T-84

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Not to be confused with M-84, a Yugoslav main battle tank.
T-84
UkrainianT84Tank.jpg
An early model T-84 tank. Later versions have reactive armour integrated more smoothly with the hull.
Type Main battle tank
Place of origin  Ukraine,  Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1999–present
Used by See Users
Production history
Designer KMDB
Designed 1993–94
Manufacturer Malyshev Factory
Produced 1994–present
Specifications (T-80[1])
Weight 46 tonnes
Length 7.086 m (23 ft 3 in)
Width 3.775 m (12 ft 5 in)
Height 2.215 m (7 ft 3 in)
Crew 3

Elevation +13°, -6°

Armour Steel, composite, ERA
Main
armament
125 mm smoothbore KBA-3 cannon (43 rds)
Secondary
armament
7.62 mm KT-7.62 Coaxial machine gun
12.7 mm KT-12.7 anti-aircraft machine gun
Engine KMDB 6TD-2 6-cylinder diesel
1,200 hp (890 kW)
Power/weight 26 hp/tonne
Suspension Torsion-bars, hydraulic dampers
Ground clearance 0.515 m (1 ft 8.3 in)
Fuel capacity 1,300 l (290 imp gal; 340 US gal)
Operational
range
540 km (340 mi)
Speed 65 km/h (40 mph) - 70 km/h (43 mph)
T-84 Oplot-M
BM Oplot Front.jpg
T-84 Oplot-M main battle tank (front view)
Type Main battle tank
Place of origin  Ukraine
Service history
In service 2009 – present
Used by  Ukraine
 Thailand
Production history
Designer KMDB
Manufacturer Malyshev Factory
Specifications
Weight 51 tonnes[2]
Length 7.075 m (23 ft 3 in)[2]
Width 3.400 m (11 ft 2 in)[2]
Height 2.800 m (9 ft 2 in)[2]
Crew 3 (commander, gunner, driver)

Armor modular composite, ERA, APC[2]
Main
armament
125 mm smoothbore KBA-3 cannon with 46 rounds[2]
Secondary
armament

1 × 12.7 mm (.50) KT-12.7 anti-aircraft machine gun with 450 rounds

1 × 7.62 mm (.308) KT-7.62 Coaxial machine gun machine gun with 1250 rounds[2]
Engine

KMDB 6TD-2E 6-cylinder diesel (1,200 hp) or

KMDB 6TD-3 6-cylinder diesel (1,500 hp)[2]
Power/weight 24.7 hp/t (6TD-2E)
30 hp/t (6TD-3)[2]
Transmission Automatic
Suspension Torsion bar
Ground clearance 0.50 m (1 ft 8 in)[2]
Fuel capacity 1,140 litres (250 imp gal; 300 US gal)[2]
Operational
range
500 km (310 mi)[2]
Speed Road 70 km/h (43 mph)
Off-road: 45 km/h (28 mph)[2]

The T-84 is a Ukrainian main battle tank, a development of the Soviet T-80 main battle tank. It was first built in 1994 and entered service in the Ukrainian Armed Forces in 1999. The T-84 is based on the diesel-engined T-80 version, the T-80UD. Its high-performance opposed piston engine makes it one of the fastest MBTs in the world, with a power-to-weight ratio of about 26 horsepower per tonne (19 kW/t). The T-84 Oplot is an advanced version incorporating an armoured ammunition compartment in a new turret bustle; ten of these entered Ukrainian service in 2001. The T-84-120 Yatagan is a prototype model intended for export, mounting a 120 mm gun capable of firing standard NATO ammunition and guided missiles.

Production history[edit]

BM Oplot guided onto a tank transporter.

The T-84 is the latest Ukrainian development of the T-80 series, designed by KMDB in Kharkiv. A main design objective was to make Ukraine's arms industry independent of Russia's, after resulting difficulties in fulfilling a contract to supply T-80UD tanks to Pakistan.[3][4] An external difference from earlier models is the new Ukrainian welded turret, replacing the T-80's Russian-built cast turret (some T-80s shipped to Pakistan were fitted with the T-84 welded turret, but lack other T-84 improvements).[5]

The T-84's outstanding feature is the 26 hp/t power-to-weight ratio. It has inherited the nickname Flying Tank from the T-80. The tank is also designed to perform well in hot climates, and even includes an air-conditioned crew compartment (operating temperature range is claimed to be −40 °C to 55 °C).

Due to the collapse of Soviet Union, the Malyshev Factory was no longer able to obtain ceramic armour modules from Russia and only the initial batch of T-84 were produced with such. Instead, later batches of T-84's composite armour is composed of special purpose rubber sandwiched between steel and alloy plates. The exclusion of ceramic plate from the tank's armour may indicate downgraded protection compared to older models.[6]

Ukraine has demonstrated several upgraded prototypes of this tank, intended for both domestic employment and international sale.

Operational history[edit]

Ukraine[edit]

The first T-84 prototype vehicle rolled out in 1994, and in the same year it was decided to build several more vehicles. They were subjected to extensive company and army trials. After successful completion of the extensive trials programme in the late 1990s the T-84 MBT entered service with the Ukrainian Army in 1999.[7] On 24 August 2000, 10 T-84 MBTs took part in the parade dedicated to the 10th anniversary of Ukraine's independence.[8]

Thailand[edit]

In September 2011, The Malyshev Plant, based in Kharkiv, announced plans to produce the first batch of five Oplot-M tanks for the Thai Army by the end of the year. Under the contract, the Ukrainian company will make 49 tanks worth over USD 200 million.[9]

Georgia[edit]

In October 2009, Ukrspetsstroi plans to sell to Georgia 12 modern T-84 Oplot tanks, among other weapons.[10][11]

Variants[edit]

T-84[edit]

Ukrainian Modernization of the T-80UD. New welded turret and Shtora-1 countermeasures suite, new electronics, new main gun, new armor, and 1,200 hp (895 kW) 6TD-2 diesel engine.

T-84U[edit]

Ukrainian upgrade of the T-84. New armoured side skirts, turret-conformal Kontakt-5 explosive reactive armour, auxiliary power unit, thermal imaging sight, satellite navigation, commander's laser range-finder, muzzle reference system, and other improvements.

T-84 Oplot[edit]

T-84U with a new welded turret with separate crew and ammunition compartments with blowout panels on the ammunition compartment, a new bustle-mounted autoloader.

T-84-120 Yatagan[edit]

a prototype version of Oplot tailored for evaluation by the Turkish Army (prototype designation, KERN2-120). Mounts a 120 mm main gun which fires both NATO 120 mm rounds (like the M829 DU series) and a special 120 mm version of the AT-11 Sniper ATGM. It also has automated gear shifting in place of mechanical gear selector, driver's T-bar control replacing tiller bars, air conditioning, and projectile muzzle velocity sensor, as well as differences in the fire control system, communications, etc.

T-84 Oplot-M[edit]

BM Oplot tank at Eurosatory 2012.

(Modernized), or "BM Oplot": The newest and most sophisticated version of the T-84 is an upgraded version of the "T-84 Oplot" mounting more advanced armor, new electronic countermeasure systems, and others. One visible feature is the new PNK-6 panoramic tank sight.[12]

  • Design

The BM Oplot is a further development of the previous Oplot, which is based on the T-84 main battle tank. The tank has a conventional layout with the driver's compartment at the front, fighting compartment in the middle and engine at the rear, accommodating a crew of three members.

The driver sitting in the centre is provided with a single-piece hatch cover that opens to the right. The commander on the right and the gunner on the left have single-piece hatches.

Tank has a length of 9.7m (including the forward-facing gun), a width of 3.4m without removable side skirts, and a height of 2.8m. The combat weight of the tank is 51t.[2]

  • Armament

The Oplot MBT is armed with a 125 mm smoothbore KBA-3 cannon, a KT-7.62 (PKT) Coaxial machine gun and a KT-12.7 anti-aircraft machine gun. The main gun is fed by a loading system equipped with conveyor, automatic loader and control system. The ammunition includes high explosive fragmentation (HE-FRAG), armour-piercing fin-stabilised discarding-sabot (APFSDS), high explosive anti tank (HEAT) and gun mount (GM) rounds.

The main gun can also fire a laser guided missile against battle tanks, armoured vehicles and hovering helicopters within the range of 5,000m. The missile can be fired on the move against travelling targets. The tandem warhead fitted on the missile can defeat targets equipped with explosive reactive armour and advanced spaced armour.

The Oplot has 46 rounds of ammunition for the main gun, of which 28 rounds are placed in the automatic loader. Other ammunition types carried are 1,250 rounds for KT-7.62 machine gun, 450 rounds for KT-12.7 machine gun and 450 rounds for AKS submachine gun.[2]

  • Fire Control

The vehicle has three forward-facing periscopes in front of the driver's cupola. The centre periscope can be replaced with a night driving device.

The fire control system includes a gunner's day sight, PNK-6 commander's panoramic sighting system, PTT-2 thermal imaging sight, anti-aircraft sight and anti-aircraft machine gun control system. Detection range of targets for thermal sighting system is up to 8 km.

The tank is also equipped with LIO-V ballistic computer, armament stabiliser and other systems.

The advanced fire-control system enables the gunner or commander to lay and fire the main armament on the move. The stationary and moving targets can be hit with a high first round hit probability.[2]

  • Protection

The protection system includes multilayer passive armour, Nozh-2 explosive reactive armour, Zaslon active protection system, Varta optronic countermeasures system and other tank protection means.

Built-in new generation Nozh-2 anti-tandem-warhead explosive reactive armour protects against APFSDS, (HESH) or high-explosive plastic (HEP) and HEAT-type projectiles.

Nozh-2 ensures protection against:

Both sides of the driver's compartment are fitted with explosive reactive armour panels for extended protection. The hull sides are hinged with large rubber skirts to withstand the attacks of man-portable anti-tank weapons. The modular explosive reactive armour package can be easily replaced or upgraded according to the future requirements.

Oplot features a Varta optronic countermeasures system for deceiving incoming missiles and anti-tank guided weapons. The system integrates laser warning sensors, infra-red jammer and smoke / aerosol screen laying system. The optronic countermeasure system provides:

  • confusing of the guidance systems of ATGM by putting out laser jamming covering the horizontal plane of ±18° relative to the main gun tube and ±2° in the vertical plane
  • jamming of the ATGM guidance systems that use laser illumination of targets, semi-automatic laser guided homing projectiles as well as artillery systems equipped with laser range-finders by activating the remote fast-deploying aerosol screens in a sector of ±45° relative to the main gun tube

Crew’s collective protection system ensures protection of the crew and interior equipment against effects of nuclear explosions, radioactive substances, toxic agents and biological warfare agents, as well as detection and suppression of fires in the crew compartment and power pack compartment.

The Oplot tank can withstand an explosion of up to 10 kg trinitrotoluene (TNT) under the tank track and up to 4 kg TNT under the driver's compartment. The vehicle has overpressure-type NBC protection system and can be fitted with track mine-clearing systems.[2]

  • Mobility

BM Oplot is powered by a 6TD-2E 6-cylinder turbocharged liquid cooled engine, which delivers 1200 hp (882 kW). It is improved and more environmentally friendly version of the previous 6TD-2 diesel engine, used on the T-84 MBT. Also tank would be powered by a more powerful 6TD-3 diesel, developing 1500 hp. Both engines could use diesel, jet engine fuel, petrol or any mixtures of them.

The engine provides a maximum on-road speed of 70 km/h and a range of 500 km with additional fuel tanks. The battle tank is also equipped with a diesel-electric auxiliary power unit (10kW) to supply power to onboard systems when the main engine is turned off.

BM Oplot is equipped with torsion bar type suspension. Either side of the six dual rubber-tyred road wheels are provided with idler at forward, drive sprocket at the rear, and track support rollers.

The first, second and sixth road wheel stations are fitted with hydraulic shock absorbers. The tank can negotiate a gradient of 320 and side slope of 250. Equally, the tank can ford a water depth of 5m using deep water fording equipment.[2]

BREM-84[edit]

Armoured recovery vehicle

BMU-84[edit]

Bridgelayer tank

BTMP-84[edit]

Heavy infantry fighting vehicle prototype based on the T-84 Oplot tank, with lengthened hull, an extra pair of road wheels, and a rear compartment for five infantrymen.

List of operators[edit]

The Ukrainian Ground Forces has 10 T-84 Oplot-M in service.
The Royal Thai Army has 5 T-84 Oplot-M in service.[13] In March 2011, the Royal Thai Army placed an order for 49 T-84s to replace its fleet of aging M41A3 Walker Bulldog light tanks. Up to 200 tanks may eventually be acquired. However, the Royal Thai Army had yet to make an official announcement.[14][15] The government had just approved 7.155 billion baht to purchase the first 49 Oplot tanks to be assigned to several units: the 2nd cavalry battalion (Royal Guard at Fort Chakkraphongse, Prachinburi), the 4th cavalry battalion (Royal Guard at Kiakkai, Bangkok), the 8th cavalry battalion (Fort Suranari, Nakhon Ratchasima), and the 9th cavalry battalion (Fort Ekathotsarot, Phitsanuloke).[16][17][18] The first T-84 Oplot will be delivered to be tested at Cavalry Center at Fort Adisorn, Saraburi in mid-2013 and during the official procurement. The factory in Ukraine had offered the extra 5 T-84 Oplot in addition to the first 49 Oplot tanks.[19] The Oplot-M 5 to be delivered on 5 February 2014, 20 will deliver in July 2014.[20]

Potential sales[edit]

In 2009, Peru reportedly tested the Oplot tank, but the government of Alan Garcia later decided to acquire test examples of the Chinese MBT-2000 in late 2010, only to have the government of his successor, Ollanta Humala, abandon the purchase in early 2012 to seek other alternatives.[21][22] In May 2013, the T-84 was reported to be part of comparative tests to be conducted by Peru. The T-84 competed against the T-90S, the M1A1 Abrams, the Leopard 2A4 and A6, and the T-64 also offered by Ukraine.[23] By September 2013, only the T-84, T-90S, Russian T-80, and M1A1 Abrams were still competing.[24]

Lost sales[edit]

In 2007 the Bangladesh Army began negotiations for the procurement of 76 T-84 Yatagan tanks in the first batch. The Bangladesh Army intends to induct a substantial number of Yatagans (200 to 300) over the next several years as part of its third generation main battle tank procurement program.[25] However, Bangladesh finally has decided to buy 44 MBT-2000 in 2011.[26]
In January 2011, Azerbaijan showed interest in the Oplot main battle tank. The Defense Ministry of Ukraine has long been holding negotiations on this issue.[27] In June 2013, it has been made public that Azerbaijan had instead purchased 100 Russian T-90 tanks,[28] in a series of rearmament deals worth $4 billion with Russia.[29]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jane's Armour and Artillery, 2005–2006
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r [1] Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building-The BM Oplot main battle tank
  3. ^ T-84 MBT globalsecurity.com
  4. ^ Zaloga 2000, p 3.
  5. ^ Zaloga 2000, p 4.
  6. ^ Citation Needed
  7. ^ "KMDB - T-84". Morozov.com.ua. 2000-08-24. Retrieved 2014-07-23. 
  8. ^ "T-84 - Main Battle Tank - History, Specs and Pictures - Military Tanks, Vehicles and Artillery". Militaryfactory.com. 2014-01-07. Retrieved 2014-07-23. 
  9. ^ [2] - Oplot-M tanks for the Thai Army
  10. ^ [3] - Oplot tanks for the Georgia
  11. ^ "The Georgian arms embargo: Myth or reality?". EurasiaNet.org. 2010-06-28. Retrieved 2014-07-23. 
  12. ^ [4][dead link]
  13. ^ "Ukraine has supplied the first batch of five Oplot main battle tanks to Thailand". Ukroboronprom.com.ua. 2014-02-04. Retrieved 2014-07-23. 
  14. ^ "New Ukraine tanks leave soldiers riled". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  15. ^ "Украина выиграла тендер на поставку 200 танков "Оплот" в Таиланд". Segodnya.ua (in Russian). 
  16. ^ "วาระแทรกซื้อรถถังยูเครน ครม.อนุมัติ 7.2 พันล้าน" (in Thai). The Nation (Thailand). Retrieved 4 May 2011. 
  17. ^ "รถถัง7พันล้าน ครม.สั่งลา เอาใจกองทัพ" (in Thai). Thai Rath. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  18. ^ "สำนึกในการซื้อ "อาวุธ" ของกองทัพ กรรมวิธีในการสร้างฉันทามติจากสังคม" (in Thai). มติชน. Retrieved 5 May 2011. 
  19. ^ "ทบ.เตรียมรับศึกบูรพาทิศช็อปรถถังT-84 OPLOT" (in Thai). The Nation (Thailand). Retrieved 28 May 2012. 
  20. ^ "'T-84 Oplot'รถถังยูเครนส่งถึงไทยลอตแรก5คัน". Nonlen.com. Retrieved 2014-07-23. 
  21. ^ Páez, Ángel (March 7, 2012). "El Ejército renueva proyecto para sustituir los viejos tanques T-55". La Republica (in Spanish). 
  22. ^ "Peruvian army discards Chinese MBT-2000 for the Russian T-90 better for the areas in Peru". armyrecognition.com. March 13, 2012. 
  23. ^ Peruvian Tank Contenders - Army-Technology.com, May 17, 2013
  24. ^ Peru; Future main battle tank projects lags on despite criticism - Dmilt.com, 2 September 2013
  25. ^ Yatagan Main Battle Tank bdmilitary.com
  26. ^ Hasan Jahid Tusher (2011-06-27). "Army to get 44 tanks". Archive.thedailystar.net. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  27. ^ "Azerbaijan to purchase new Oplot tank from Ukraine". News.az. 8 January 2011 .
  28. ^ <%= item.timeFlag %>. "ИТАР-ТАСС: Политика - Россия поставила Азербайджану 100 танков Т-90С". Itar-tass.com. Retrieved 2014-07-23. 
  29. ^ Agayev, Zulfugar (2013-08-13). "Azeri-Russian Arms Trade $4 Billion Amid Tension With Armenia". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2014-07-23. 
  • Steven Zaloga and David Markov (2000). Russia's T-80U Main Battle Tank. Hong Kong: Concord. ISBN 962-361-656-2.

External links[edit]

External images
The T-84
Photo of T-84
T-84 and improved T-72
Gunner's station from inside