BBCH-scale (canola)

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In biology, the BBCH-scale for canola describes the phenological development of canola plants using the BBCH-scale.

The phenological growth stages and BBCH-identification keys of canola are:

Growth stage Code Description
0: Germination 00 Dry seed
01 Beginning of seed imbibition
03 Seed imbibition complete
05 Radicle emerged from seed
07 Hypocotyl with cotyledons emerged from seed
08 Hypocotyl with cotyledons growing towards soil surface
09 Emergence: cotyledons emerge through soil surface
1: Leaf development1
10 Cotyledons completely unfolded
11 First leaf unfolded
12 2 leaves unfolded
13 3 leaves unfolded
1 . Stages continuous till . . .
19 9 or more leaves unfolded
2: Formation of side shoots 20 No side shoots
21 Beginning of side shoot development: first side shoot detectable
22 2 side shoots detectable
23 3 side shoots detectable
2 . Stages continuous till . . .
29 End of side shoot development: 9 or more side shoots detectable
3: Stem elongation2 30 Beginning of stem elongation: no internodes (“rosette”)
31 1 visibly extended internode
32 2 visibly extended internodes
33 3 visibly extended internodes
3 . Stages continuous till . . .
39 9 or more visibly extended internodes
5: Inflorescence emergence 50 Flower buds present, still enclosed by leaves
51 Flower buds visible from above (“green bud”)
52 Flower buds free, level with the youngest leaves
53 Flower buds raised above the youngest leaves
55 Individual flower buds (main inflorescence) visible but still closed
57 Individual flower buds (secondary inflorescences) visible but still closed
59 First petals visible, flower buds still closed (“yellow bud”)
6: Flowering 60 First flowers open
61 10% of flowers on main raceme open, main raceme elongating
62 20% of flowers on main raceme open
63 30% of flowers on main raceme open
64 40% of flowers on main raceme open
65 Full flowering: 50% flowers on main raceme open, older petals falling
67 Flowering declining: majority of petals fallen
69 End of flowering
7: Development of fruit 71 10% of pods have reached final size
72 20% of pods have reached final size
73 30% of pods have reached final size
74 40% of pods have reached final size
75 50% of pods have reached final size
76 60% of pods have reached final size
77 70% of pods have reached final size
78 80% of pods have reached final size
79 Nearly all pods have reached final size
8: Ripening 80 Beginning of ripening: seed green, filling pod cavity
81 10% of pods ripe, seeds dark and hard
82 20% of pods ripe, seeds dark and hard
83 30% of pods ripe, seeds dark and hard
84 40% of pods ripe, seeds dark and hard
85 50% of pods ripe, seeds dark and hard
86 60% of pods ripe, seeds dark and hard
87 70% of pods ripe, seeds dark and hard
88 80% of pods ripe, seeds dark and hard
89 Fully ripe: nearly all pods ripe, seeds dark and hard
9: Senescence 97 Plant dead and dry
99 Harvested product

1 Stem elongation may occur earlier than stage stage 19; in this case continue with stage 20
2 Visibly extended internode n develops between leaf n and leaf n+1

References[edit]

Weber, E.; H. Bleiholder (1990). "Erläuterungen zu den BBCH-Dezimal-Codes für die Entwicklungsstadien von Mais, Raps, Faba-Bohne, Sonnenblume und Erbse - mit Abbildungen.". Gesunde Pflanzen 42: 308–321. 

Lancashire, P.D.; H. Bleiholder; P. Langeluddecke; R. Stauss; T. van den Boom; E. Weber; A. Witzen-Berger (1991). "An uniform decimal code for growth stages of crops and weeds.". Ann. Appl. Biol. 119 (3): 561–601. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.1991.tb04895.x.