Babeldaob (also Babelthuap) is the largest island in the islands nation of the Republic of Palau. It is in the western Caroline Islands Archipelago, and the second largest island in the Micronesia region of Oceania. Palaou's capital, Ngerulmud, is located on Babeldaob, in Melekeok State.
Babeldaob is one of the most undeveloped populated islands in the Pacific Ocean, even though it is the second largest island in Micronesia (only Guam is larger in area). The area of Babeldaob, 331 km2 (128 sq mi), makes up over 70% of the area of the entire Republic of Palau. It has about 30% of the country's population, with about 6,000 people living on it.
Babeldaob is located northeast of Koror Island, and its northern portion is in Koror State and contains the site of the new national capital, Ngerulmud. The southern end of the island is in Airai State, Palau's second-most populous state. The Airai Airport on the island is the nation's principal airport.
The Koror-Babeldaob Bridge links Babeldaob Island at Airai to Koror Island.
Unlike most of the islands of Palau, Babeldaob is mountainous. It contains Palau's highest point, the 242 m (794 ft)-tall Mount Ngerchelchuus. Babeldaob's eastern coast has many sandy beaches, in particular north from Melekeok to Ngaraard, and the island's western coast has a shoreline with many mangrove forests.
Of the 16 states of Palau, Babeldaob encompasses 10, which are:
First sighting of Babeldaob, Koror and Peleliu recorded by Europeans was by the Spanish expedition of Ruy López de Villalobos at the end of January of 1543. They were then charted as Los Arrecifes ("The Reefs" in Spanish). In November and December of 1710 these three islands were again visited and explored by the Spanish missionary expedition commanded by Sargento Mayor Francisco Padilla on board of the patache Santísima Trinidad. Two years later they were explored in detail by the expedition of Spanish naval officer Bernardo de Egoy. It was in the Spanish East Indies from 1686 to 1899.
During World War II a Japanese garrison on Babeldaob was composed of 21,449 Imperial Japanese Army men under the command of Lieutenant-General Sadae Inoue and 8,286 Imperial Japanese Navy men under the command of Vice-Admiral Kenmi Itoh. Babeldaob was bypassed by the Allied forces during the war.
- Babeldaob information from Lonely Planet. Retrieved June 2009.
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