Bắc Ninh Province

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Bắc Ninh Province
Tỉnh Bắc Ninh
Province
Kinh Bac Culture Centre
Kinh Bac Culture Centre
Nickname(s): The homeland of Quan họ[1]
Location of Bắc Ninh within Vietnam
Location of Bắc Ninh within Vietnam
Coordinates: 21°5′N 106°10′E / 21.083°N 106.167°E / 21.083; 106.167Coordinates: 21°5′N 106°10′E / 21.083°N 106.167°E / 21.083; 106.167
Country  Vietnam
Region Red River Delta
Capital Bắc Ninh
Government
 • Secretary Tran Van Tuy
 • People's Council Chair Nguyễn Sỹ
 • People's Committee Chair Nguyễn Nhân Chiến
Area
 • Total 823.1 km2 (317.8 sq mi)
Population (April 1, 2009)
 • Total 1,024,472
 • Density 1,244/km2 (3,220/sq mi)
 • Density rank 3
Demographics
 • Ethnicities Vietnamese
Time zone ICT (UTC+7)
Calling code 241
ISO 3166 code VN-56
Website www.bacninh.gov.vn

Bắc Ninh (About this sound listen) is a province of Vietnam, located in the Red River Delta of the northern part of the country. It is situated to the east of the Vietnamese capital, Hanoi, and borders Bắc Giang Province, Hưng Yên Province, Hải Dương Province, Vĩnh Phúc Province, and Hanoi.The province's name derives from Sino-Vietnamese , literally "northern serenity".

The province is rich in culture and is known nationally for Quan họ folk music. Quan ho is recognised as the Intangible Cultural Heritage by the UNESCO in 2009.[2]

History[edit]

Historically, Bắc Ninh province and the neighbouring Bắc Giang Province were united as Ha Bac Province. However, the population growth resulted in Ha Bac being split into two new provinces, each based around one of the old province's two major settlements. The new Bắc Ninh Province was formed around the municipality of Bắc Ninh, while the modern Bắc Giang Province encompasses Bắc Giang Municipality and most of the old Ha Bac Province's rural districts.

Geography[edit]

Topography[edit]

Bắc Ninh has a rather even and flat terrain, mainly sloping from north to south and west to east, causing currents to flow down into Duong River and Thái Bình River. The terrain odds is not much; field areas are 3-7m high and hill and mountain areas are 300-400m high above sea level. Its hills and mountains only make up 0, 53% of its natural area mainly in 2 districts of Que Vo and Tien Du. Besides, there are shallow depressions along dykes under districts of Gia Binh, Luong Tai, Que Vo, and Yen Phong.

Natural resources[edit]

The province's total natural land area is 822.7 km2, in which agricultural land, forestry land, specialized and residential land and unused land accounts for 54%, 0.7%, 31% and 14.3% respectively. The province's mineral reserve is limited: mainly construction materials such as clay in Que Vo and Tien Du, sandstone in Thi Cau, Vu Ninh, Bắc Ninh town and peat in Yen Phong.

Climate[edit]

Bắc Ninh features a warm humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) with plentiful precipitation. Bắc Ninh is located in a tropical monsoon region. The annual average temperature is 24°C. The highest one is 30°C in July; the lowest one is 15°C in January. The province experiences the typical climate of northern Vietnam, where summers are hot and humid, and winters are, by national standards, relatively cold and dry. Summers, lasting from May to September, are hot and humid, receiving the majority of the annual 1,680 millimetres (66.1 in) of rainfall. The winters, lasting from November to March, are relatively mild, dry (in the first half) or humid (in the second half), while spring (April) can bring light rains. Autumn (October) is the best time of year in term of weather. Average annual sunshine is 1,530-1,776 hours, relative humidity is 79%.[3]

Climate data for Bắc Ninh
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 19.9
(67.8)
20.4
(68.7)
23
(73)
27.4
(81.3)
31.8
(89.2)
33
(91)
32.8
(91)
32.2
(90)
31.2
(88.2)
29
(84)
25.6
(78.1)
22.1
(71.8)
27.37
(81.18)
Daily mean °C (°F) 16.5
(61.7)
17.4
(63.3)
20
(68)
24
(75)
27.7
(81.9)
29.2
(84.6)
29.2
(84.6)
28.8
(83.8)
27.7
(81.9)
25.2
(77.4)
21.6
(70.9)
18.5
(65.3)
23.82
(74.87)
Average low °C (°F) 13.2
(55.8)
14.4
(57.9)
17.1
(62.8)
20.6
(69.1)
23.7
(74.7)
24.6
(76.3)
25.5
(77.9)
25.4
(77.7)
24.2
(75.6)
21.4
(70.5)
17.7
(63.9)
14.9
(58.8)
20.23
(68.42)
Rainfall mm (inches) 12
(0.47)
33
(1.3)
34
(1.34)
87
(3.43)
211
(8.31)
245
(9.65)
332
(13.07)
337
(13.27)
234
(9.21)
98
(3.86)
34
(1.34)
23
(0.91)
1,680
(66.16)
Source: climate-data.org[4]

Administration divisions[edit]

Administration divisions

Bắc Ninh Province has been divided into one city municipality (thành phố) (Bắc Ninh), one township (thị xã) (Từ Sơn) and 6 districts (huyện): Thuận Thành District, Quế Võ District, Tiên Du District, Gia Bình District, Lương Tài District and Yên Phong District.

The Bắc Ninh Province People's Committee is a 9-member executive council for the province. The current chairman is Nguyễn Nhân Chiến. There are several vice chairmen and chairwomen on the committee with responsibility for various province departments. The legislative branch of the province government is called the People's Council and consists of 50 deputies. Both the committee and the council are subordinate to the province's Communist Party, currently led by Party Secretary Trần Văn Túy. The chairman of the People's Committee is the No. 2 position in the city government while chairman of the People's Council is No. 3.

Name Division type Population (2009) Area (km²) Towns (huyện lỵ or thị trấn) (bold)
and communes (xã)
Bắc Ninh City (thành phố) 164,307 82.6 Wards (phường):Đáp Cầu, Thị Cầu, Vũ Ninh, Suối Hoa, Ninh Xá, Tiền An, Vệ An, Vạn An, Kinh Bắc, Đại Phúc, Võ Cường, Vân Dương, Hạp Lĩnh.Communes: Hòa Long, Phong Khê, Khúc Xuyên, Kim Chân, Nam Sơn, Khắc Niệm
Từ Sơn Town (thị xã) 140,040 61.3 Wards (phường): Châu Khê, Đình Bảng, Đông Ngàn, (Đồng Nguyên, Đồng Kỵ, Tân Hồng, Trang Hạ). Communes: Hương Mạ, Phù Chẩn, Phù Khê, Tam Sơn, Tương Giang.
Thuận Thành District District (huyện) 144,536 117.9 Hồ, An Bình, Đại Đồng Thành, Đình Tổ, Gia Đông, Hà Mãn, Hoài Thượng, Mão Điền, Nghĩa Đạo, Ngũ Thái, Nguyệt Đức, Ninh Xá, Song Hồ, Song Liễu, Thanh Khương, Trạm Lộ, Trí Quả, Xuân Lâm.
Quế Võ District District (huyện) 135,938 149.1 Phố Mới, Bằng An, Bồng Lai, Cách Bi, Chi Lăng, Đức Long, Châu Phong, Đào Viên, Đại Xuân, Hán Quảng, Mộ Đạo, Nhân Hoà, Ngọc Xá, Phượng Mao, Phương Liễu, Phù Lãng, Phù Lương, Quế Tân, Việt Hùng, Việt Thống và Yên Giả.
Tiên Du District District (huyện) 124,396 96.2 Lim,Cảnh Hưng, Đại Đồng, Hiên Vân, Lạc Vệ, Liên Bão, Minh Đạo, Nội Duệ, Phật Tích, Phú Lâm, Tân Chi, Tri Phương, Việt Đoàn, Hoàn Sơn.
Yên Phong District District (huyện) 126,660 95.2 Chờ, Dũng Liệt, Đông Phong, Đông Thọ, Đông Tiến, Hòa Tiến, Long Châu, Tam Đa, Tam Giang, Thụy Hòa, Trung Nghĩa, Văn Môn, Yên Phụ, Yên Trung.
Gia Bình District District (huyện) 92,269 107.9 Gia Bình, Giang Sơn, Song Giang, Đông Cứu, Lãng Ngâm, Đại Bái, Quỳnh Phú, Đại Lai, Xuân Lai, Nhân Thắng, Thái Bảo, Bình Dương, Vạn Ninh, Cao Đức.
Lương Tài District District (huyện) 96,326 105.7 Thứa, An Thịnh, Bình Định, Lai Hạ, Lâm Thao, Minh Tân, Mỹ Hương, Phú Hòa, Phú Lương, Quảng Phú, Tân Lãng, Trung Chính, Trung Kênh, Trừng Xá.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop.
1995 916,000
1996 925,300
1997 931,700
1998 937,600
1999 943,000
2000 950,600
2001 958,900
2002 967,600
2003 975,300
2004 983,200
2005 991,100
2006 999,800
2007 1,009,400
2008 1,018,100
2009 1,026,500
2010 1,041,200
2011 1,060,300
Sources:[5]

In terms of land area, Bắc Ninh is the smallest of all Vietnamese provinces (and in fact, is smaller than any of the five province-level municipalities). It is, however, home to a relatively large number of people for its size, having the highest population density of any province. On average, there are over 1,200 people for every square kilometre of land in Bắc Ninh.

According to the census of 1 April 2009, the population was 1,024,472 with a density of 1,262 people/km², 5 times the national average. There are 27 ethnic groups in the province, of these ethnic Vietnamese comprised 99,67%.

Transport[edit]

1A Highway

The geographical position and infrastructure. Bắc Ninh is about 30 kilometres from Hanoi and Noi Bai International Airport, and some 100 km from Haiphong, Halong, Cai Lan port and Lạng Sơn bordergate

  • Roadway: The province has over 3,906.8 km of road, 104.8 km of which is from 4 routes of national roads of No1 (old and new routes) (linking Hanoi – Bacninh – Lạng Sơn), No18 (Noi Bai – Bacninh – Hạ Long), and No38 (Bacninh – Haiduong – Haiphong), the Noi Bai-Hạ Long Expressway 251 km from routes of rovincial roads, 404 km from district and urban areas, and some 3,147 km from commune and hamlet roads.
  • Waterway: Three big rivers flowing through Bắc Ninh comprise the Cau River leaving 42 km long, Thái Bình River 17 km long, and Duong River 42 km long. Besides, there are Dap Cau Port, and two special ports of the Cau River.
  • Railway: A 20-km Hanoi-Lang Son Rail Route runs through Bắc Ninh and 4 railway stations of Tu Son, Lim, Bắc Ninh, and Thi Cau. A 39-km Yen Vien-Pha Lai Rail Route is planned to construct at districts of Tien Du, Tu Son, Que Vo, Bắc Ninh City.
  • Power supply: Power is stably supplied for production and domestic consumption. 120 km of 110kV national grid; 249.3 km of 35-kV electric lines; 3,700 km of 0.4kV electric lines. All districts and cities have national grid and all of households use electricity.

Economy[edit]

Dong Ho style print

Bắc Ninh Province lies on the major traffic artery linking Vietnam and China – which is a strongly growing market and expected to be larger as the China - ASEAN free trade area is formed. It also lies on the Nanning - Lạng Sơn - Hanoi - Hai Phong and Nanning - Singapore economic corridors, the Hanoi capital city planning area and the busy Hanoi - Hai Phong - Quảng Ninh economic development triangle.

Bacninh Province is known as a light point in industrial development, has been lifting rapidly with long steps of industrialisation – modernisation. Bắc Ninh has 15 industrial parks with total areas of 7,681 ha, of which nine have operated effectively. The industrial parks have lured 272 foreign direct investment (FDI) projects totaling to over $3.7 billion, including those invested by Canon, Samsung, P&Tel, Sumitomo, Foxconn, ABB, Orion, PepsiCo and Nokia. They have attracted 254 domestic projects with total registered capital of over $1 billion and a labour force of more than 83,000. Bắc Ninh has as many as 120 handicraft-producing villages, 62 of which are involved in producing traditional products such as copper casting (Dai Bai-Gia Binh), iron and steel (Da Hoi-Tu Son), and wooden products (Dong Ky-Kim Son). They have the upper hand and high potentials to contribute much to Bắc Ninh's economic development.

Culture[edit]

Statue of Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva, crimson and gilded wood, Restored Lê dynasty, autumn of Bính Thân year (1656), at Bút Tháp Temple

Bắc Ninh is hometown of not only Kinh Dương Vương – the very first king of ancient Viet ethic but also eight Kings of Lý Dynasty. Many historical and cultural relics such as Đô Temple (where 8 kings of Lý Dynasty are worshipped), Dâu Pagoda, the first pagoda in Vietnamese history, Bút Tháp Pagoda (an ancient pagoda), Phật Tích Pagoda, Dâu Pagoda and local Literature Temple; thousands of local festival, from small to large, having special meaning such as Dâu Pagoda festival, Lim festival, Đô Temple festival and Bà Chúa Kho temple festival.

The quan họ style originated in what is now Bắc Ninh Province and was first recorded in the 13th century, and has traditionally been associated with the spring festivals that follow the celebration of Tết (the Vietnamese New Year). Quan họ is recognised as the Intangible Cultural Heritage by the UNESCO in 2009.

The village of Đông Hồ in the province of Bắc Ninh is known as a center of production of traditional Vietnamese woodblock prints (Đông Hồ painting), which are sold all throughout Vietnam in time for the Lunar New Year (Tết) celebrations.[6][7]

Hồ chicken (gà Hồ) is a breed originating in Bắc Ninh Province. Gà Hồ is a distinctly Vietnamese rare breed of chicken, familiar as a symbol in Vietnam. According to folklore, the chicken (particularly the rooster) has the five qualities of a man of honour: literacy, martial arts, physical strength, humanity and loyalty. The symbolism in the context of the AIGs is that the Hồ chicken rising himself to welcome the sun is likened to the readiness of the sports industry of Vietnam to host this major event.

List of festivals in Bắc Ninh Province:

Name of festival and Conducted time Location Content
Phật Tích Pagoda festival (4th of the first Lunar month) Phat Tich commune, Tiên Du District Worship: "Quan Am" Buddha, and Emperor Ly Thanh Ton

Coming to Buddhist area, praying for happy and prosperity.

Dong Ky fire-cracker festival (the 2nd of the first Lunar month) Dong Quang ward, Từ Sơn Worship: Thien Cuong De (Hung Vuong regime)

Coming here to pray for lucky and happy and also have wrestle competition.

Chap festival (4th of the first Lunar month) Hoa Long commune, Bắc Ninh Worship: Truong Hong, Truong Hat

Competition: singing Quan Ho, and tug of war

Nga Hoang Festival (7th of the first Lunar month) Yen Gia commune, Quế Võ District Worship: Linh Son, Mi Nuong

Offering custom The Elbow custom of boys and girls

Tam Son Pagoda festival (8th–12th of the first Lunar month) Tam Son commune, Từ Sơn District Worship: Buddha

Entertainment: Puppet-showing, cock-fighting, earthenware pot shattering, quan họ singing

Bo Son festival (9th of the first Lunar month) Khac Niem ward, Bắc Ninh The festival of Quan Họ village
Lim festival (13th–15th of the first Lunar month) Van Tuong commune, Tiên Du District Entertainment: Singing folk songs, Tug of war, Human chess, Cock-fighting...
Bà Chúa Kho temple festival (14th of the first Lunar month) Co Me village, Vu Ninh ward, Bắc Ninh Worship: Bà Chúa Kho

praying for happy and prosperity.

Diem festival Viem Xa village, Hoa Long commune, Bắc Ninh Worship: Thanh Tam Giang, Nam Hai Dai Vuong

Competition: Singing quan họ, to vie the ball with each other.

To Pagoda festival (18th–23rd of the first Lunar month) Thai Bao commune, Gia Bình District Competition:

Reading prayer-book, wrestling, regatta, weaving.

Phu Luu festival (8th of the third Lunar month) Tan Hong ward, Từ Sơn Worship: Tam Giang God

Competition: Singing folksong, chess, and wrestling...

Dinh Bang village temple festival (12th–16th of the third Lunar moth) Dinh Bang ward, Từ Sơn Worship: God of mountain, God of river, and God of plants. Custom of sacrifice to the God Competition: wrestling, cock-fighting
Đô Temple festival (14th-17th of the third Lunar month) Dinh Bang ward, Từ Sơn Worship: 8 Emperors of Lý Dynasty.

Custom: Coronation, Offering incenses. Entertainment: Releasing pigeon, wrestling, cock-fighting, singing folksongs

Kham festival (7th of the fourth Lunar month) Gia Dong commune, Thuận Thành District Worship: 3 totelary Gods.

Custom: Receive with consideration Lac Long Quan to village temple praying for a good crop. Entertainment: Wrestling, cock-fighting, chess

Dâu Pagoda festival (8th of the fourth Lunar month) Thanh Khuong commune, Thuận Thành District Worship: Phap Van statue

Custom: Pick up to pagoda, Offering incense, spaying Entertainment: stick dancing, dragon dancing... Entertainment: Wrestling, cock-fighting, chess

Education[edit]

Primary and secondary education[edit]

Bacninh's education system is divided into 5 categories: pre-primary, primary, intermediate, secondary, and higher education.

Kindergarten and kindergarten for children from 2 to 5 years old to form thinking for children. Create the habit, the day of this period (not all children must learn this level).

Primary school level is also called the level, starting 6 years old. Level I consists of 5 levels, from grade 1 to grade 5. This is a grade school on, required for all students.

Secondary level education: Level II includes 4 levels, from grade 6 to grade 9. Students must learn to school subjects: Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry (grade 8.9), Biology, Technology, written language, History, Geography, Education Citizens, Foreign Language, Health, Parenting Music - Visual Arts.

In addition students have some information required such as: education outside the classroom on time, direction of education (grade 9), use of school ... To study the higher level students to participate in the examination enrollment.

Level secondary school: Level III consists of 3 levels, from grade 10 to grade 12. To graduate level III, students must participate in the graduation exam secondary school of education and training.Notable high schools in Bắc Ninh include Bắc Ninh High School for the Gifted, Thuan Thanh No 1 High School, among others. Though the former schools are all public, private education is also available in Bắc Ninh.

Students want to study in schools-public school to attend an examination of birth. The exam is held every year, by the Department of Education and Training of the local lead. At this level, students also study subjects similar in grade middle school. However, students in secondary school also take a number of other activities as the business, vocational ...

Higher education[edit]

Bacninh has had universities and colleges, vocational training skill secondary schools and centres providing investors with labour source suitable for demand on high technical qualification of enterprises.

  • Bắc Ninh University of Physical Education and Sports(UPES1)
  • Kinh Băc University
  • Bac Ha International University
  • People's Police University of Technology and Logistics - T36(Đại học Kỹ thuật - Hậu cần Công an nhân dân)
  • Academy of Policy and Development
  • Dong A University of Technology

Notable people[edit]

International relations[edit]

  • Angola

The leader also expressed his wish to share the province's experience with Angola in investment promotion, contributing to fostering the friendship between the two peoples.They signed a memorandum of understanding on cooperation in forestry exploitation and processing, and the supply of construction workers in oil and gas to the African country.[8]

  • Cambodia

Cambodia wants to tighten cooperation in many fields with Vietnam, including the northern province of Bắc Ninh, to deepen solidarity and friendship between the two countries.Cambodia will continue receiving Vietnam and Bắc Ninh Province's assistance in corruption prevention, meeting citizens and settlement of complaints and denouncements.

  • Korean

Korea investment projects in northern Bắc Ninh Province have greatly contributed to the development of the province's key industrial sectors.

  • Laos

Bac ninh committed to helping Hua Phan upgrade its infrastructure for agricultural production, mining and processing industries.Bắc Ninh will also help Hua Phan build a primary school and grant scholarships to students from Hua Phan studying in Vietnam.

  • Japan

The Vietnam – Japan Friendship Organization held a prayer for peace at Bắc Ninh provincial Museum.A delegation from the ASEAN-Japan Centre visited Bắc Ninh on October 24, 2012 to learn about the investment environment in this northern province.

References[edit]

External links[edit]