BBCH-scale (cereals)

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In biology, the BBCH-scale for cereals describes the phenological development of cereals using the BBCH-scale.

The phenological growth stages and BBCH-identification keys of cereals are:

Growth stage Code Description
0: Germination 00 Dry seed (caryopsis)
01 Beginning of seed imbibition
03 Seed imbibition complete
05 Radicle emerged from caryopsis
06 Radicle elongated, root hairs and/or side roots visible
07 Coleoptile emerged from caryopsis
09 Emergence: coleoptile penetrates soil surface (cracking stage)
1: Leaf development1, 2 10 First leaf through coleoptile
11 First leaf unfolded
12 2 leaves unfolded
13 3 leaves unfolded
1 . Stages continuous till . . .
19 9 or more leaves unfolded
2: Tillering3 20 No tillers
21 Beginning of tillering: first tiller detectable
22 2 tillers detectable
23 3 tillers detectable
2 . Stages continuous till . . .
29 End of tillering. Maximum no. of tillers detectable
3: Stem elongation 30 Beginning of stem elongation: pseudostem and tillers erect, first internode begins to elongate, top of inflorescence at least 1 cm above tillering node
31 First node at least 1 cm above tillering node
32 Node 2 at least 2 cm above node 1
33 Node 3 at least 2 cm above node 2
3 . Stages continuous till . . .
37 Flag leaf just visible, still rolled
39 Flag leaf stage: flag leaf fully unrolled, ligule just visible
4: Booting 41 Early boot stage: flag leaf sheath extending
43 Mid boot stage: flag leaf sheath just visibly swollen
45 Late boot stage: flag leaf sheath swollen
47 Flag leaf sheath opening
49 First awns visible (in awned forms only)
5: Inflorescence emergence, heading 51 Beginning of heading: tip of inflorescence emerged from sheath, first spikelet just visible
52 20% of inflorescence emerged
53 30% of inflorescence emerged
54 40% of inflorescence emerged
55 Middle of heading: half of inflorescence emerged
56 60% of inflorescence emerged
57 70% of inflorescence emerged
58 80% of inflorescence emerged
59 End of heading: inflorescence fully emerged
6: Flowering, anthesis 61 Beginning of flowering: first anthers visible
65 Full flowering: 50% of anthers mature
69 End of flowering: all spikelets have completed flowering but some dehydrated anthers may remain
7: Development of fruit 71 Watery ripe: first grains have reached half their final size
73 Early milk
75 Medium milk: grain content milky, grains reached final size,

still green

77 Late milk
8: Ripening 83 Early dough
85 Soft dough: grain content soft but dry. Fingernail impression not held
87 Hard dough: grain content solid. Fingernail impression held
89 Fully ripe: grain hard, difficult to divide with thumbnail
9: Senescence 92 Over-ripe: grain very hard, cannot be dented by thumbnail
93 Grains loosening in day-time
97 Plant dead and collapsing
99 Harvested product

1 A leaf is unfolded when its ligule is visible or the tip of the next leaf is visible
2 Tillering or stem elongation may occur earlier than stage 13; in this case continue
with stages 21 3 If stem elongation begins before the end of tillering continue with stage 30

References[edit]

Lancashire, P.D.; H. Bleiholder; P. Langeluddecke; R. Stauss; T. van den Boom; E. Weber; A. Witzen-Berger (1991). "An uniform decimal code for growth stages of crops and weeds". Ann. Appl. Biol. 119 (3): 561–601. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.1991.tb04895.x. 

Witzenberger, A.; H. Hack; T. van den Boom (1989). "Erläuterungen zum BBCH-Dezimal-Code für die Entwicklungsstadien des Getreides - mit Abbildungen". Gesunde Pflanzen 41: 384–388.