BHP Billiton

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"Billiton" redirects here. For the Indonesian island formerly known as Billiton, see Belitung.
BHP Billiton Limited & Plc
Industry Metals and Mining
Founded Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited (BHP) 1885;
Billiton plc 1860;
Merger of BHP & Billiton 2001 (creation of a DLC)
Headquarters Melbourne, Australia
(BHP Billiton Limited and BHP Billiton Group)
London, United Kingdom
(BHP Billiton Plc)[1]
Area served
Key people
Andrew Mackenzie (CEO)
Jacques Nasser (Chairman)
Products Iron ore, diamonds, coal, manganese, gold, petroleum, aluminium, copper, natural gas, nickel, uranium & silver
Revenue US$ 67.206 billion (2014)[2]
US$ 23.412 billion (2014)[2]
Profit US$ 15.224 billion (2014)[2]
Number of employees
47,044 (2014) plus 76,759 contractors [3]

BHP Billiton is an Anglo-Australian multinational mining, metals and petroleum company headquartered in Melbourne, Australia. It is the world's largest mining company measured by 2013 revenues.

BHP Billiton was created in 2001 through the merger of the Australian Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited (BHP) and the Anglo–Dutch Billiton plc.[4] The result is a dual-listed company. The Australia-registered BHP Billiton Limited, which has equal financial share in the company, has a primary listing on the Australian Securities Exchange and is the largest company in Australia measured by market capitalisation. The UK-registered BHP Billiton Plc has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It had a market capitalisation of approximately £41.5 billion ($69.5 billion) as of 19 August 2014. On August 19, 2014, BHP Billiton announced the company would be split in two. A newly formed entity named South32 [5] will house the company's non-core assets. Capitalized at $15 billion, the new entity will be listed on the Australian Securities Exchange with a secondary listing on the Johannesburg bourse and a standard listing on the London market.[5]



Billiton was a mining company whose origins stretch back to 29 September 1860, when the articles of association were approved by a meeting of shareholders in the Groot Keizerhof hotel in The Hague, the Netherlands.[6]

Two months later, the company acquired the mineral rights to the tin-rich Billiton (Belitung) and Bangka Islands in the Netherlands Indies archipelago, off the eastern coast of Sumatra.[6]

Billiton's initial business forays included tin and lead smelting in the Netherlands, followed in the 1940s by bauxite mining in Indonesia and Suriname. In 1970, Shell acquired Billiton and accelerated the scope of progress of this growth.[6] The tin and lead smelter in Arnhem, the Netherlands, was shut down in the 1990s. Billiton owned a tin smelting and refining plant in Phuket, Thailand called Thaisarco (shorted from-Thailand smelting and refining company limited), which still exists today. Billiton had an offshore tin dredging company called Billiton Thailand Company ltd which was closed in 1985 due to the falling of tin price.

In 1994, South Africa's Gencor Ltd. acquired the mining division of Billiton excluding the downstream metal division.[7] Billiton was divested from Gencor in 1997.[8] Bhp Billiton remains one of the largest companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE, sharecode bil) in South Africa by market capitalisation.

In 1997, Billiton Plc became a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.[6] in the UK.

The former logo of Billiton

Throughout the 1990s and beyond, Billiton Plc experienced considerable growth. Its portfolio included aluminium smelters in South Africa and Mozambique, nickel operations in Australia and Colombia, base metals mines in South America, Canada and South Africa, coal mines in Australia, Colombia and South Africa, as well as interests in operations in Brazil, Suriname, Australia (aluminium) and South Africa (titanium minerals and steel and ferroalloys).

In 2001 Billiton Plc merged with the Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited (BHP) to form BHP Billiton.[4]

Broken Hill Proprietary Company[edit]

The former logo of Broken Hill Proprietary Company

The Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited, BHP Co. Ltd., BHP, also known by the nickname "the Big Australian",[9] was incorporated in 1885, operating the silver and lead mine at Broken Hill in western New South Wales, Australia.[10][11] The Broken Hill group floated on 10 August 1885.[12] The first consignment of Broken Hill ore (48 tons, 5 cwt, 3grs) was smelted at the Intercolonial Smelting and Refining Company's works at Spotswood, Melbourne.[12]

The resulting 35,605 ounces of silver raised a lot of interest when exhibited at the City of Melbourne Bank in Collins St. Some sceptics asserted the promoters were merely using silver from somewhere else, to ramp up the shares...Another shareholder, the dominating W.R. Wilson had had to lend [William Jamieson, General Manager] a new suit so he could take the first prospectus, printed at Silverton near Broken Hill on 20 June 1885, to Adelaide to start the float process.[12]

The geographic Broken Hill for which the town was named, was discovered and named by Charles Sturt, and created much interest among prospectors, but nothing of note was discovered until Charles Rasp, boundary rider for the encompassing Mount Gipps Station, pegged out a 40-acre claim with contractors David James and James Poole, then with half-a-dozen backers (the Syndicate of Seven) including station manager George McCulloch (a young cousin of Victorian Premier Sir James McCulloch[13]) formed the Broken Hill Company to stake out the whole Hill. In the ensuing months of fruitless search and with costs mounting, several of the original seven parted with their shares, and at the eve of the Company's great success there were nine shareholders, including Rasp, McCulloch, William Jamieson (who bought up shares from several of the founders), Philip Charley, David James, James Poole, Bowes Kelly and W. R. Wilson.[14]

John Darling, Jr. became a director of the company in 1892 and was chairman of directors from 1907 to 1914.[15]

In 1915, the company ventured into steel manufacturing, with its operations based primarily in Newcastle, New South Wales. The decision to move from mining ore at Broken Hill to open a steelworks at Newcastle was due to the technical limitations in recovering value from mining the 'lower-lying sulphide ores'.[16] The discovery of Iron Knob and Iron Monarch near the western shore of the Spencer Gulf in South Australia combined with the development by the BHP metallurgist A. D. Carmichael of a technique for 'separating zinc sulphides from the accompanying earth and rock' led BHP 'to implement the startlingly simple and cheap process for liberating vast amounts of valuable metals out of sulphide ores, including huge heaps of tailings and slimes up to' 40 ft (12 m) high.[17]

The company began petroleum exploration in the 1960s with discoveries in Bass Strait, an activity which became an increasing focus.[18]

BHP began to diversify offshore in a variety of projects. One project was the Ok Tedi copper mine in Papua New Guinea, where the company was successfully sued by the indigenous inhabitants because of the environmental degradation caused by the mine operations.[19] BHP had better success with the giant Escondida copper mine in Chile (57.5 percent owned) and the Ekati Diamond Mine in northern Canada.[20]

The inefficiencies of what was, by global standards, a small steel operation in Newcastle finally caught up with the company and the Newcastle operations were closed in 1999.[21] The 'long products' side of the steel business was spun off to form OneSteel in 2000.[22]

2001 to 2011[edit]

Diesel locomotives in BHP Billiton Iron Ore "bubble" livery, at the company's Nelson Point Yard, Port Hedland, Western Australia.

In 2001, BHP merged with the Billiton mining company to form BHP Billiton. In 2002, the 'flat products' steel business was spun off to form BHP Steel. In 2003, BHP Steel changed its name to BlueScope Steel.[23]

In March 2005, BHP Billiton announced a US$7.3 billion agreed bid for another mining company, WMC Resources, owners of the Olympic Dam copper, gold and uranium mine in South Australia, nickel operations in Western Australia and Queensland, and a fertiliser plant also in Queensland. The takeover achieved 90 percent acceptance on 17 June 2005, and 100 percent ownership was announced on 2 August 2005, achieved through compulsory acquisition of the last 10 percent of the shares.[24]

On 8 November 2007, BHP Billiton announced it was seeking to purchase rival mining group Rio Tinto Group in an all-share deal. The initial offer of 3.4 shares of BHP Billiton stock for each share of Rio Tinto was rejected by the board of Rio Tinto for "significantly undervaluing" the company. It was unknown at the time whether BHP Billiton would attempt to purchase Rio Tinto through some form of hostile takeover;[25] however, CEO Marius Kloppers met with many of Rio's shareholders following the announcement and reiterated that the offer for Rio was "compelling" and that BHP Billiton is very "patient".[26] A formal hostile bid of 3.4 BHP Billiton shares for each Rio Tinto share was announced on 6 February 2008.[27] The bid was withdrawn on 25 November 2008 due to a global recession.[28]

On 14 May 2008, BHP Billiton shares rose to a record high of A$48.90 after speculation that Chinese mining firm Chinalco was considering purchasing a large stake. BHP representatives had no comment.[29]

On 25 November 2008, Billiton announced that it would drop its A$66 billion takeover of rival Rio Tinto Group saying that the "risks to shareholder value" would "increase" to "an unacceptable level" due to the global financial crisis.[30]

On 21 January 2009, the company announced that in response to the global financial crisis the BHP Billiton Ravensthorpe Nickel Project in Western Australia would cease operations, with a resultant discontinuation of shipments of ore from Ravensthorpe to the Yabulu nickel plant in Queensland Australia.[31] Subsequently the Yabulu refinery was sold to Queensland billionaire Mr Clive Palmer. Additionally, the Pinto Valley mine in the United States was closed. In total, 6,000 employees were laid off, including those laid off with the scaling back at some other projects.[32]

On 9 December 2009, BHP sold its Ravensthorpe Nickel Mine, which cost A$2.4 billion to build, to Vancouver-based First Quantum Minerals for US$340 million. First Quantum was one of three bidders for the mine and actually produced the lowest offer. The Canadian company plans to have the mine back in production in mid-2011. Ravensthorpe cost BHP US$3.6 billion in writedowns when it was shut in January 2009 after less than a year of production.[33]

In January 2010, after BHP Billiton bought Athabasca Potash for US$320m, The Economist reported that by 2020, BHP Billiton could produce approximately 15 percent of the world demand for potash.[34]

In August 2010, BHP Billiton made a hostile takeover bid worth US$40 billion for the Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan. The bid came after BHP's first bid, made on 17 August, was rejected as being undervalued.[35] This acquisition marked a major strategic move by BHP outside hard commodities and commenced the diversification of its business away from resources with high exposure to carbon price risk (coal, petroleum, iron ore). The takeover bid was opposed by the Government of Saskatchewan under Premier Brad Wall. On 3 November, Canadian Industry Minister Tony Clement announced the preliminary rejection of the deal under the Investment Canada Act, giving BHP Billiton 30 days to refine their deal before a final decision was made.[36]

On 14 November 2010, the company announced that it was dropping its offer for Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan.[37]

2011 to present[edit]

On 22 February 2011 BHP announced that it paid $4.75 billion in cash to Chesapeake Energy Corp. for all of the company's Fayetteville shale assets which include 487,000 acres (1,970 km2) of mineral rights leases and 420 miles (680 km) of pipeline located in north central Arkansas in the United States. The wells on the mineral leases are currently producing about 415 million cubic feet of natural gas per day. BHP plans to spend $800 million to $1 billion a year over 10 years to develop the field and triple production.[38]

On 14 July 2011, BHP Billiton announced that it would acquire Petrohawk Energy of the United States for approximately $12.1 billion in cash, considerably expanding its shale natural gas resources[39] in an offer of $US38.75 per share.[40]

In August 2012, BHP Billiton announced that it was shelving its US$20 billion (£12 billion) Olympic Dam copper and uranium mine expansion project in South Australia, as a result of falling commodity prices and slowing global economic growth.[41][42] The company simultaneously announced a freeze on approving any major new expansion projects.[41][42]

Days after announcing the Olympic Dam pull-out, BHP announced that it was selling its Yeelirrie Uranium Project to Canadian Cameco for a fee of around $430 million. The sale was part of a broader move to step away from resource expansion in Australia.[43]

In 2014 the company announced that its total output had increased by 9%. Iron Ore production in Western Australia reached a 14th consecutive annual production record of 225 million tonnes. Output of metallurgical coal and petroleum both also increased by 9%.[44]

As of 2014, BHP are the jersey sponsor of MLS team Houston Dynamo.

On August 19, 2014, the company announced it was splitting BHP Billiton in two. A newly formed entity NewCo was to house BHP Billiton's aluminium and manganese businesses, the Cerro Matoso mine, Energy Coal South Africa, Illawarra Metallurgical Coal and the Cannington Mine. To be capitalised at $15 billion, the company's shares were to be issued to BHP Billiton shareholders on a pro-rata basis, and listed on the Australian Securities Exchange, with a standard listing in London and a secondary listing in Johannesburg.

Interim results in 2015 had net profits fall by 31%, to US$5.4bn, but this was not surprising considering the dramatic falls in commodity prices of almost 40%, iron ore dominated earnings generating 45% of operating profits. BHP now produces iron ore from the Pilbara at a cash cost of just US$20 a tonne and is aiming to lower it further.[45]

Corporate affairs[edit]

The Australian BHP Billiton Limited and the British BHP Billiton Plc are separately listed with separate shareholder bodies, but they operate as one business with identical boards of directors and a single management structure. The headquarters of BHP Billiton Limited, and the global headquarters of the combined BHP Billiton Group, are located in Melbourne, Australia. BHP Billiton Plc is located in London, United Kingdom.[1] BHP Billiton also has corporate centres in Johannesburg, South Africa and Houston, USA, and offices in Perth, Santiago, Singapore, Shanghai and The Hague.

The company's shares trade on the following exchanges:[46]

Senior management[edit]

Following the merger between BHP and Billiton in 2002, Brian Gilbertson of Billiton was appointed as the corporation's chief executive officer (CEO). In 2003, after just six months in the CEO role, Gilbertson abruptly stepped down and cited irreconcilable differences with the boards as the reason for his resignation.[47]

Upon Gilbertson's departure, Chip Goodyear was announced as the new CEO and he continued in that role until his retirement on 30 September 2007. Marius Kloppers was Goodyear's successor.[48] Following the end of Kloppers' tenure in 2013, Andrew Mackenzie, the Chief Executive of Non-Ferrous, assumed the role of CEO. In response to investor demands and a diminishing mining boom, BHP Billiton announced in mid-April 2013 that Mackenzie's remuneration package would be 25 per cent less that that of Kloppers—Barry Fitzgerald, writing for the Australian newspaper, stated that the decision represented the introduction of a "new era of austerity" for the corporation.[49]



BHP Billiton operates a wide variety of mining, processing and oil and gas production operations in 25 countries, employing approximately 41,000 people.

The company has ten primary operational units, referred to as Customer Sector Groups (CSGs):

In 2011 BHP Billiton, produced more than 600,000 tonnes of aluminium as well as over 2 million tonnes of alumina. Their iron ore production increased to 134.4 million tonnes per annum, which makes it the 3rd largest producer of iron ore. BHP Billiton produced 500,000 tonnes of copper in 2011, a decrease to the year before, as well as 70,000 tonnes of nickel.

In addition it has subsidiary logistics companies BHP Transport and Logistics Pty Ltd (incorporating the former BHP Shipping) and BHPB Freight Pty Ltd.

Mines and facilities[edit]

  • Algeria
    • Ohanet gas field
    • ROD gas field
  • Angola
    • Diamond exploration
Drill rig at Area C mine, near Newman, Western Australia.
Process facility at Mount Whaleback mine, Western Australia.
Aerial view of Ekati mine, Canada, August 2010.
False color satellite image of Escondida mine, Chile, courtesy of NASA.


The United Nations Environment Programme has noted that BHP’s Ok Tedi mine site’s "uncontrolled discharge of 70 million tonnes of waste rock and mine tailings annually has spread more than 10 km (6.2 mi) down the Ok Tedi and Fly rivers, raising river beds and causing flooding, sediment deposition, forest damage, and a serious decline in the area's biodiversity."[50] The resulting devastation caused by the mining of Ok Tedi has included the loss of fish, a vital food source for the local community; loss of forest and crops due to flooding; and the loss of "areas of deep spiritual value for villagers are now submerged in mine tailings."[51]

Corporate social responsibility[edit]

BHP Billiton is a signatory participant of the Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights.[52]

BHP Billiton and BHP Petroleum provided A$3.4 million to sponsor the Australian leg of the global, 10-year study 'Census of Marine Life', conducting a count of the species occupying the world's oceans, and in particular the Great Barrier Reef.[53]

In June 2011 BHP Billiton agreed to donate A$10 million to fund the establishment of two energy institutes at University College London – the Energy Policy Institute, based in Adelaide, and the Institute for Sustainable Resources, based in London.[54]

Environmental responsibility[edit]

BHP is one of the 90 companies that extracts and markets fossil fuels responsible for two-thirds of global greenhouse gas emissions since the beginning of the industrial age.[55] Its cumulative emissions until 2010 have been estimated at 7,606 MtCO2e, representing 0.52% of global industrial emissions between 1751-2010, and ranking it the 19th largest corporate polluter.[56] According to BHP management 10% of these emissions are from direct operations, while 90% are from products sold by the company.[57]

Although BHP has been voluntarily reporting its direct GHG emissions since 1996, it has been criticised in 2013 for lobbying against carbon pricing in Australia.[58]


Inclement weather caused a BHP Billiton helicopter to crash in Angola on 16 November 2007, killing the helicopter's five passengers. The dead were: BHP Billiton Angola Chief Operating Officer David Hopgood, Australian; Angola Technical Services Operations Manager Kevin Ayre, British; Wild Dog Helicopters pilot Kottie Breedt, South African; Guy Sommerfield of MMC, British; and Louwrens Prinsloo of Prinsloo Drilling, Namibian. The helicopter went down approximately 80 km / 50 miles from Alto Cuilo exploration facility in north eastern Angola. BHP Billiton responded by suspending operations in the country.[59]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Our Structure". BHP Billiton. Retrieved 18 August 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c "Annual Report 2014". BHP Billiton. Retrieved 15 March 2015. 
  3. ^ "BHP Billiton Annual Report 2014". Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  4. ^ a b "BHP Billiton merger confirmed". 19 March 2001. Retrieved 18 April 2011. 
  5. ^ a b "BHP Billiton - New Company to be Named South32". Retrieved 15 March 2015. 
  6. ^ a b c d "Billiton History". Retrieved 18 April 2011. 
  7. ^ "Shell Unit Sells Assets To Gencor". New York Times. 27 July 1994. Retrieved 18 April 2011. 
  8. ^ "Gencor pops champagne". Retrieved 18 April 2011. 
  9. ^ "Shrinking the Big Australian". Retrieved 18 April 2011. 
  10. ^ "Australian Business Records". Retrieved 18 April 2011. 
  11. ^ Wendy Lewis, Simon Balderstone and John Bowan (2006). Events That Shaped Australia. New Holland. p. 79. ISBN 978-1-74110-492-9. 
  12. ^ a b c Jay, Christopher. (1999) A Future More Prosperous: The History of Newcastle Steelworks 1912–1999, The Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited, Newcastle, p30.
  13. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  14. ^ "Treasure Hill on Sheep Station". The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957) (Melbourne, Vic.: National Library of Australia). 2 September 1937. p. 8. Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
  15. ^ Kent, H. S. K. "Darling, John (1852–1914)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  16. ^ Jay, Christopher. (1999) A Future More Prosperous: The History of Newcastle Steelworks 1912–1999, The Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited, Newcastle, p34.
  17. ^ Jay, Christopher. (1999) A Future More Prosperous: The History of Newcastle Steelworks 1912–1999, The Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited, Newcastle, pp42-43.
  18. ^ History of Petroleum Exploration in Victoria[dead link]
  19. ^ "The big, ugly Australian goes to Ok Tedi". 1 March 1996. Retrieved 18 April 2011. [dead link]
  20. ^ "Discovery of Diamonds in North West Territories". 15 October 2004. Retrieved 18 April 2011. 
  21. ^ "Steel City without the Big Australian". 29 September 1999. Retrieved 18 April 2011. 
  22. ^ "One Steel". Retrieved 18 April 2011. [dead link]
  23. ^ "BlueScope Steel". BlueScope Steel. 15 July 2002. Retrieved 18 April 2011. 
  24. ^ "BHP Billiton to mop up minority in WMC after taking over 90 pct". Forbes. 17 June 2005. Archived from the original on 2 November 2007. Retrieved 13 August 2007. [dead link]
  25. ^ "BHP makes £120bn Rio bid approach". BBC News Online. 8 November 2007. Archived from the original on 10 November 2007. Retrieved 8 November 2007. 
  26. ^ "BHP won't be drawn on a Rio sweetener". Financial Times. 28 November 2007. Archived from the original on 29 November 2007. Retrieved 28 November 2007. 
  27. ^ Freed, Jamie (6 February 2008). "BHP makes bid for Rio". The Age (Melbourne). Archived from the original on 7 February 2008. Retrieved 6 February 2008. 
  28. ^ Keenan, Rebecca (25 November 2008). "BHP Withdraws $66 Billion Stock Offer for Rio Tinto". Bloomberg. Retrieved 25 November 2008. 
  29. ^ "BHP hits record on talk of Chinese buyer". 14 May 2008. Retrieved 14 May 2008. 
  30. ^ Wilson, Amy (25 November 2008). "BHP Billiton withdraws $66bn bid for rival miner Rio Tinto". The Daily Telegraph (UK). Retrieved 18 April 2011. 
  31. ^ "Changes to BHP Billiton's Nickel Business". BHP Billiton. Retrieved 19 December 2010. 
  32. ^ Chambers, Matt. "BHP axes 6000 jobs and cuts projects." The Australian. 22 January 2009.
  33. ^ Canada's First Quantum wins bid to revive Ravensthorpe nickel mine The Australian, published: 10 December 2009. Retrieved 10 December 2009
  34. ^ "Mergers in the fertiliser industry". The Economist. 18 February 2010. Archived from the original on 25 February 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2010. 
  35. ^ "BHP Billiton launches hostile bid for Potash". BBC. 18 August 2010. 
  36. ^ "''BHP's PotashCorp bid rejected for now.'' CBC News". 3 November 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011. 
  37. ^ Dvorak, Phred (15 November 2010). "BHP Abandons Pursuit of Potash Corp.". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 4 December 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2010. 
  38. ^ "BHP Billiton Announces Acquisition of Chesapeake Energy Corporation's Fayetteville USA, Shale Assets" (Press release). BHP Billiton. 22 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2010. 
  39. ^ "BHP Billiton to Buy Petrohawk for $12.1 Billion" (Press release). Dealbook. 14 July 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2010. 
  40. ^ "BHP Billiton and Petrohawk Corporation announce merger agreement" (PDF). 
  41. ^ a b "BHP delays $20 billion Olympic Dam project as profit slides". Reuters. 22 August 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012. 
  42. ^ a b "BHP Billiton scraps $20bn Olympic Dam project as China slowdown bites". The Guardian. 22 August 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012. 
  43. ^ BHP sells Australia’s mammoth uranium deposit, International:, 2012, retrieved 11 October 2012 
  44. ^ Michael Janda (23 July 2014). "BHP Billiton production hits records in four commodities". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 23 July 2014. 
  45. ^ Sodhi, Gaurav (2 March 2015). "BHP Billiton: Interim result 2015". Intelligent Investor (Company). Retrieved 22 March 2015. 
  46. ^ "SEC Form 20-F, BHP Billiton Limited and BHP Billiton plc, for FY 2007". BHP Billiton. 26 September 2007. p. 274. Archived from the original on 9 April 2008. Retrieved 9 April 2008. 
  47. ^ "BHP chief in shock resignation". CNN. 5 January 2003. Retrieved 13 July 2007. 
  48. ^ "BHP Billiton To Appoint Marius Kloppers As New CEO". BHP Billiton. 31 May 2007. Archived from the original on 3 July 2007. Retrieved 13 July 2007. 
  49. ^ Barry Fitzgerald (19 April 2013). "BHP ushers in austerity era, starting with 25pc pay cut for new boss". The Australian. Retrieved 18 April 2013. 
  50. ^ United Nations Environment Programme[dead link] Accessed on 16/12/07.
  51. ^ "Australian Conservation Foundation, Leaving the scene of the mine". Retrieved 18 April 2011. 
  52. ^ "The Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights – Participants". Secretariat for the Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights. 
  53. ^ "Census of Marine Life". 
  54. ^ Edwards, Verity (11 June 2011). "BHP signs $10m deal to set up energy research facilities". The Australian. Retrieved 18 May 2012. 
  55. ^ Goldenberg, Suzanne: "Just 90 companies caused two-thirds of man-made global warming emissions" in The Guardian, 21 November 2013
  56. ^ Heede, Richard: "Tracing anthropogenic carbon dioxide and methane emissions to fossil fuel and cement producers, 1854–2010", in Climatic Change, January 2014, Volume 122, Issue 1-2, pp.229-241
  57. ^ Hannam, Peter: "BHP among world's 20 largest climate culprits", in The Sydney Morning Herald, 21 November 2013
  58. ^ Mehra, Malini: "BHP Billiton: climate change leader or laggard?" in The Guardian, 20 November 2013
  59. ^ Macdonald-Smith, Angela (18 November 2007). "BHP Suspends Operations in Angola After Fatal Helicopter Crash". Bloomberg. Retrieved 18 November 2007. 

External links[edit]