|Breast cancer 2, early onset|
PDB rendering based on 1n0w.
|RNA expression pattern|
crystal structure of a rad51-brca2 brc repeat complex
structure of a brca2-dss1 complex
|BRCA2, oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding, domain 1|
structure of a brca2-dss1 complex
|BRCA2, oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding, domain 3|
structure of a brca2-dss1 complex
structure of a brca2-dss1 complex
BRCA2 (breast cancer type 2 susceptibility protein) is a protein found inside cells. In humans it is encoded by the gene BRCA2. BRCA2 belongs to the tumor suppressor gene family, and orthologs have been identified in most mammals for which complete genome data are available. The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the repair of chromosomal damage with an important role in the error-free repair of DNA double strand breaks. 
The BRCA2 gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 13 at position 12.3 (13q12.3). The human reference BRCA 2 gene contains 27 exons, and the cDNA has 10,254 base pairs coding for a protein of 3418 amino acids.
Methods to diagnose the likelihood of a patient with these mutations getting cancer were covered by patents owned or controlled by Myriad Genetics. Myriad's business model of exclusively offering the diagnostic test led from Myriad being a startup in 1994 to being a publicly traded company with 1200 employees and about $500M in annual revenue in 2012; it also led to controversy over high prices and the inability to get second opinions from other diagnostic labs, which in turn led to the landmark Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics lawsuit.
Although the structures of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are very different, at least some functions are interrelated. The proteins made by both genes are essential for repairing damaged DNA. BRCA2 binds the single strand DNA and directly interacts with the recombinase RAD51 to stimulate strand invasion a vital step of homologous recombination. The localization of RAD51 to the DNA double-strand break requires the formation of BRCA1-PALB2-BRCA2 complex. PALB2 (Partner and localizer of BRCA2) can function synergistically with a BRCA2 chimera (termed piccolo, or piBRCA2) to further promote strand invasion. These breaks can be caused by natural and medical radiation or other environmental exposures, but also occur when chromosomes exchange genetic material during a special type of cell division that creates sperm and eggs (meiosis). Double strand breaks are also generated during repair of DNA cross links. By repairing DNA, these proteins play a role in maintaining the stability of the human genome and prevent dangerous gene rearrangements that can lead to hematologic and other cancers.
Like BRCA1, BRCA2 probably regulates the activity of other genes and plays a critical role in embryo development.
Clinical significance 
Certain variations of the BRCA2 gene increase risks for breast cancer as part of a hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndrome. Researchers have identified hundreds of mutations in the BRCA2 gene, many of which cause an increased risk of cancer. BRCA2 mutations are usually insertions or deletions of a small number of DNA base pairs in the gene. As a result of these mutations, the protein product of the BRCA2 gene is abnormal and does not function properly. Researchers believe that the defective BRCA2 protein is unable to help fix mutations that occur in other genes. As a result, mutations build up and can cause cells to divide in an uncontrolled way and form a tumor.
People who have two mutated copies of the BRCA2 gene have one type of Fanconi anemia. This condition is caused by extremely reduced levels of the BRCA2 protein in cells, which allows the accumulation of damaged DNA. Patients with Fanconi anemia are prone to several types of leukemia (a type of blood cell cancer); solid tumors, particularly of the head, neck, skin, and reproductive organs; and bone marrow suppression (reduced blood cell production that leads to anemia). Women having inherited a defective BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene have risks for breast and ovarian cancer that are so high and seem so selective that many mutation carriers choose to have prophylactic surgery. There has been much conjecture to explain such apparently striking tissue specificity. Major determinants of where BRCA1 and BRCA2 associated hereditary cancers occur are related to tissue specificity of the cancer pathogen, the agent that causes chronic inflammation or the carcinogen. The target tissue may have receptors for the pathogen, become selectively exposed to carcinogens and an infectious process. An innate genomic deficit impairs normal responses and exacerbates the susceptibility to disease in organ targets. This theory also fits data for several tumor suppressors beyond BRCA1 or BRCA2. A major advantage of this model is that it suggests there are some options in addition to prophylactic surgery.
In addition to breast cancer in men and women, mutations in BRCA2 also lead to an increased risk of ovarian, Fallopian tube, prostate, and pancreatic cancers, as well as malignant melanoma. In some studies, mutations in the central part of the gene have been associated with a higher risk of ovarian cancer and a lower risk of prostate cancer than mutations in other parts of the gene. Several other types of cancer have also been seen in certain families with BRCA2 mutations.
In general, strongly inherited gene mutations (including mutations in BRCA2) account for only 5-10% of breast cancer cases; the specific risk of getting breast or other cancer for anyone carrying a BRCA2 mutation depends on many factors.
|The BRCA2 gene was discovered in 1994 by Professor Michael Stratton and Dr Richard Wooster (Institute of Cancer Research, UK). The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (Hinxton, Cambs, UK) collaborated with Stratton and Wooster to isolate the gene.
In honour of this discovery and collaboration, the Wellcome Trust participated in the construction of a cycle and foot path between the Addenbrooke's Hospital site in Cambridge and the nearby village of Great Shelford in 2005. The path by Cambridgeshire County Council and Sustrans is decorated with 10,257 stripes of 4 colours representing the nucleotide sequence of BRCA2 (green representing adenine, blue representing cytosine, yellow representing guanine, and red representing thymine). It makes up part of National Cycle Route 11, and can be seen from trains running between Cambridge and London.
Germ line BRCA2 mutations and founder effect 
All germ line BRCA2 mutations identified to date have been inherited, suggesting the possibility of a large “founder” effect in which a certain mutation is common to a well-defined population group and can theoretically be traced back to a common ancestor. Given the complexity of mutation screening for BRCA2, these common mutations may simplify the methods required for mutation screening in certain populations. Analysis of mutations that occur with high frequency also permits the study of their clinical expression. A striking example of a founder mutation is found in Iceland, where a single BRCA2 (999del5) mutation accounts for virtually all breast/ovarian cancer families. This frame-shift mutation leads to a highly truncated protein product. In a large study examining hundreds of cancer and control individuals, this 999del5 mutation was found in 0.6% of the general population. Of note, while 72% of patients who were found to be carriers had a moderate or strong family history of breast cancer, 28% had little or no family history of the disease. This strongly suggests the presence of modifying genes that affect the phenotypic expression of this mutation, or possibly the interaction of the BRCA2 mutation with environmental factors. Additional examples of founder mutations in BRCA2 are given in the table below.
|Population or subgroup||BRCA2 mutation(s)||Reference(s)|
|Finns||8555T>G, 999del5, IVS23-2A>G|||
BRCA2 has been shown to interact with
- CREB-binding protein,
- SHFM1 and
Domain architecture 
BRCA2 contains a number of 39 amino acid repeats that are critical for binding to RAD51 (a key protein in DNA recombinational repair) and resistance to methyl methanesulphonate treatment.
The BRCA2 helical domain adopts a helical structure, consisting of a four-helix cluster core (alpha 1, alpha 8, alpha 9, alpha 10) and two successive beta-hairpins (beta 1 to beta 4). An approximately 50-amino acid segment that contains four short helices (alpha 2 to alpha 4), meanders around the surface of the core structure. In BRCA2, the alpha 9 and alpha 10 helices pack with the BRCA2 OB1 domain through van der Waals contacts involving hydrophobic and aromatic residues, and also through side-chain and backbone hydrogen bonds. This domain binds the 70-amino acid DSS1 (deleted in split-hand/split foot syndrome) protein, which was originally identified as one of three genes that map to a 1.5-Mb locus deleted in an inherited developmental malformation syndrome.
The BRCA OB1 domain assumes an OB fold, which consists of a highly curved five-stranded beta-sheet that closes on itself to form a beta-barrel. OB1 has a shallow groove formed by one face of the curved sheet and is demarcated by two loops, one between beta 1 and beta 2 and another between beta 4 and beta 5, which allows for weak single strand DNA binding. The domain also binds the 70-amino acid DSS1 (deleted in split-hand/split foot syndrome) protein.
The BRCA OB3 domain assumes an OB fold, which consists of a highly curved five-stranded beta-sheet that closes on itself to form a beta-barrel. OB3 has a pronounced groove formed by one face of the curved sheet and is demarcated by two loops, one between beta 1 and beta 2 and another between beta 4 and beta 5, which allows for strong ssDNA binding.
The Tower domain adopts a secondary structure consisting of a pair of long, antiparallel alpha-helices (the stem) that support a three-helix bundle (3HB) at their end. The 3HB contains a helix-turn-helix motif and is similar to the DNA binding domains of the bacterial site-specific recombinases, and of eukaryotic Myb and homeodomain transcription factors. The Tower domain has an important role in the tumour suppressor function of BRCA2, and is essential for appropriate binding of BRCA2 to DNA.
Patents, enforcement, litigation, and controversy 
A patent application for the isolated BRCA1 gene and cancer-cancer promoting mutations, as well as methods to diagnose the likelihood of getting breast cancer, was filed by the University of Utah, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and Myriad Genetics in 1994; over the next year, Myriad, in collaboration with other investigators, isolated and sequenced the BRCA2 gene and identified relevant mutations, and the first BRCA2 patent was filed in the U.S. by Myriad and the other institutions in 1995. Myriad is the exclusive licensee of these patents and has enforced them in the US against clinical diagnostic labs. This business model led from Myriad being a startup in 1994 to being a publicly traded company with 1200 employees and about $500M in annual revenue in 2012; it also led to controversy over high prices and the inability to get second opinions from other diagnostic labs, which in turn led to the landmark Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics lawsuit. The patents begin to expire in 2014.
According to an article published in the journal, Genetic Medicine, in 2010, "The patent story outside the United States is more complicated.... For example, patents have been obtained but the patents are being ignored by provincial health systems in Canada. In Australia and the UK, Myriad’s licensee permitted use by health systems, but announced a change of plans in August 2008. ... Only a single mutation has been patented in Myriad’s lone European-wide patent, although some patents remain under review of an opposition proceeding. In effect, the United States is the only jurisdiction where Myriad’s strong patent position has conferred sole-provide status." Peter Meldrum, CEO of Myriad Genetics, has acknowledged that Myriad has "other competitive advantages that may make such [patent] enforcement unnecessary" in Europe.
Legal decisions surrounding the BRCA1 and BRCA2 patents will affect the field of genetic testing in general.
See also 
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- US patent 5837492, Tavtigian SV, Kamb A, Simard J, Couch F, Rommens JM, Weber BL, "Chromosome 13-linked breast cancer susceptibility gene", issued 1998-11-17, assigned to Myriad Genetics, Inc., Endo Recherche, Inc., HSC Research & Development Limited Partnership, Trustees of the University of Pennsylvaina
- US patent 5747282, Skolnick HS, Goldgar DE, Miki Y, Swenson J, Kamb A, Harshman KD, Shattuck-Eidens DM, Tavtigian SV, Wiseman RW, Futreal PA, "7Q-linked breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene", issued 1998-05-05, assigned to Myraid Genetics, Inc., The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, and University of Utah Research Foundation
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- Wong JMS, Ionescu Daniela, Ingles C James (January 2003). "Interaction between BRCA2 and replication protein A is compromised by a cancer-predisposing mutation in BRCA2". Oncogene 22 (1): 28–33. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1206071. PMID 12527904.
- Marston NJ, Richards W J, Hughes D, Bertwistle D, Marshall C J, Ashworth A (July 1999). "Interaction between the product of the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2 and DSS1, a protein functionally conserved from yeast to mammals". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (7): 4633–42. PMC 84261. PMID 10373512.
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- Preobrazhenska O, Yakymovych Mariya, Kanamoto Takashi, Yakymovych Ihor, Stoika Rostyslav, Heldin Carl-Henrik, Souchelnytskyi Serhiy (August 2002). "BRCA2 and Smad3 synergize in regulation of gene transcription". Oncogene 21 (36): 5660–4. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1205732. PMID 12165866.
- Bork P, Blomberg N, Nilges M (May 1996). "Internal repeats in the BRCA2 protein sequence". Nat. Genet. 13 (1): 22â€“3. doi:10.1038/ng0596-22. PMID 8673099.
- "ACLU sues over patents on breast cancer genes". CNN. Archived from the original on 15 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-14.
- Robert Cook-Deegan, MD et al (2010) Impact of Gene Patents and Licensing Practices on Access to Genetic Testing for Inherited Susceptibility to Cancer: Comparing Breast and Ovarian Cancers to Colon Cancers: Patents and Licensing for Breast, Ovarian and Colon Cancer Testing Genet Med.12(4 Suppl): S15–S38.
- Benowitz S (January 2003). "European groups oppose Myriad's latest patent on BRCA1". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 95 (1): 8–9. doi:10.1093/jnci/95.1.8. PMID 12509391.
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Further reading 
- Zou JP, Hirose Y, Siddique H, Rao VN, Reddy ES (1999). "Structure and expression of variant BRCA2a lacking the transactivation domain". Oncology reports 6 (2): 437–40. PMID 10023017.
- Venkitaraman AR (2001). "Chromosome stability, DNA recombination and the BRCA2 tumour suppressor". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 13 (3): 338–43. doi:10.1016/S0955-0674(00)00217-9. PMID 11343905.
- Orelli BJ, Bishop DK (2001). "BRCA2 and homologous recombination". Breast Cancer Res. 3 (5): 294–8. doi:10.1186/bcr310. PMC 138691. PMID 11597317.
- Daniel DC (2002). "Highlight: BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins in breast cancer". Microsc. Res. Tech. 59 (1): 68–83. doi:10.1002/jemt.10178. PMID 12242698.
- Tutt A, Ashworth A (2003). "The relationship between the roles of BRCA genes in DNA repair and cancer predisposition". Trends in molecular medicine 8 (12): 571–6. doi:10.1016/S1471-4914(02)02434-6. PMID 12470990.
- Gonçalves A, Viens P, Sobol H, et al. (2005). "[Molecular alterations in breast cancer: clinical implications and new analytical tools]". La Revue de médecine interne / fondée ... Par la Société nationale francaise de médecine interne 26 (6): 470–8. doi:10.1016/j.revmed.2004.11.012. PMID 15936476.
- Hay T, Clarke AR (2005). "DNA damage hypersensitivity in cells lacking BRCA2: a review of in vitro and in vivo data". Biochem. Soc. Trans. 33 (Pt 4): 715–7. doi:10.1042/BST0330715. PMID 16042582.
- Domchek SM, Weber BL (2006). "Clinical management of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers". Oncogene 25 (43): 5825–31. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1209881. PMID 16998496.
- Honrado E, Osorio A, Palacios J, Benitez J (2006). "Pathology and gene expression of hereditary breast tumors associated with BRCA1, BRCA2 and CHEK2 gene mutations". Oncogene 25 (43): 5837–45. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1209875. PMID 16998498.
- BRCA2 Protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on BRCA1 and BRCA2 Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer
- OMIM entries on BRCA1 and BRCA2 Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer
- EntrezGene 675
- "FORCE: Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered -- Hereditary, Genetic Breast or Ovarian Cancer and BRCA Issues". Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered, Inc. Archived from the original on 29 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-11.
- UCSC Genome Browser View
- Johan T. den Dunnen; Stylianos E. Antonarakis. "A mutation nomenclature for BRCA2 mutations". Wiley Interscience. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
- UCSC Gene details page