Baccarat

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Baccarat, Meurthe-et-Moselle)
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the French commune. For the game, see Baccarat (card game). For other uses, see Baccarat (disambiguation).
Baccarat
Baccarat-aérien.JPG
Coat of arms of Baccarat
Coat of arms
Baccarat is located in France
Baccarat
Baccarat
Coordinates: 48°26′57″N 6°44′20″E / 48.4492°N 6.7389°E / 48.4492; 6.7389Coordinates: 48°26′57″N 6°44′20″E / 48.4492°N 6.7389°E / 48.4492; 6.7389
Country France
Region Lorraine
Department Meurthe-et-Moselle
Arrondissement Lunéville
Canton Baccarat
Intercommunality Vallées du Cristal
Government
 • Mayor (2014–2020) Christian Gex
Area1 13.53 km2 (5.22 sq mi)
Population (2010)2 4,656
 • Density 340/km2 (890/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 54039 / 54120
Elevation 257–365 m (843–1,198 ft)
(avg. 275 m or 902 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Baccarat (IPA: [bakaʁa]; German: Burgambach) is a French commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in the Lorraine region of north-eastern France.

The inhabitants of the commune are known as Bachâmois or Bachâmoises.[1]

The commune has been awarded three flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom.[2]

Geography[edit]

Baccarat is located some 25 km south-east of Lunéville and 30 km north-west of Saint-Dié-des-Vosges in the Meurthe river valley between the Deneuvre plateau and the wooded hills of Grammont. Access to the commune is by the Route nationale N59 from Bertrichamps in the south-east which passes through the heart of the commune east of the town and continues north-west to join the N333 south-east of Lunéville. The D590 also goes from Bertrichamps and passes through the town continuing north-west to Azerailles. The D19 goes north from the village to Gélacourt. The D935 goes north-east from the town to Merviller and also south-west, changing to the D435 at the departmental border, to Ménil-sur-Belvitte. A railway also passes through the commune with a station near the town and the railway line coming from Azerailles in the north-west continuing to Bertrichamps in the south-east. The commune has a large forest in the east with the rest of the commune mixed forest and farmland.[3]

The Meurthe river passes though the commune and the town from the south-east flowing north--west to eventually join the Moselle at Custines. The Ruisseau des Bingottes rises east of the commune and joins the Meurthe in the south of the commune.[3]

Neighbouring communes and villages[4][edit]

History[edit]

American Hospital No. 2 in Baccarat specialised in the treatment of patients "gassed" by chemical weapons during the First World War, 8 June 1918

Baccarat was originally a suburb of the city of Deneuvre which has Roman origins. The name Baccarat comes perhaps from Bacchi-ara ("Altar of Bacchus") which was the name of a Roman castellum of which there remains a relic called the Tower of Bacha on the heights of Deneuvre.

The Castellany belonged to the Diocese of Metz. In 1305 Henri, first lord of Blâmont from the House of Salm, dedicated Deneuvre for the Bishop of Metz and, to ensure its safety, he built the Tower of Voués at the bottom of the spur. A suburb formed at its foot: this was the origin of Baccarat (which has been spelt Bacquarat, Bakarroit, Beckarrat, and Backarrat). The name Baccarat appeared for the first time in 1291.

In 1459 the city was best known for its drapers as well as wine. Louis XV authorized the creation of a glassworks in 1764 at the instigation of the Bishop of Metz who was anxious to sell the important local production of firewood. A glassworks named Antoine Renaut responded to the authorisation. The works became a crystal glassworks in 1817 and was sold to the Compagnie des Cristalleries in 1881 subsequently achieving worldwide fame under the name of Baccarat. The growing number of workers enabled the development of the commune with the construction of housing, schools, shops, roads, and small industries but the war marked a halt to this development.

On the eve of the First World War the city was home to the 20th Batailion of Foot Chasseurs at the Haxo barracks - some buildings of which remain today. The period between the two world wars was marked by the construction of the church, the bridge, and the town hall (1924). During the Second World War there was much damage to the city including the destruction of the church in October 1944. Liberated by the French 2nd Armoured Division on 31 October 1944, the city resumed its industrial expansion in 1945. The reconstruction of the church was done in 1953.

Heraldry[edit]

Arms of Baccarat
These are the Arms of the chapter of the cathedral at Metz who owned the lordship, together with a stemmed glass symbolising the crystal glass industry.

Blazon:
Party per fesse, 1 Gules a dexter arm hand Carnation armed Argent holding a sword the same hilt and pommel Or between two roundels the same; 2 Azure a goblet Argent.



Administration[edit]

The Town Hall
The Escadron de Gendarmerie Mobile at Baccarat

The Canton of Baccarat includes 20 communes: Azerailles, Baccarat, Bertrichamps, Brouville, Deneuvre, Flin, Fontenoy-la-Joûte, Gélacourt, Glonville, Hablainville, Lachapelle, Merviller, Mignéville, Montigny, Pettonville, Reherrey, Thiaville-sur-Meurthe, Vacqueville, Vaxainville, and Veney.

The Community of communes of Cristal was created on 1 January 2004 to link Baccarat with the neighbouring communes of Lachapelle and Thiaville-sur-Meurthe.

In 2010 Baccarat was awarded the Certification mark of "Ville Internet @@" (Internet Town).[5]

List of Successive Mayors[6]

From To Name Party Position
1857 Jean Joseph Grégoire
1914 1914 Arthur Marie Joseph Tisserand
1965 1971 Jean-Marie Fève Doctor, born in Vicherey
1971 1975 André Violle
1975 1983 Georges Humbert
1983 1989 Michel Bacus
1989 2001 Jean-Marie Fève
2001 2008 Michel le Paige PS
2008 2014 Josette Renaux Retired French Consul
2014 2020 Christian Gex Engineer

(Not all data is known)

Twinning[edit]

Baccarat has twinning associations with:[7]

Demography[edit]

In 2010 the commune had 4,656 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]

Evolution of the Population (See database)
1793 1800 1806 1821 1831 1836 1841 1846 1851
983 1,096 1,246 1,857 2,304 3,057 3,216 3,260 3,520
1856 1861 1866 1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896
3,565 4,121 - 5,036 5,764 6,013 5,823 5,723 6,772
1901 1906 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954
7,014 6,996 7,277 5,739 5,605 5,598 5,336 5,034 6,024
1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006 2010 -
6,067 5,856 5,590 5,433 5,022 4,746 - 4,656 -

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)


Population of Baccarat

Economy[edit]

The town gave its name to the world-famous crystal factory which has been located here since the 18th century. Baccarat makes crystal according to the technique provided by Aimé-Gabriel d'Artigues. Many workers have been awarded the title of Meilleur Ouvrier de France working under the direction of Mr. Roland-Gosselin - artistic director of the factory in the 1950s. The crystal factory retains its typical French savoir-faire and its products adorn the grander tables of today.

Culture and heritage[edit]

The Baccarat Museum
A Crystal object in the Baccarat Museum, Paris

Civil heritage[edit]

The commune has many sites that are registered as historical monuments:

  • The Berthelon Gasworks at 28 Rue du 20e Bataillon (1909)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[8] The Gasworks contains a Gas Meter (19th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg which is registered as an historical object.[9]
  • The Société des Constructions Métalliques de Baccarat (Metalwork Factory) at 30 Rue du 20e Bataillon (1913)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[10]
  • The Hydro-electric Power Plant at Rue des Cristalleries (1927)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[11]
  • The Gasworks at 49 Rue des Cristalleries (1851)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[12]
  • The Chateau de la Cristallerie (now Museum) at 6 Rue des Cristalleries (1764)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[13] was enlarged for Aimé d'Artigues (1778-1848), the recipient of the glassworks in 1816 by the addition of two lateral bodies in 1817. It was used as housing for the administrators of the crystal works from the middle the 19th century. Part of the ground floor has now been converted into a museum of Baccarat crystal products. The park was bisected by an open street in the 1st half of the 19th century and a part (located to the west of the orangery) was subdivided in the last years of the 19th century for the construction of the Workers' City. There are also some private archives.
  • The Saint Anne Glassworks (now Cristallerie de Baccarat) at 6-49 Rue des Cristalleries (1764-1954)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[14] The Glassworks contains a Stained glass panel depicting Glass workers (1992)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg which is registered as an historical object.[15]
  • A Sawmill at 4a Rue de Humbépaire (19th century)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[16]
  • The Drouard et Berthault Lock and Metalwork Factory (now Société des Constructions Métalliques de Baccarat) at 10 Avenue de Lachapelle (1873)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[17]
  • The former Dairy Factory (now an Auto workshop) on Route de Merviller (1930)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[18]
  • The former Deneuvre Mill (now a Crystal Lapidary and Engraving Factory) on Rue du Moulin de Deneuvre (1836)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[19]
  • The Workers' City (1764-1892)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[20]


An exhibition of Baccarat Glass at Petit Palais à Paris, November 2014
The Tower of Voués
Other sites of interest
  • The Tower of Voués was the keep of the castle built in 1305 by Count Henry I to protect the serfs' houses. It measures 11.70 m in the North by 14.70 m in the East and its height is approximately 30 m. It was sold in 1332 by Henry III to Adhémar de Monteil (Bishop of Metz) who built a castle around which Baccarat would be built. The castle was demolished in the middle of the 17th century by Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine.
  • The Town Hall in neo-Renaissance style was built in 1924 by architect Deville, inspired by Flemish houses. On the facade carved buttons represent the different skills of the crystal industry. The grand staircase is the work of Jean Prouvé. The entire building was completely renovated in 2004. The Town Hall contains many items that are registered as historical objects:
    • Framed Drawings (1947)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[21]
    • Framed Paintings (19th-20th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[22]
    • 4 Chandeliers and 6 Sconces of Baccarat crystal (1925)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[23]
  • The Haxo Building contains a Painting of a Forest Landscape which is registered as an historical object.Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[24]
  • The Community Hall contains two items that are registered as historical objects:
  • The Baccarat Museum at 2 Rue des Cristalleries
  • An Arboretum and rose garden (Michaut Park - 7 hectares) behind the Hotel de Ville.
  • The Crystal fountain roundabout between the Town Hall and St Rémy de Baccarat
  • Fables de La Fontaine, made of stained glass windows in pink sandstone frames, are installed in different areas in the city.
  • The Pôle Bijou

Religious heritage[edit]

The Church of Saint-Rémy

The commune has several religious buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments:

  • The Chapel of Saint Anne at 6 Rue des Cristalleries (1775)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[27] was intended for the use of glassworks staff. It was built as a church annexe for the Deneuvre parish in 1802 and currently it is used for summer exhibitions organized by the Baccarat factory.
  • The Church of Saint-Rémy at Au Patis (1954)Logo monument historique - rouge sans texte.svg[28] was destroyed in 1944 and rebuilt in modern style. Built by the architect Nicolas Kazis, it is entirely built using the sign of the triangle - the symbol of the Holy Trinity. The bell tower of trihedral shape measures 55 metres in height and houses 3 bells. On each side of the choir two symmetrical groups represent the twelve Apostles, recognizable by their traditional attributes. Beautiful wrought iron furniture completes the church: two stoups with basins in baccarat, a chandelier, 2 separation grills in the transept, the Ambon, the Tabernacle with its and crystal panels, and a baptistery at the foot of the cross with a wooden Christ. There are two other statues in the lateral naves: Saint Remy and a Virgin and Child (Our Lady of the Offering) by François Brochet. The side aisles have sculptures of reconstituted stone and Baccarat crystal representing the 14 Stations of the Cross. A wonderful ceiling (the most beautiful of its kind in Europe) is composed of 130 laminated timber elements which weigh 19 tons. At the entrance of the church a pipe organ by Jacquot Lavergne was installed in the gallery in 1958 with 3 keyboards and pedals and 40 registers. The organ has 3,660 pipes. The church contains two items that are registered as historical objects:
    • A Ciborium (No. 3) (19th century)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[29]
    • 48 Stained glass windows: The Apostles and Calvary (1957)Logo monument historique - noir sans texte.svg[30] The panels are composed of 4,000 glass tiles 2.5 cm thick cut into 20,000 small pieces of Baccarat crystal fitted in concrete. The colourful set uses over 150 colours which makes it unique in the world.
Other religious sites of interest

The Chapel of Saint Christopher (12th century) has some staues.

  • The Chapel of Saint Catherine (17th century)
  • Chapel of Our Lady of Deliverance (19th century)
  • Chapel of Our Lady of Humbépaire (1948) is illuminated by 20 stained glass panels by Gabriel Loire, a carillon of 6 Paccard bells is installed in the belfry.
  • Remains of the Carmelite Convent (15th century)
  • The Church of Saint Joseph of Badmenil was restored in 2012.


Picture Gallery of Religious sites in Baccarat

Military Life[edit]

Baccarat Military Cemetery

The 20th Battalion of Foot Chasseurs were stationed in Baccarat from 1906 to 1918.

Festivals[edit]

  • The Fête du pâté lorrain (Festival of Lorraine paté) is held on the second Sunday of September
  • The Grand Carnival is held in March every second year
  • Les Insolites (The Unusuals) is a discovery trail of contemporary works in Michaut Park from mid-June to the end of August
  • The 'Festival International des Métiers d'art (International Festival of Crafts) (FIMA) is held every second year

Notable people linked to the commune[edit]

  • Louis Ancel (1736-1802), General of the Army of the Republic, died in Baccarat.
  • François Gény (1861-1959), lawyer, born in Baccarat.
  • Jean-Michel Bertrand (1943-2008), former MP for Ain, born in Baccarat.
  • Édouard Ignace (1862-1924), former MP for Seine and Under-secretary of State for Military Justice.
  • Maurice Jaubert, composer born in 1900, wounded in action and died in Baccarat on 19 June 1940.
  • Charles Peccatte (1870-1962), painter
  • Michel-Auguste Colle (1872-1949), painter

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by Law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002, the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" allows, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force in 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Inhabitants of Meurthe-et-Moselle (French)
  2. ^ Baccarat in the Competition for Towns and Villages in Bloom (French)
  3. ^ a b Google Maps
  4. ^ Géoportail, IGN (French)
  5. ^ Baccarat on the Villes Internet official website (French)
  6. ^ List of Mayors of France (French)
  7. ^ National Commission for Decentralised cooperation (French)
  8. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA54000952 Berthelon Gasworks (French)
  9. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM54004518 Gas meter (French)
  10. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA54000960 Metalwork Factory (French)
  11. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA54001021 Hydro-electric Power Plant (French)
  12. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA54001014 Gasworks (French)
  13. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA54001019 Chateau (French)
  14. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA54001025 Glassworks Complex IA54001015 Saint Anne Glassworks (French)
  15. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM54004536 Stained glass panel depicting Glass workers (French)
  16. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA54000959 Sawmill (French)
  17. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA54000966 Drouard et Berthault Lock and Metalwork Factory (French)
  18. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA54000953 Dairy Factory (French)
  19. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA54000954 Deneuvre Mill (French)
  20. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA54001024 Workers' City (French)
  21. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy, Drawings: PM54001379 The Church after its destruction in 1944 PM54001378 The Church after its destruction in 1944 (French)
  22. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy, Paintings: PM54001377 Waterfall PM54001376 The Church in ruins PM54001375 Champigneulles, a Lorrain village PM54001374 A Lane overlooking a Valley PM54001373 Lake and Village (River) PM54001372 Lake and small boat (Bathing spot) PM54001371 3 Birches in the Marsh PM54001370 La Pexure: Stream in a village under a large tree PM54001369 Mountain Landscape PM54001368 Marine (or foam) PM54001369 Birches in autumn with Mountain background (French)
  23. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM54001366 4 Chandeliers and 6 Sconces (French)
  24. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM54001380 Painting: Forest Landscape (French)
  25. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM54001365 2 Chandeliers and 2 Sconces (French)
  26. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM54001364 2 Paintings: A Boar taken by a team of Mastiffs and The double blow (French)
  27. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée IA54001020 Chapel of Saint Anne (French)Camera aabb.svg
  28. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA54000078 Church of Saint-Rémy (French)
  29. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM54009564 Ciborium No. 3 (French)
  30. ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy IM54002454 48 Stained glass windows: The Apostles and Calvary (French)