BBCH-scale (maize)

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In biology, the BBCH-scale for maize describes the phenological development of maize using the BBCH-scale.

The phenological growth stages and BBCH-identification keys of maize are:

Growth stage Code Description
0: Germination 00 Dry seed (caryopsis)
01 Beginning of seed imbibition
03 Seed imbibition complete
05 Radicle emerged from caryopsis
06 Radicle elongated, root hairs and/or side roots visible
07 Coleptile emerged from caryopsis
09 Emergence: coleoptile penetrates soil surface (cracking stage)
1: Leaf development1, 2 10 First leaf through coleoptile
11 First leaf unfolded
12 2 leaves unfolded
13 3 leaves unfolded
1 . Stages continuous till . . .
19 9 or more leaves unfolded
3: Stem elongation 30 Beginning of stem elongation
31 First node detectable
32 2 nodes detectable
33 3 nodes detectable
3 . Stages continuous till . . .
39 9 or more nodes detectable3
5: Inflorescence emergence, heading 51 Beginning of tassel emergence: tassel detectable at top of stem
53 Tip of tassel visible
55 Middle of tassel emergence: middle of tassel begins to separate
59 End of tassel emergence: tassel fully emerged and separated
6: Flowering, anthesis 61 Male: stamens in middle of tassel visible

Female: tip of ear emerging from leaf sheath

63 Male: beginning of pollen shedding

Female: tips of stigmata visible

65 Male: upper and lower parts of tassel in flower

Female: stigmata fully emerged

67 Male: flowering completed

Female: stigmata drying

69 End of flowering: stigmata completely dry
7: Development of fruit 71 Beginning of grain development: kernels at blister stage, about 16% dry matter
73 Early milk
75 Kernels in middle of cob yellowish-white (variety-dependent), content milky, about 40% dry matter
79 Nearly all kernels have reached final size
8: Ripening 83 Early dough: kernel content soft, about 45% dry matter
85 Dough stage: kernels yellowish to yellow (variety dependent), about 55% dry matter
87 Physiological maturity: black dot/layer visible at base of kernels, about 60% dry matter
89 Fully ripe: kernels hard and shiny, about 65% dry matter
9: Senescence 97 Plant dead and collapsing
99 Harvested product

1 A leaf may be described as unfolded when its ligule is visible or the tip of next leaf is visible
2 Tillering or stem elongation may occur earlier than stage 19; in this case continue with principal growth stage 3
3 In maize, tassel emergence may occur earlier, in this case continue with principal growth stage 5

References[edit]

Lancashire, P.D.; H. Bleiholder, P. Langeluddecke, R. Stauss, T. van den Boom, E. Weber, A. Witzen-Berger (1991). "An uniform decimal code for growth stages of crops and weeds". Ann. Appl. Biol. 119 (3): 561–601. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.1991.tb04895.x. 

Weber, E.; H. Bleiholder (1990). "Erläuterungen zu den BBCH-Dezimal-Codes für die Entwicklungsstadien von Mais, Raps, Faba-Bohne, Sonnenblume und Erbse - mit Abbildungen". Gesunde Pflanzen 42: 308–321.