aircraft and UAV programmes, such as Replica, Nightjar I, Nightjar II, Kestrel, Corax, Raven and HERTI.
The first steel for the Taranis prototype was cut in September 2007, and assembly began in February 2008. On 9 January 2009, the Ministry of Defence denied that the Taranis had been flying near the site of a damaged wind turbine, after local people claimed to have seen an UFO.
The prototype, which had an initial development cost of £143 million, was unveiled by BAE Systems at Warton Aerodrome, Lancashire, on 12 July 2010. Ground tests of the prototype began in 2010, and flight trials were initially expected to begin in 2011. However, the aircraft's first flight was later delayed to 2012, then delayed further and finally took place on 10 August 2013.
The prototype has a maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of about 8,000 kg (18,000 lb), and is of a similar size to the BAE Hawk training jet. It has two internal weapons bays, and is intended to incorporate "full autonomy", allowing it to operate without human control for a large part of its mission.
On 25 October 2013, the UK Ministry of Defence revealed that initial flight tests had already taken place. Ground tests were conducted in 2010 and flight trials occurred in 2013. The MoD did not officially comment on the Taranis until the initial trials programme had been completed.
On 5 February 2014, BAE revealed information on the Taranis' flight tests. The UCAV's first flight occurred on 10 August 2013 at Woomera Test Range in South Australia. This flight lasted for approximately 15 minutes. A second sortie was launched on 17 August, and subsequent flights surpassed expectations for the airframe, flying at various speeds and heights for as long as one hour. By 2014, the Taranis' development costs had reached £185 million, compared to £140 million as originally projected. The Taranis is planned to be operational "post 2030" and used in concert with manned aircraft.
Data from Airforce-Technology.com
- Length: 12.43 m (40 ft 9 in)
- Wingspan: 10 m (32 ft 10 in) (approximate)
- Height: 4 m (13 ft 1 in)
- Powerplant: 1 × Rolls-Royce Adour Moderate by-pass ratio turbofan engine, 44 kN (10,000 lbf) thrust (approximate)
- Maximum speed: Mach < 1 
- 2 x internal missile bay provision
- Similar aircraft
- AVIC Sharp Sword
- Boeing Phantom Ray
- Dassault nEUROn
- DRDO AURA
- Lockheed Martin RQ-170 Sentinel
- Northrop Grumman X-47B
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to BAE Taranis.|
- "VIDEO: UK ends silence on Taranis testing". Flightglobal.com. 5 February 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- Allison, George (5 February 2014). "Taranis stealth drone test flights successful". UK Defence Journal. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- "Unmanned Taranis has flown, MoD reveals". Flightglobal.com. 25 October 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
- Emery, Daniel (12 July 2010). "MoD lifts lid on unmanned combat plane prototype". BBC News. Archived from the original on 12 July 2010. Retrieved 12 July 2010.
- "Taranis: The £143million unmanned stealth jet that will hit targets in another continent". Daily Mail. 12 July 2010. Archived from the original on 14 July 2010. Retrieved 12 July 2010.
- "BAE Systems to lead £124 million UAV technology demonstrator programme" (Press release). BAE Systems plc. 7 December 2006. Retrieved 9 December 2006.
- "MoD To Invest in UAV Technology". MoD Oracle (NSI (Holdings) Ltd). 7 December 2006. Retrieved 9 December 2006.
- "Strategic Unmanned Air Vehicles (Experiment) Integrated Project Team". Ministry of Defence. 2009. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
- "Taranis Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) Demonstrator, United Kingdom". Airforce Technology.com. 13 July 2010. Archived from the original on 20 June 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
- "Assembly Starts of Taranis Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle". BAE. 2008. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
- "Telegraph: UFO turbine mystery theories in full". The Daily Telegraph (London). 9 January 2009. Archived from the original on 17 January 2009. Retrieved 9 January 2009.
- "Taranis unmanned stealth aircraft unveiled in Warton". BBC. 12 July 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- "Taranis: The £143m Fighter Jet Of The Future". Ministry of Defence. 2010. Archived from the original on 15 July 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
- "Taranis". BAE Systems. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
- "Europe's industry cuts jobs". Defense News. 2 October 2011. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- "Taranis test flights to inform design of future combat aircraft". The Engineer. 5 February 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- "BAE Systems Taranis". UAVGlobal.
- Marks, Paul (12 July 2010). "Warning sounded over British dogfighting drone". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 14 July 2010. Retrieved 12 July 2010.
- "Award of £120M Anglo-French Defence Co-Operation Contract". Defense-Aerospace.com. 5 November 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- "Taranis – looking to the future". DefenceIndustryDaily.com. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
- "Image of Taranis in flight". BBC. 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2014.