Hanford B Reactor
The face of B Reactor during construction.
|Location||Near junction of WA 24 & WA 240 on the Hanford Site|
|Nearest city||Richland, Washington|
|Built||June 7, 1943 to September 1944|
|Architect||E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co.|
|Governing body||U.S. Department of Energy|
|NRHP Reference #||92000245|
|Added to NRHP||April 3, 1992|
|Designated NHL||August 19, 2008|
The B Reactor at the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington, USA, was the first large-scale nuclear reactor ever built. The project was commissioned to produce plutonium-239 by neutron activation as part of the Manhattan Project, the United States nuclear weapons development program during World War II. The B reactor was fueled with metallic natural uranium, graphite moderated, and water-cooled. It has been designated a U.S. National Historic Landmark since August 19, 2008 and in July 2011 the National Park Service recommended that the B Reactor be included in a national historic park commemorating the Manhattan Project.
Reactor design and construction
The reactor was designed and built by E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company based on experimental designs tested by Enrico Fermi at the University of Chicago, and tests from the X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was designed to operate at 250 megawatts (thermal).
The reactor occupies a footprint of 46 by 38 ft (14 by 12 m) (about 1,750 sq ft (163 m2) and is 41 ft (12 m) (approximately five stories) tall, occupying a volume of 71,500 cu ft (2,020 m3). The reactor core itself consisted of a 36-foot-tall (11 m) graphite box measuring 28 by 36 ft (8.5 by 11.0 m) occupying a volume of 36,288 cu ft (1,027.6 m3) and weighing 1,200 short tons (1,100 t). It was penetrated horizontally through its entire length by 2,004 aluminum tubes and vertically by channels for the vertical safety rods.
The core is surrounded by a thermal shield of cast iron 8 to 10 inches (20 to 25 cm) thick weighing 1,000 short tons (910 t). Masonite and steel plates enclose the thermal shield on its top and sides, forming a biological shield for radiation protection. The bottom of the thermal shield is supported by a 23-foot-thick (7.0 m) concrete pad topped by cast-iron blocks. The graphite composition was selected to moderate the nuclear reaction fueled by 200 short tons (180 t) of uranium slugs approximately 25 mm (1 in) diameter 70 mm (3 in) long (the approximate size of a roll of quarters), sealed in aluminum cans, and loaded into the aluminum tubes.
The reactor was water-cooled, with cooling water pumped from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River through the aluminum tubes around the uranium slugs at the rate of 75,000 US gal (280,000 L) per minute. The water was discharged into settling basins, then returned to the river after allowing time for the decay of radioactive materials and the settling out of particulate matter.
The B Reactor had its first nuclear chain reaction in September, 1944, the D Reactor in December 1944 and the F Reactor in February 1945. The reactor produced plutonium-239 by irradiating uranium-238 with neutrons generated by the nuclear reaction. It was one of three reactors — along with the D and F reactors — built about six miles (10 km) apart on the south bank of the Columbia River. Each reactor had its own auxiliary facilities that included a river pump house, large storage and settling basins, a filtration plant, large motor-driven pumps for delivering water to the face of the pile, and facilities for emergency cooling in case of a power failure.
Emergency shutdown of the reactor, referred to as a SCRAM, was attained either by rapidly fully inserting the vertical safety rods (now called control rods) or, as a backup method, by the injection of borated water into the reactor. In January 1952, the borated water system was replaced by a "Ball-3X" system that injected nickel-plated high-boron steel balls into the channels occupied by the vertical safety rods.
The plutonium for the nuclear bomb used in the Trinity test at Los Alamos in New Mexico and the Fat Man bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan was created in the B, D, and F reactors. These first three reactors ran for two decades, and were joined by additional reactors constructed later. The B Reactor was permanently shut down in February 1968.
B Reactor is now in "interim safe storage" status. The D and F reactors were shut down in June 1967 and June 1965, respectively. In a process called cocooning or entombment, the reactor buildings are demolished up to the 4-foot-thick (1.2 m) concrete shield around the reactor core. Any openings are sealed and a new roof is built. The D and F reactors have already been entombed, as have the C and DR reactors. Most auxiliary buildings at the first three reactors have been demolished, as well. The H, K-East and K-West reactors and the N-Reactor are scheduled to be entombed in that order.
The United States Department of Energy has administered the site since 1977 and offers public tours on set dates during the spring, summer, and fall of the year, as well as special tours for visiting officials. The B Reactor was added to the National Register of Historic Places (#92000245) on April 3, 1992, and was named a National Historic Landmark on August 19, 2008. It is in the process of conversion into a museum.
Timeline of major events
|1943||October||U.S. Army Corps of Engineers breaks ground to build B Reactor |
|1944||September 13||First Uranium fuel slug loaded into B Reactor|
|1944||September 26||Initial reactor criticality achieved|
|1945||February 3||B Reactor Plutonium delivered to Los Alamos|
|1945||July 16||B Reactor Plutonium used for first nuclear test explosion at Trinity Test Site in Alamagordo, New Mexico|
|1945||August 9||B Reactor Plutonium used for "Fat Man" bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan|
|1946||March||B Reactor operations suspended|
|1948||June||B Reactor operation resumed|
|1949||March||B Reactor begins production of tritium for use in hydrogen bomb|
|1952||November 1||B Reactor tritium used in first test detonation of a hydrogen bomb at Bikini Atoll|
|1968||January 29||Atomic Energy Commission directs shutdown of B Reactor|
|1976||Declared National Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark by American Society of Mechanical Engineers|
|2008||Declared National Historic Landmark by U.S. Department of Interior and National Park Service|
|2009||U.S. Department of Energy announces public tours|
|2011||July||National Park Service recommends B Reactor be included in a national historic park commemorating the Manhattan Project.|
- Washington Closure Hanford - PDF
- PDF (168 KB)
- United States Department of Energy - B Reactor
- B Reactor a historic Landmark
- Shannon Dininny (2008-08-26). "World's first nuclear reactor now a landmark". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 16 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-26. "Construction began on June 7, 1943..."
- "Department of Energy - B Reactor". United States Department of Energy. 2007-04-20. Archived from the original on 16 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-26. "Completed in September 1944..."
- "Weekly List Actions". National Park Service. 2008-08-29. Retrieved 2008-08-30.[dead link]
- Michele S. Gerber, Brian Casserly, Frederick L. Brown (February, 2007). PDF (167 KB). National Park Service
- Cary, Annette (13 July 2011). "HANFORD: Park service recommends B Reactor for national park". Tri-City Herald. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
- United States Department of Energy. "Hanford Site Virtual Tours: 100-B Area". Hanford Site website. Richland, Washington. Retrieved 2009-10-23.[dead link]
- Manhattan Project B Reactor: World's first full-scale nuclear reactor, HNF-41115, Rev. 0, US Department of Energy, May 2009
- Manhattan Project B Reactor Tour Information, Feb 14, 2011, archived from the original on 21 July 2011, retrieved 17 July 2011
- B Reactor Museum Association A collection of Hanford-related documents from a group working to preserve the B-100 Reactor at Hanford.
- Reactor 105-B (museum) location: Coordinates:
- Hanford Site Tours - Department of Energy, includes B Reactor