Blanchard's transsexualism typology
Blanchard's transsexualism typology (also Blanchard autogynephilia theory (BAT) and Blanchard's taxonomy) is a psychological typology of male-to-female (MtF) transsexualism created by Ray Blanchard through the 1980s and 1990s, building on the work of his colleague, Kurt Freund. Blanchard divided trans women into two different groups: so-called "homosexual transsexuals," whom Blanchard says seek sex reassignment surgery to romantically and sexually attract (ideally heterosexual) men, and "autogynephilic transsexuals" who purportedly are sexually aroused at the idea of having a normative female body. The typology suggests distinctions between MtF transsexuals, but does not speculate on the causes of transsexualism. The distinction is a recurring theme in scholarly literature on transsexualism.
Supporters of the theory include J. Michael Bailey, Anne Lawrence, James Cantor, and others who say that there are significant differences between the two proposed groups, including sexuality, age of transition, ethnicity, IQ, fetishism, and quality of adjustment. Criticism of the research and theory has come from John Bancroft, Jaimie Veale, Larry Nuttbrock, Charles Allen Moser, Julia Serano, and others who say that the theory is poorly representative of trans women, reduces gender identity to a matter of attraction, is non-instructive, that the research cited in support of the theory has inadequate control groups or is contradicted by other data, and that its proponents routinely make statements that call into question the theory's falsifiability.
The theory has been the subject of protests in the transgender and larger LGBT community, which peaked among both trans women and clinicians with the publication of Bailey's The Man Who Would Be Queen in 2003. Following the publication of Bailey's book, Blanchard distinguished between the value of the theory as a behavioral description, versus as an explanation of transsexualism and that only further scientific research could resolve latter question. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) currently opposes the theory due to a lack of empirical evidence for it.
The early history of the study of transsexualism is sparse; however, the concept of a categorization of transsexual people can be seen as early as 1923 with the work of Magnus Hirschfeld. In 1966, Harry Benjamin wrote that researchers of his day thought that attraction to men, while feeling that oneself is a woman, was the factor that distinguished a transvestite from a transsexual. In 1980 in the DSM-III, a new diagnosis was introduced, that of "302.5 Transsexualism" under "Other Psychosexual Disorders". This was an attempt to provide a diagnostic category for gender identity disorders. The diagnostic category, transsexualism, was for gender dysphoric individuals who demonstrated at least two years of continuous interest in transforming their physical and social gender status. The subtypes were asexual, homosexual (same "biological sex"), heterosexual (other "biological sex") and unspecified. This was removed in the DSM-IV, in which gender identity disorder replaced transsexualism. Previous taxonomies, or systems of categorization, used the terms classic transsexual or true transsexual, terms once used in differential diagnoses.
Sexologist Ray Blanchard coined the term autogynephilia in 1989 to describe MtF transsexuals who were sexually aroused by the idea of being women. He stated that while they lacked a specific term to describe the concept, there was evidence for the concept among clinicians of the early 20th century. Havelock Ellis used the terms eonism and sexo-aesthetic inversion to describe similar cross-gender feelings and behaviors.
The clinical literature of Freund, Blanchard, and others has consistently divided male-to-female transsexuals into two distinct groups - "homosexual transsexuals," people who are sexually attracted to (ideally heterosexual) men and supposedly desire a normative female body to attract them, and "heterosexual fetishistic transvestites" in which the transsexual purportedly finds the idea of having a normative female body sexually arousing but desires a heterosexual female partner. Kurt Freund first distinguished between these two proposed types in a 1982 research article, theorizing that the "homosexual" transsexuals were qualitatively different from the so-called "heterosexual males" with gender dysphoria. Sexologist Ray Blanchard coined the term "autogynephilia" to describe this latter category of people. In a 2005 article on the concept of Ray Blanchard noted that Freund was probably the first author to distinguish between the erotic arousal due to dressing as a woman (transvestism) versus erotic arousal due to physically transforming into a more typically female form (autogynephilia).
Blanchard's observations at the Clarke Institute began by categorizing male-to-female transsexuals into four groups based off their supposed sexual orientations: "homosexual," "heterosexual," bisexual, and asexual (i.e. trans women attracted to men, women, both, or neither, respectively.) Blanchard then conducted a series of studies on people assigned male at birth with gender dysphoria, including male-to-female transsexual people, and concluded that there existed only two distinct types. Blanchard said that one type of gender dysphoria/transsexualism manifests itself in individuals who are exclusively attracted to men, whom he referred to as homosexual transsexuals, adopting Freund's terminology The other type he defined as including those who are attracted to females (gynephilic), attracted to both males and females (bisexual), and attracted to neither males nor females (analloerotic or asexual); Blanchard referred to this latter set collectively as the non-homosexual transsexuals. Blanchard says that the "non-homosexual" transsexuals (but not the "homosexual" transsexuals) exhibit autogynephilia, which he defined as a paraphilic interest in having female anatomy.
Criticism of the theory of "homosexual transsexuals" is generally focused in two categories: the use of the terms "homosexual" and "non-homosexual" to refer to MtF transsexuals by their assigned sex and the data underlying the theory itself. Harry Benjamin, in his seminal work The Transsexual Phenomenon, opined that the question "is a transsexual homosexual?" had both "yes" and "no" answers depending on whether sexual anatomy or gender identity was prioritised, and in cases of post-operative male-to-female transsexuals, describing them as "homosexual men" was against "common sense and reason". The terminology has also been described as confusing and controversial among transsexuals seeking sexual reassignment, archaic, and demeaning. In 2008 sexologist John Bancroft expressed regret for having used this terminology, which was standard when he used it, to refer to transsexual women, and that he now tries to use words more sensitively.
Autogynephilia and autoandrophilia
Autogynephilia (//; from Greek “αὐτό-” (self), “γυνή” (woman) and “φιλία” (love) — "love of oneself as a woman") is a term coined in 1989 by Ray Blanchard, to refer to "a man's paraphilic tendency to be sexually aroused by the thought or image of himself as a woman." Alternative terms proposed for this notion include automonosexuality, eonism, and sexo-aesthetic inversion. The DSM-IV-TR includes an essentially equivalent definition, and recognizes autogynephilia as a common occurrence in the transvestic fetishism disorder, but does not classify autogynephilia as a disorder by itself. The paraphilias working group on DSM 5 included autogynephilia and autoandrophilia as subtypes of transvestic disorder, a proposal that was opposed by the World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) due to lack of empirical evidence for the theory.
Autogynephilia is most notable for its use in Blanchard's taxonomy to explain the presence of gender dysphoria in "non-homosexual" (gynephilic) male-to-female transsexuals, in contrast to the gender dysphoria observed in "homosexual" (androphilic) transsexuals. Autogynephilia has also been suggested to pertain to romantic love as well as to sexual arousal patterns.
Blanchard provides case examples to illustrate the autogynephilic sexual fantasies that people reported:
Philip was a 38-year-old professional man referred to the author's clinic for assessment....Philip began masturbating at puberty, which occurred at age 12 or 13. The earliest sexual fantasy he could recall was that of having a woman's body. When he masturbated, he would imagine that he was a nude woman lying alone in her bed. His mental imagery would focus on his breasts, his vagina, the softness of his skin, and so on—all the characteristic features of the female physique. This remained his favorite sexual fantasy throughout his life.
According to Blanchard, "An autogynephile does not necessarily become sexually aroused every time he pictures himself as female or engages in feminine behavior, any more than a heterosexual man automatically gets an erection whenever he sees an attractive woman. Thus, the concept of autogynephilia—like that of heterosexuality, homosexuality, or pedophilia—refers to a potential for sexual excitation" [emphasis in original].
- Transvestic autogynephilia: arousal to the act or fantasy of wearing typically feminine clothing
- Behavioral autogynephilia: arousal to the act or fantasy of doing something regarded as feminine
- Physiologic autogynephilia: arousal to fantasies of body functions specific to people regarded as female
- Anatomic autogynephilia: arousal to the fantasy of having a normative woman's body, or parts of one
There also exist male assigned at birth people who report being sexually aroused by the image or idea of having some but not all normative female anatomy, such as having breasts but retaining their penis and testicles; Blanchard referred to this phenomenon as partial autogynephilia.
To test the possibility that natal females can also experience autogynephilia, Moser (2009) created an Autogynephilia Scale for Women based on items used to categorize MTFs as autogynephilic in other studies. A questionnaire that included the ASW was distributed to a sample of 51 professional women employed at an urban hospital; 29 completed questionnaires were returned for analysis. By the common definition of ever having erotic arousal to the thought or image of oneself as a woman, 93% of the respondents would be classified as autogynephilic. Using a more rigorous definition of "frequent" arousal to multiple items, 28% would be classified as autogynephilic. However, Lawrence (2009), in a comment on the study, criticized its methodology and conclusions, and asserted that genuine autogynephilia occurs rarely, if ever, in natal women.
In DSM-5, published in 2013, With autogynephilia (sexual arousal by thoughts, images of self as a female) is a specifier to 302.3 Transvestic disorder (intense sexual arousal from cross-dressing fantasies, urges or behaviors); the other specifier is With fetishism (sexual arousal to fabrics, materials or garments).
Autoandrophilia and autoandrophobia
The analogous term autoandrophilia refers to a person assigned female at birth who is sexually aroused by the thought or image of being a man. It was classified as a type of transvestic fetishism in a proposed revision to the DSM-5 but not included in the final version. Less work has been done on autoandrophilia, and in an interview with Vice, Blanchard stated "I proposed it simply in order not to be accused of sexism, because there are all these women who want to say women can rape too, women can be pedophiles too, women can be exhibitionists too.” It’s a perverse expression of feminism, and so, I thought, let me jump the gun on this. I don’t think the phenomenon even exists."
Autoandrophobia (from Greek “αὐτό-” (self), “άνδρας” (andras/man) and “φόβος” (phobos/fear) — "fear of oneself as a man") is a related but different term to autogynephilia which was coined by Moser (2010). Some male-to-female transsexual people in whom estrogen has been contraindicated (e.g., due to deep vein thrombosis) have found that antiandrogens alone were sufficient to relieve their gender dysphoria. This seems to suggest that some male-to-female transsexual people are not just motivated to transition by autogynephilia, but also due to a desire to block their masculine characteristics. Such a symptom is not characteristic of other paraphilias.
A physician, Charles Allen Moser, criticized Blanchard's theory, stating that it uses an overly-broad definition of autogynephilia, is not sufficiently relevant to MtF transsexual patients, fails to account for all information on sexual and romantic interests of homosexual and transsexual people, relies too heavily on phallometry, and lacks supporting data. A modified version of the typology was published in 2010 that proposed variances in gender identity were driven by biological and childhood socialization factors but personality and environment determine whether psychological defence mechanisms are employed to repress these variances. In the presence of defence mechanisms, the typology predicts cross-dressing or atypical transsexuality, while their absence results in drag artists or classic transsexuality.
A biochemist and trans activist, Julia Serano, wrote that there were flaws in Blanchard's original papers, including that they were conducted among overlapping populations primarily at the Clarke Institute in Toronto without nontranssexual controls, that the subtypes were not empirically derived but instead were "begging the question that transsexuals fall into subtypes based on their sexual orientation," and that further research had found that a non-deterministic correlation between cross-gender arousal and sexual orientation. She said that Blanchard did not discuss the idea that cross-gender arousal may be an effect, rather than a cause, of gender dysphoria, and that Blanchard assumed that correalation implied causation. Serano also stated that the wider idea of cross-gender arousal was affected by the prominence of sexual objectification of women, accounting for both a relative lack of cross-gender arousal in transsexual men and similar patterns of gynephilic arousal in non-transsexual women.
Serano also criticised proponents of the theory, claiming that they dismiss non-autogynephilic, non-androphilic transsexuals as misreporting or lying while not questioning androphilic transsexuals, describing it as "tantamount to hand-picking which evidence counts and which does not based upon how well it conforms to the model", either making the theory unscientific due to its unfalsifiability, or invalid due to the nondeterministic correlation that later studies found. Further criticisms alleged that the theory undermined lived experience of transsexual women, contributed to pathologisation and sexualisation of transsexual women, and the literature itself fed into the stereotype of transsexuals as "purposefully deceptive", which could be used to justify discrimination and violence against transsexuals.
Transsexual community reaction
The concept began receiving attention outside of sexology when sexologist Anne Lawrence, a physician and sexologist who self-identifies as autogynephilic, published a series of web articles about the concept in the late 1990s. When Bailey published The Man Who Would Be Queen in 2003, which based its portrayal of male-to-female transsexual people on Blanchard's taxonomy, an enormous controversy resulted. Transsexual activist Lynn Conway started an investigation into the publication of Bailey's book by the United States National Academy of Sciences and along with other activists leveled accusations of misconduct against Bailey. Northwestern University investigated Bailey, but did not reveal the findings of that investigation and did not comment on whether or not Bailey had been punished. According to a summary of the controversy written by intersex researcher and bioethics professor Alice Dreger, two of the four women who accused Bailey of misusing their stories were not mentioned anywhere in the book.
According to Leavitt and Berger, "transsexuals, as a group, vehemently oppose the homosexual transsexual label and its pejorative baggage." Trans man Aaron Devor wrote, "If what we really mean to say is attracted to males, then say 'attracted to males' or androphilic... I see absolutely no reason to continue with language that people find offensive when there is perfectly serviceable, in fact better, language that is not offensive." Still other transsexual people are opposed to any and all models of diagnosis which allow medical professionals to prevent anyone from changing their sex, and seek their removal from the DSM.
- Bancroft J (2009). "Transgender gender nonconformity and transvestism". Human sexuality and its problems. Elsevier. pp. 290–1. ISBN 978-0-443-05161-6.
- Gijs, L.; Carroll, R. A. (2011). "Should Transvestic Fetishism Be Classified inDSM 5? Recommendations from the WPATH Consensus Process for Revision of the Diagnosis of Transvestic Fetishism". International Journal of Transgenderism 12 (4): 189. doi:10.1080/15532739.2010.550766.
- Knudson, G.; De Cuypere, G.; Bockting, W. (2011). "Second Response of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health to the Proposed Revision of the Diagnosis of Transvestic Disorder forDSM5". International Journal of Transgenderism 13: 9. doi:10.1080/15532739.2011.606195.
- Hirschfeld, M (1923). "Die intersexuelle Konstitution". Jahrbuch fuer sexuelle Zwischenstufen 23: 3–27.
- Benjamin, H (1966). The Transsexual Phenomenon (pdf). The Julian Press.
- Lothstein, Leslie Martin (1983). Female-to-male transsexualism. Routledge. p. 60. ISBN 0-7100-9476-0. Retrieved 2009-04-24.
- Meyer, Walter; Walter O. Bockting, Peggy Cohen-Kettenis et al (February 2001). The Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association's Standards Of Care For Gender Identity Disorders, Sixth Version (PDF). 6th. Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
- Blanchard, R. (2005). "Early history of the concept of autogynephilia". Archives of Sexual Behavior 34 (4): 439–446. doi:10.1007/s10508-005-4343-8. PMID 16010466.
- Freund, K.; Steiner, B. W.; Chan, S. (1982). "Two types of cross-gender identity". Archives of Sexual Behavior 11: 49–63. doi:10.1007/BF01541365. PMID 7073469.
- Blanchard, R. (1985). "Typology of male-to-female transsexualism". Archives of Sexual Behavior 14 (3): 247–261. PMID 4004548.
- Blanchard, R.; Clemmensen, L. J.; Steiner, B. W. (1987). "Heterosexual and homosexual gender dysphoria". Archives of Sexual Behavior 16: 139–152. doi:10.1007/BF01542067. PMID 3592961.
- Blanchard, R. (1989). "The concept of autogynephilia and the typology of male gender dysphoria". The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 177: 616–623. doi:10.1097/00005053-198910000-00004. PMID 2794988.
- Blanchard, R. (1989). "The classification and labeling of nonhomosexual gender dysphorias". Archives of Sexual Behavior 18: 315–334. doi:10.1007/BF01541951. PMID 2673136.
- Blanchard, R. (1988). "Nonhomosexual gender dysphoria". Journal of Sex Research 24: 188–193. doi:10.1080/00224498809551410.
- Blanchard, R. (1991). "Clinical observations and systematic studies of autogynephilia". Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 17 (4): 235–251. doi:10.1080/00926239108404348. PMID 1815090.
- Bailey, J. M. (2003). The Man Who Would Be Queen: The Science of Gender-Bending and Transsexualism. Joseph Henry Press.
- Rodkin, Dennis (Dec. 12, 2003). Sex and Transsexuals. The Chicago Reader.
- Bagemihl, B. "Surrogate phonology and transsexual faggotry: A linguistic analogy for uncoupling sexual orientation from gender identity". In Livia A; Hall K :. Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender, and Sexuality. Oxford University Press. p. 380. ISBN 0-19-510471-4.
- Benjamin, Harry. The Transsexual Phenomenon. Chapter 2, Paragraph 16.
- Moser, Charles (July 2010). "Blanchard's Autogynephilia Theory: A Critique". Journal of Homosexuality (6 ed.) 57 (6): 790–809. doi:10.1080/00918369.2010.486241. PMID 20582803.
- Veale, Jaimie F.; Clarke, Dave E.; Lomax, Terri C. (August 2008). "Sexuality of male-to-female transsexuals". Archives of Sexual Behavior (4 ed.) 37 (4): 586–597. doi:10.1007/s10508-007-9306-9. PMID 18299976.
- Moser, Charles (July 2009). "Autogynephilia in Women". Journal of Homosexuality (5 ed.) 56 (5): 539–547. doi:10.1080/00918360903005212. PMID 19591032.
- Nuttbrock, Larry; Bockting, Walter; Mason, Mona; Hwahng, Sel; Rosenblum, Andrew; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey (2010). "A Further Assessment of Blanchard’s Typology of Homosexual Versus Non-Homosexual or Autogynephilic Gender Dysphoria". Archives of Sexual Behavior. doi:10.1007/s10508-009-9579-2. PMC 2894986. PMID 20039113.
- Leavitt, F.; Berger, J. C. (1990). "Clinical patterns among male transsexual candidates with erotic interest in males". Archives of Sexual Behavior 19 (5): 491–505. doi:10.1007/BF02442350. PMID 2260914.
- Wahng, SJ (2004). "Transmasculinity and Asian American Gendering". In Aldama AJ. Violence and the Body: Race, Gender, and the State. Indiana University Press. pp. 292; 307n8. ISBN 0-253-34171-X.
- Leiblum, SR; Rosen RC (2000). Principles and Practice of Sex Therapy (3rd ed.). Guilford Press. ISBN 1-57230-574-6.
- Bancroft, John (2008). "Lust or Identity?". Archives of Sexual Behavior (Springer) 37 (3): 426–428. doi:10.1007/s10508-008-9317-1. PMID 18431640. Retrieved January 2009.
- Laws, DR; O'Donohue, WT (2008). Sexual deviance: theory, assessment, and treatment. Guilford Press. pp. 408. ISBN 978-1-59385-605-2.
- Diagnostical and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV-TR: 4th Edition Text Revision. American Psychiatric Association. pp. 574. ISBN 978-0-89042-025-6.
- Lawrence, Anne A. (2007-10-24). "Becoming what we love: autogynephilic transsexualism conceptualized as an expression of romantic love." (PDF). Perspectives in biology and medicine (Elsevier) 50 (4): 506–20. doi:10.1353/pbm.2007.0050. PMID 17951885. Retrieved 2011-05-27.
- Blanchard, R. (1993). "Varieties of autogynephilia and their relationship to gender dysphoria". Archives of Sexual Behavior 22 (3): 241–251. PMID 8494491.
- Blanchard, R. (1993). "The she-male phenomenon and the concept of partial autogynephilia". Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 19 (1): 69–76. doi:10.1080/00926239308404889. PMID 8468711.
- Blanchard, R. (1993). "Partial versus complete Autogynephilia and gender dysphoria". Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 19 (4): 301–307. doi:10.1080/00926239308404373. PMID 8308916.
- Moser C (2009). "Autogynephilia in women.". J Homosex 56 (5): 539–47. doi:10.1080/00918360903005212. PMID 19591032.
- Lawrence AA (2010). "Something resembling autogynephilia in women: comment on Moser (2009).". J Homosex 57 (1): 1–4. doi:10.1080/00918360903445749. PMID 20069491.
- American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. p. 685-705. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.
- Autoandrophilia: Just Pretend I'm a Boy, CBS News
- "302.3 - Transvestic Fetishism], Proposed Revisions, DSM-5". American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Nieder, T. O.; Herff, M.; Cerwenka, S.; Preuss, W. F.; Cohen-Kettenis, P. T.; De Cuypere, G.; Hebold Haraldsen, I. R.; Richter-Appelt, H. (2011). "Age of Onset and Sexual Orientation in Transsexual Males and Females". The Journal of Sexual Medicine 8 (3): 783–791. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.02142.x. PMID 21143416.
- Cameron, Laura; Blanchard, Ray (April 2013). "How the Psychiatrist Who Co-Wrote the Manual on Sex Talks About Sex". Vice. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- Veale, J. F.; Lomax, T.; Clarke, D. (2010). "Identity-Defense Model of Gender-Variant Development". International Journal of Transgenderism 12 (3): 125. doi:10.1080/15532739.2010.514217.
- Serano, J. M. (2010). "The Case Against Autogynephilia". International Journal of Transgenderism 12 (3): 176–187. doi:10.1080/15532739.2010.514223.
- Lawrence, AA (1998-10-01). "Men Trapped in Men's Bodies:An Introduction to the Concept of Autogynephilia". Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Dreger, A. D. (2008). "The Controversy Surrounding the Man Who Would Be Queen: A Case History of the Politics of Science, Identity, and Sex in the Internet Age". Archives of Sexual Behavior 37 (3): 366–421. doi:10.1007/s10508-007-9301-1. PMC 3170124. PMID 18431641.
- Wilson, R (2004-12-10). "Northwestern U. Concludes Investigation of Sex Researcher but Keeps Results Secret". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Lane, R. (2008). "Truth, Lies, and Trans Science". Archives of Sexual Behavior 37 (3): 453–456; discussion 456–10. doi:10.1007/s10508-008-9336-y. PMID 18431622.
- Shefer, Tamara; Boonzaier, Floretta (2006). The Gender of Psychology (Illustrated ed.). Juta and Company Limited. pp. 273–4; 282. ISBN 978-1-919713-92-2.
|Look up autogynephilia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|