|Cultural origins|| Puerto Rico
|Typical instruments||Dem Bow (rhythm) – Sampler – Drum machine – Requinto/Bachata guitar – electric bass guitar – güira – Bongo Drums – Vocals (rapping, singing)|
|Puerto Rico – Dominican Republic – Panama – Cuba – Colombia – Venezuela – United States – Spain – Mexico – Japan – Italy – Portugal – Brazil|
|Reggaeton – Bachata – Te He Querido, Te He Llorado – Lo Que Paso, Paso – Music of Puerto Rico|
Bachatón (also known as Bachateo) is a musical movement in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic which combines bachata melodies and reggaeton style beats, lyrics, rapping, and disc jockeying. The word "Bachateo" is a combination of the words "Bachata" and "Perreo" while "Bachatón" the combination of "Bachata" and "Reggaeton". Though, "Bachatón" is widely accepted and was coined in 2005. It is a subgenre of reggaeton and bachata.
Bachata is a genre of music that originated in the Dominican Republic in the early parts of the 20th century and spread to other parts of Latin America and Mediterranean Europe. It became popular in the countryside and the rural neighborhoods of the Dominican Republic. Its subjects are often romantic; especially prevalent are tales of heartbreak and sadness. In fact, the original term used to name the genre was amargue ("bitterness," or "bitter music"), until the rather ambiguous (and mood-neutral) term bachata became popular. The form of dance, Bachata, also developed with the music. The earliest bachata was originally developed in the Dominican Republic around the early part of the 20th century, with mixed Cuban boleros and, which originated from Son. With African elements, combined with traditional Latin/Caribbean rhythms. During much of its history Bachata music was denigrated by Latino/Caribbean society and associated with rural backwardness and delinquency.The typical bachata group consists of five instruments: lead guitar, rhythm guitar, electric bass guitar, bongos and güira.The rhythm guitar is also known as a Segunda and serves the purpose of adding syncopation to the music. Bachata groups mainly play a simple style of bolero (lead guitar instrumentation using arpeggiated repetitive chords is a distinctive characteristic of bachata), but when they change to merengue based bachata, the percussionist will switch from bongo to a tambora drum. In the 1960s and 70s, maracas were used instead of güira. The change in the 1980s from maracas to the more versatile güira was made as bachata was becoming more dance oriented.
Reggaetón is an urban form of music which has its roots in Latin and Caribbean music. Its sound derives from the Reggae en Español from Panama. The genre was invented, shaped and made known in Puerto Rico where it got its name; most of its current artists are also from Puerto Rico. After its mainstream exposure in 2004, it spread to North American, European, Asian and African audiences. Reggaeton blends Jamaican musical influences of dancehall, with those of Latin America, such as salsa, bomba, Latin hip hop, and electronica. Vocals include rapping and singing, typically in Spanish. Lyrics tend to be derived from hip hop rather than from dancehall. Like hip hop, reggaeton has caused some controversy, albeit less, due to alleged exploitation of women. While it takes influences from hip hop and Jamaican dancehall, reggaeton is not precisely the Hispanic or Latin American version of either of these genres; reggaeton has its own specific beat and rhythm, whereas Latin hip hop is simply hip hop recorded by artists of Latino descent. The specific "riddim" that characterizes reggaeton is referred to as "Dem Bow". The name is taken from the dancehall song by Shabba Ranks that first popularized the beat in the early 1990s and that appears in his album Just Reality.
2000-2003: The Arrival of Dominican Styles of Music
The appearance of Dominican styles of music such as bachata and merengue in reggaetón coincided with the arrival in Puerto Rico of the Dominican-born production team of Luny Tunes—although they are not solely credited for this development. In 2000, they received an opportunity to work in the reggaeton studio of DJ Nelson. They began to produce a string of successful releases for reggaeton artist including Ivy Queen, Tego Calderón and Daddy Yankee. "Pa' Que Retozen", one of the first songs to combine bachata and reggaeton appeared on Tego Calderón's highly acclaimed El Abayarde (2002). It features the unmistakable guitar sounds of Dominican bachata—although, it was not produced by Luny Tunes but by DJ Joe. Luny Tunes however, on their debut studio album, Mas Flow (2003) included a hit by Calderón "Métele Sazón". It exhibited bachata's signature guitar arpeggios as well as merengue's characteristic piano riffs.
After the success of these songs, other artist began to incorporate bachata with reggaeton. Artist such as Ivy Queen began releasing singles that featured bachata's signature guitar sound and slower more romantic rhythm as well as bachata's exaggerate emotional singing style. This is reflected in the hits "Te He Querido, Te He Llorado" and "La Mala". Daddy Yankee's "Lo Que Paso, Paso" and Don Omar's "Dile" also reflect this. A further use of bachata occurred in 2005 when producers began remixing existing reggaeton with bachata's characteristic guitar sounds marketing it as Bachatón defining it as "Bachata, Puerto Rican style".
In popular music
- "Más Maíz" — N.O.R.E. featuring Nina Sky, Fat Joe, Lumidee, Chingo Bling, Lil Rob, Big Mato and La Negra of LDA
- "Mayor Que Yo" — Luny Tunes featuring Baby Ranks, Daddy Yankee, Wisin & Yandel and Hector "El Father"
- "Ella y Yo" — Aventura featuring Don Omar
- "Ven Bailalo" — Angel & Khriz
- "Avísame" — Baby Rasta & Gringo
- "Brugal" — Daddy Yankee
- "Lo Que Paso, Paso" — Daddy Yankee
- "Pobre Diabla" — Don Omar
- "Dile" — Don Omar
- "Dile" — Ivy Queen
- "Dime" — Ivy Queen
- "La Mala" — Ivy Queen
- "Te He Querido, Te He Llorado" — Ivy Queen
- "Según Tú" — Ivy Queen
- "Sentimientos" — Ivy Queen
- "Si No Eres Tu" — Mickey Perfecto featuring Ivy Queen
- "Tienes A Otra" — N.O.R.E. featuring Ivy Queen and Big Mato
- "Bachatiando" — Miguelito
- "Pa' Que Retozen" — Tego Calderón
- "Métele Sazón" — Tego Calderón
- Pacini Hernandez, Deborah. "Brief history of Bachata", Bachata, A social history of a Dominican popular music, 1995, Temple University Press. Retrieved on 2008-12-04
- . Raquel Z. Rivera. 2009. Reggaeton. "Part I. Mapping Reggaeton". From Música Negra to Reggaeton Latino: Wayne Marshall. "Part II. The Panamanian Connection". Placing Panama in the Reggaeton Narrative: Editor's Notes / Wayne Marshall. Duke University Press, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.
- Franco, Edgardo A. "Muévelo (move it!): from Panama to New York and back again, the story of El General". Interview by Christoph Twickel. Reggaeton. Eds. Raquel Z. Rivera, Wayne Marshall, and Deborah Pacini Hernandez. Durham: Duke University Press, 2009. 99–108.
- Buckley "Bush", Francisco. La música salsa en Panamá. Panama: EUPAN, 2004.
- Aulder, Leonardo Renato. "The Panamanian Origins of Reggae en Español: Seeing History through 'los ojos café' of Renato". Interview by Ifeoma C. K. Nwankwo. Reggaeton. Eds. Raquel Z. Rivera, Wayne Marshall, and Deborah Pacini Hernandez. Durham: Duke University Press, 2009. 89–98.
- Andrews, George Reid. Afro-Latin America, 1800–2000. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
- AskMen.com – "5 Things You Didn't Know About Reggaeton"
- Phoenix New Times – "Phoenix sizzles with the latest dance music from Puerto Rico"
- Jamaicans.com – "a new genre of Caribbean dance music"
- Mundo Reggaeton – "Reggaeton History"
- BBC News – "Puerto Rico shakes to a new beat"
- Pistas de Reggaeton Famosas / Official Reggaeton Beats
- Wayne Marshall (2006-01-19). "Rise of Reggaetón". The Phoenix. Retrieved 2006-07-24.
- "Grow Dem Bow". Village Voice. Retrieved 2006-07-24.
- Raquel Z. Rivera, Wayne Marshall and Deborah Pacini Hernandez. "Reggaeton". Duke University Press. 2009. pg. 143-