Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery

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Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, or in Latin: Medicinae Baccalaureus, Baccalaureus Chirurgiae (abbreviated in various ways, viz. MBBS or MBChB, MB BS, MB BChir, BM BCh, MB BCh, MB ChB, BM BS, BM, BMed etc.), are the two first professional undergraduate degrees awarded upon graduation from medical school in medicine and surgery by universities in various countries that follow the tradition of the United Kingdom. The naming suggests that they are two separate degrees; however, in practice, they are usually treated as one and awarded together. In countries that follow the tradition of the United States, the degree is awarded as M.D. or D.O., which is a professional doctorate degree.[1]

History and nature[edit]

The degree is currently awarded in various forms in institutions in Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Botswana, China, Egypt, Fiji, Ghana, Guyana, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Libya, Malawi, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Myanmar, Nepal, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, Zambia and Zimbabwe.[2]

Historically, Bachelor of Medicine was also the primary medical degree conferred by institutions in the United States and Canada, such as University of Pennsylvania, Harvard, University of Toronto, University of Maryland, and Columbia. Several early North American medical schools were (for the most part) founded by physicians and surgeons who had trained in England and Scotland. University medical education in England culminated with the Bachelor of Medicine qualification, and in Scotland the Doctor of Medicine, until the mid-19th century when the public bodies that regulated medical practice at the time required practitioners in Scotland as well as England to hold the dual Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degrees. Throughout the 19th century, North American medical schools switched to the tradition of the Ancient universities of Scotland and began conferring Doctor of Medicine rather than Bachelor of Medicine, the first institution to make such a switch being King's College (now Columbia University) in New York.[3]

In the countries that award bachelors' degrees in medicine, however, Doctor of Medicine denotes a holder of a higher doctorate and is reserved for medical practitioners who undertake research and submit a thesis in the field of medicine. Nevertheless, those holding Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery are usually referred to by the courtesy title of "Doctor" and use the prefix "Dr", whether or not they also hold a Ph.D. or DSc. In theory the right to the use of the title "Doctor" is conferred on the medical graduate when he or she is registered as a medical practitioner by the relevant professional body, not merely by the possession of the academic degrees.[4] The reason is found in a parallel tradition for those who are post-graduate specialists in Surgery; on acceptance into a College of Surgeons, they stop styling themselves "Doctor" and revert to "Mister" (Mr), "Miss," "Muz" (Ms.) or "Missus" (Mrs). This curious situation, where an elevation in professional rank is signified by dropping the title of Doctor, came about because historically a "surgeon" was an ordinary workman, usually a Barber, not trained in medicine but performing dissections and surgery under the direction of a gowned academic who was the actual "Doctor".

Despite their styling as two degrees, Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery are usually conferred together. At some institutions, such as Oxford and Cambridge, it was possible in the past to be awarded the two degrees in different years.[citation needed]

In many countries, the degrees are awarded after an undergraduate course lasting five or six years. In some cases, a graduate in another discipline may subsequently enter a special graduate-entry medical course, reduced in duration to account for relevant material covered or learning skills acquired during the first degree. In some cases the old first year courses (for six year degrees) in the basic sciences of physics, chemistry and biology have been abolished, and that standard has to be reached by means of school examinations before entry. However, in most countries a newly graduated Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery must spend a specified period in internship before they can obtain full registration as a licensed medical practitioner.

Naming[edit]

The specific names and abbreviations given to these degrees depend on the particular institution, awarding body or country, and vary widely; this is mostly for reasons of tradition rather than to indicate any particular difference between the relative levels of the degrees, and they are considered equivalent.

If the awarding body titles the degrees in Latin, the degrees are commonly named Medicinae Baccalaureus, Chirurgiae Baccalaureus, Medicinae Baccalaureus et Chirurgiae Baccalaureus, or Baccalaureus in Medicina et in Chirurgia, abbreviated as MB ChB, MB BCh or otherwise. If titled in English, they are named Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, or Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery, usually abbreviated as MB BS, and sometimes as BM BS, even though most MB BS-awarding institutions do not use Latin to name their degrees.

Below are described the specific names used, arranged by country.

Australia[edit]

Historically, Australian medical schools have followed the British tradition by conferring the degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) to its graduates whilst reserving the title of Doctor of Medicine (MD) for their research training degree, analogous to the PhD, or for their honorary doctorates. A notable exception is the Bachelor of Medicine (BMed) joint program of the University of Newcastle and the University of New England. Although the majority of Australian MBBS degrees have been graduate programs since the 1990s, under the previous Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) they remained categorised as Level 7 Bachelor degrees together with other undergraduate programs.

The latest version of the AQF includes the new category of Level 9 Master's degrees (Extended) which permits the use of the term 'Doctor' in the styling of the degree title of relevant professional programs. As a result, various Australian medical schools have replaced their MBBS degrees with the MD to resolve the previous anomalous nomenclature. With the introduction of the Master's level MD, universities have also renamed their previous medical research doctorates. The University of Melbourne was the first to introduce the MD in 2011 as a basic medical degree, and has renamed its research degree to Doctor of Medical Science (DMedSc).[5]

Current Australian medical schools and their basic qualifying medical degrees are listed below:[6]

University Current Degree(s) Duration Entry Previous Degree(s)
University of Adelaide MBBS 6 years Undergraduate N/A
Australian National University MChD 4 years Graduate MBBS
Bond University MBBS 4.6 years Undergraduate N/A
Deakin University BMBS 4 years Graduate N/A
Flinders University MD 4 years Graduate BMBS
Griffith University MD 4 years Graduate MBBS
James Cook University MBBS 6 years Undergraduate N/A
University of Melbourne MD 4 years Graduate BMedSc/MBBS
Monash University MBBS 5 years Undergraduate N/A
Monash University MBBS 4 years Graduate N/A
University of Newcastle BMedSc/MD 5 years Undergraduate BMed
University of New England BMedSc/MD 5 years Undergraduate BMed
University of New South Wales BMed/MD 6 years Undergraduate MBBS
University of Notre Dame Australia MBBS 4 years Graduate N/A
University of Queensland MD 4 years Graduate MBBS
University of Sydney MD 4 years Graduate MBBS
University of Tasmania MBBS 5 years Undergraduate N/A
University of Western Australia MD 4 years Graduate MBBS
University of Western Sydney MBBS 5 years Undergraduate N/A
University of Wollongong MBBS 4 years Graduate N/A

Bahrain[edit]

The Medical University of Bahrain or RCSI-Bahrain, is a constituent university of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) and awards its graduates the MB/BCh BAO, the same degree awarded to graduates at RCSI.

Bangladesh[edit]

All medical schools in Bangladesh award MBBS. The MD is awarded as a postgraduate research degree in select medical colleges, following the medical tradition of Commonwealth countries. As per the declaration of overseas registration of the General Medical Council, the awarded MBBS degree from some of the institutions is eligible to apply for registration in United Kingdom. In Bangladesh, Allopathic and Alternative Medicine related medical education at the undergraduate and graduate level is provided by medical colleges. The colleges are under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Health, and are affiliated with a university in the respective region. Until the early 1990s, all medical colleges were established by the government. Since then, several private medical colleges have been set up.

University Degree Previous degree Duration Level
University of Dhaka MBBS A- Level 6 years (incl. 1 year intern) Undergraduate
BSMMU MD,[7] MS MBBS 5 years Postgraduate

China[edit]

In China, medical graduates are traditionally awarded a Bachelor of Medicine (BMED) for a course of study lasting five or six years. However, as of 2011, 49 universities, including its frequently top-ranked medical schools, have been authorized by the government to award the MBBS degree as an equivalent to the BMed. However 2014-15 list is not published by Ministry of Education China .[8] The universities listed in 2011 are:

Egypt[edit]

All Egyptian medical schools, public and private, award an MBBCh as the basic medical degree after completion of 6 academic years. The MBBCh is comparable to the M.D. in US and Canada. Advanced research degrees such as Master and PhD can be further pursued and are often a requirement for tenured positions in the medical schools.

England, Wales and Northern Ireland[edit]

Due to the UK code for higher education, first degrees in medicine comprise an integrated programme of study and professional practice spanning several levels. While the final outcomes of the qualifications themselves typically meet the Expectations of the descriptor for higher education qualification at level 7 (the UK master's degree). These degrees may retain, for historical reasons, "Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery" and are abbreviated to MBChB or MBBS.[9]

Various abbreviations are used for these degrees in these areas:

At the University of St Andrews, pre-clinical study leads to the award of a BSc (Hons) degree. Students then progress to other institutions to complete their MBChB. At the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, the preclinical course leads to an additional Bachelor of Arts (BA), degree (upgradable after three or four years to Master of Arts), after which most students used to go elsewhere (but usually to one of the London teaching hospitals) to complete clinical training. They could then take the degrees of their new university: they used to have the options of returning to their old university to take the clinical examinations, or taking one of the old non-university qualifying examinations. Most students at Oxford and Cambridge now remain in place to take their clinical training.

The Conjoint diplomas: LRCP, MRCS, and the alternative diploma LMSSA were non-university qualifying examinations in medicine and surgery awarded jointly by the Royal College of Physicians of London, Royal College of Surgeons of England and Society of Apothecaries through the United Examining Board from 1994 until 1999, when the General Medical Council withdrew permission. Prior to 1994, the English Conjoint diploma of LRCP, MRCS was awarded for 110 years, and the LMSSA was a distinct and sometimes less-esteemed qualification. These diplomas slowly became less popular among British medical students, but as recently as 1938 only a half of them qualified with university degrees.[10] The diplomas came to be taken mostly by those who had already qualified in medicine overseas.

Ghana[edit]

All Ghanaian medical schools award an MBChB as the basic medical degree after 6 academic years. These medical schools are Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology,[11] University of Ghana, University for Development Studies and University of Cape Coast.

Guyana[edit]

The University of Guyana awards MB BS. Other "offshore" United-States-linked schools in the country award the North American MD. Recently, the University of Guyana acquired accreditation by CAAM-HP, establishing itself as a credible institute and teaching standards in comparison with University of West Indies.

Texila American University awards Doctor of Medicine (MD)

Hong Kong[edit]

The awarding of qualifications in Hong Kong follows the British tradition. The dual degree is awarded as:

India[edit]

Medical colleges in India, accredited by the Medical Council of India, all title the degrees as MBBS. The students complete a course of four and a half years (Nine semester) followed by one year of a compulsory rotatory internship before applying for the degree.The course is divided into three phases and the third phase is further divided into 2 parts.

MBBS Phase-I - 1st and 2nd semester (1 year) MBBS Phase-II - 3rd, 4th and 5th semester (1½ years) MBBS Phase-III-Part-I - 6th and 7th semester (1 year) MBBS Phase-III-Part-II - 8th and 9th semester (1 year)

Students take an examination at the end of each phase.The exam is both Theory and practical/clinical in all subjects.

Scheme of MBBS Examination:

MBBS Phase I Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry At the end of First 12 months MBBS Phase II Pharmacology, Pathology, Microbiology and Forensic Medicine At the end of Second 18 months MBBS Phase III Part I Community Medicine,ENT and Opthalmology One year after Phase II(Total period is 12 months) MBBS Phase III Part II Medicine (including Dermatology and Psychiatry),Surgery (including Orthopedics),Obstetrics & Gynecology and Pediatrics 12 months afer Phase III, Part I( Total teaching period for Phase III part II subjects is 3rd to 9th semesters)

Pattern of MBBS Examination The first 12 months include Phase I (pre Clinical ) and no student is allowed to enter the Phase II unless he/she clears Phase I. He/She is permitted to have 4 attempts spread over three years from date of admission whichever is earlier.

3. After the Pre-clinical subjects, Para-clinical subjects are taught with clinical subjects and last 18 months, clinical subjects continue till the end.

Candidate have to pass all phase I subjects before entering II phase.Candidates entering Phase II will take examination in Pharmacology, Pathology, microbiology and Forensic Medicine at the end of 18 months: Successful candidates who have passed all the subjects of Phase II (at the end of 18 months) will appear for ENT , Ophthalogy and Community Medicine (Preventive and Social Medicine) at the end of 12 months at Phase III, Part I Examination. no Candidate shall be allowed for Phase III,Part I examination unless he/she passed all the subjects of Phase II (No carry over benifit).A candidate failing in one or more subjects of Phase III,part I, and that of appearing of Part III, Part II unless he/she has cleared all subjects of Phase III Part I ( no carry over benefit ).

The first phase comprises pre-clinical subjects anatomy, physiology and biochemistry. The second phase includes para-clinical subjects pharmacology, microbiology, pathology and forensic medicine. The third phase comprises clinical subjects is divided into part I and part II comprising preventive and social medicine, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology and general medicine, general surgery & orthopedics, pediatrics and obstetrics and gynecology respectively.

one year of a compulsory rotatory internship which includes 04 months minor postings 02 months in rural posting and 06 months major postings (i.e. Medicine, O.B.G. and Surgery) After passing the Final MBBS examination students must have temporary registration from Medical Council of India or State Medical Council. The 12 month internship is compulsory to attain both the degrees and Permanent registration with the Medical Council of India.After they finish internship, they will take their Hippocratic Oath and be awarded the title of dr. Graduates who hold this title are licensed and may now practice medicine. Note that the title of Doctor (Dr.) can be used both by Ph.D. degree holders and medical doctors and is written in capital "D", as in Dr., which in India refers to a M.B.B.S. MD. MS. DM. MCh. DNB. or Ph.D.

Following MBBS they can apply for post graduate (specialty) courses which will be for 2 to 3 years they will receive a degree as MD, MS, DNB depending on the subjects. Following this they can also further do super specialty courses in cardiology, neurology, oncology, nephrology, gastroenterology, endocrinology, immunology, etc. for 3 more years, they will be awarded the degree as DM (medical), MCh (surgical), DNB (medical/surgical). MBBS is course after 10+2, which is related to medical study .The entrances to the medical colleges are highly competitive, with more than 5 lakh students applying every year for about 30,000 seats.

Indonesia[edit]

In Indonesia, medicine is an undergraduate study. The Bachelor of Medicine program is completed in 3.5 up to 4 years and graduating students are awarded the degree of S.Ked (Sarjana Kedokteran / Bachelor of Medicine). At this point, the graduate is not yet a doctor, but he or she may choose to work directly as a scientist or other non-clinician professions (usually still health-related). However, most S.Ked graduates will pursue the conventional path, which is to enroll in the clerkship program for another 1.5 up to 2 years. This makes the total duration of medical school 5 or 6 years. After they finish clerkship, they will take their Hippocratic Oath and be awarded the title of dr. (medical doctor, equivalent to M.D. in United States). Graduates who hold this title are licensed and may now practice medicine. Note that this title is written in lowercase "d", as opposed to uppercase "D", Dr., which in Indonesia refers to a Ph.D.

Iran[edit]

Medical education begins after high school in Iran. No pre-med course or B.Sc. degree is required. The eligibility is determined through the rank applicants obtain in the national university entrance exam being held every year. The entry to medical school is so competitive and only students with the highest rank are accepted into medical program. The primary medical degree is completed in 7-7.5 years. Medical graduates are awarded a certificate in general medicine, called "Professional Doctorate in Medicine" validated by the "Ministry of health and Medical Education of Iran". All physicians will obtain licence and medical council registration number from the "Medical Council of Iran" before they officially begin to practice. They may subsequently specialize in a specific medical field at medical schools offering the necessary qualifications. Academically, Degree of "Professional Doctorate in Medicine" is evaluated as Master's degree in Iran and graduates are allowed to enroll in PhD programs directly after obtaining medical degree.

Iraq[edit]

All medical schools in Iraq award MB ChB. and the sciences

Ireland[edit]

The medical schools in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland - Queen's University Belfast, the University of Dublin (Trinity College), some constituent institutions of the National University of Ireland (University College Dublin, University College Cork and National University of Ireland, Galway), and the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland— award the degrees of MB BCh BAO. The letters BAO stand for Baccalaureus in Arte Obstetricia (Bachelor of Obstetrics), a degree unique to Ireland which the Irish universities added in the 19th century as the legislation at the time insisted on a final examination in obstetrics. This third degree is an anachronism which is not registerable with the Irish Medical Council nor the British General Medical Council (GMC). The only exception is the University of Limerick graduate school of medicine which awards BM BS for Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery.

At the University of Dublin the preclinical course leads to an additional Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree (upgradable after three or four years to Master of Arts) in the Natural Science Moderatorship; as originally after this most students used to go elsewhere to complete clinical training.

LRCPI LRCSI, or simply LRCP&SI, denotes a holder of the historical non-university qualifying licenciates awarded jointly by the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland and the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland to students of the RCSI's medical school under the Irish Conjoint Scheme. Unlike the corresponding licentiates awarded by the Royal Colleges in Scotland and England (which were external qualifications), these qualifications are still registerable with the Irish Medical Council, but not with the British GMC. Students at RCSI still receive these licenciates but now also receive the degrees MB BCh BAO, due to RCSI's status as a recognised college of the National University of Ireland. The RCSI students also received a Licence in Midwifery (LM) from each college, in the same way that the Irish universities granted BAO degrees, so their qualifications were sometimes expressed as L & LM, RCPI, L & LM, RCSI or more misleadingly as LLM, RCP&SI.

LAH formerly denoted a licentiate of the now-defunct Apothecaries' Hall, Dublin, and is no longer awarded.

Jordan[edit]

The Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery (MBBS) degree is awarded in Jordan after completion of six years comprising three years of medical sciences and three clinical years. Currently, four state supported universities grant the degree which are:

Kenya[edit]

The national universities with medical faculties in Kenya, namely Egerton University, University of Nairobi, Kenyatta University, Moi University, Maseno University and Kenya Methodist University award MB ChB.

Mount Kenya University awards a different degree, the Bachelor of Clinical Medicine and Community Health.

Libya[edit]

There are three major public medical universities in Libya, University of Tripoli (Tripoli) and University of Benghazi (formerly Garyounis) (Benghazi)and ((university of alzaweyah)) ((alzaweyah)) . the schools award MBBCh. The Libyan International Medical University is an accredited private medical university which awards an MBChB to its graduates.

Malaysia[edit]

The MBBS is awarded by 5 Public & 14 Private Universities:

Public

Private

Myanmar[edit]

All five medical schools (UM1, UM 2, DSMA, UMDY, UMG) in Myanmar award MB BS.

Nepal[edit]

There are 18 Medical Schools in Nepal that award MBBS degree. Nepal Medical Council (NMC) is the regulatory board in Nepal that give recognition to medical institutions for providing formal studies in medical science and training.

Kathmandu University (KU) and Affiliated colleges:

  • Kathmandu University, School of Medical Sciences (KUSMS), Dhulikhel, Kavre
  • Manipal College of Medical Sciences (MCOMS), Pokhara, Kaski
  • College of Medical Sciences (CMS), Bharatpur, Chitwan
  • Kathmandu Medical College (KMC), Sinamangal, Kathmandu
  • Nepal Medical College (NMC), Jorpati, Kathmandu
  • Nepalgunj Medical College (NGMC), Chisapani, Nepalgunj
  • Lumbini Medical College (LMC), Tansen, Palpa
  • Nobel Medical College, Biratnagar

Tribhuvan University (TU) and Affiliated colleges:

  • Tribhuvan University, Institute of Medicine (IOM), Maharajgunj, Kathmandu
  • Nepalese Army Institute of Health Sciences,College of Medicine, Kathmandu
  • Universal College of Medical Sciences (UCMS), Bhairawaha
  • National Medical College, Birgunj
  • Janaki Medical College, Janakpur
  • KIST Medical College, Imadol, Lalitpur
  • Chitwan Medical College (CMC), Bharatpur, Chitwan
  • Gandaki Medical College (GMCTHRC), Pokhara, Kaski
  • Mahendranagar Medical College, Mahendranagar, Kanchanpur

Medical School not affiliated to universities or having their own board:

  • B.P. Koirala Institute Of Health Sciences (BPKIHS), Ghopa, Dharan
  • Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS), Patan, Lalitpur
  • National Academy of Medical Sciences (NAMS), Kathmandu is a NMC recognized medical college that have post-graduate residency training programs but do not award MBBS degree.

New Zealand[edit]

The two New Zealand medical schools, Auckland and Otago, style their degrees as MBChB and "MB ChB" respectively.

Pakistan[edit]

All Ninety One (41[12] Public Sector and 50 Private Sector) medical institutes award MBBS (5 years program), including the famous institutes of Allama Iqbal Medical College Lahore, Nishtar Medical College, Multan, "AYUB MEDICAL COLLEGE,ABBOTTABAD", "CMH Lahore Medical And Dental College and Institute of Dentistry", "Service Institute Of Medical Sciences" (SIMS), Shifa College of Medicine, Army Medical College, Frontier Medical College, Abbottabad, King Edward Medical University, The Aga Khan University, Dow University of Health Sciences and University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Khyber Medical University.[13] University of Health Sciences, Lahore awards M.B,B.S degree to all the medical colleges of the Punjab including private sector as well.

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Medical schools in Saudi Arabia award MBBS

Government sponsored medical schools:

Private medical schools: Alfaisal University Ibn Sina National College for Medical Studies Batterjee Medical College for Sciences and Technology AlMaareefa College Global Colleges Sulaiman AlRajhi Colleges

Scotland[edit]

All medical schools in Scotland (Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh and Glasgow) award MB ChB.

The University of St Andrews School of Medicine awarded MB ChB until the early 1970s, but since the incorporation of its clinical medical school into the University of Dundee, St Andrews now only awards a pre-clinical BSc or BSc (Hons), and students go to a Partner Medical School (Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh, Glasgow, or Manchester where they are awarded an MB ChB after a further three years' study).

The Scottish Triple Conjoint Diploma of LRCPE, LRCSE, LRCPSG (earlier LRCPE, LRCSE, LRFPSG) is an old non-university qualifying examination in medicine and surgery awarded jointly by the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, previously through a Conjoint Board and from 1994 through the United Examining Board. These qualifications are still registrable with the GMC[citation needed], but permission to award them was withdrawn by the Privy Council of the UK in 1999.

Singapore[edit]

The Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine at the National University of Singapore confers MB BS. The American Duke University also has a medical programme based in Singapore (Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School), but it follows the North-American model of styling its degree Doctor of Medicine (MD) at masters degree level.[14]

Somalia[edit]

Medical schools in Somalia award the MBBS:[15]

South Africa[edit]

The University of Pretoria, University of Cape Town, University of the Free State, University of Stellenbosch, University of KwaZulu-Natal and MEDUNSA all award MBChB, whereas the University of the Witwatersrand styles its degree as MBBCh.

South Sudan[edit]

The University of Juba in South Sudan awards the MBBS degree after the successful completion of six academic years.

Sri Lanka[edit]

The University of Sri Jayewardenepura, University of Colombo, University of Peradeniya, University of Kelaniya (Ragama), University of Ruhuna, Rajarata University, University of Jaffna, General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University and Eastern University of Sri Lanka, hold the authority to award MBBS in Sri Lanka.

Sudan[edit]

All Sudanese medical schools award the MBBS.

Uganda[edit]

The five universities in Uganda which have medical schools that teach undergraduate courses, namely Makerere University, Mbarara University, Gulu University, Kampala International University and Busitema University, all award the MBChB degree, after 5 years of study.

United States[edit]

Wisconsin[edit]

The Wisconsin Medical Society defends the use of the M.D. title by physicians who graduated with an MBBS and are licensed to practice medicine in Wisconsin.[16]

Wales[edit]

Both universities in Wales that have medical schools, namely Cardiff University and Swansea University, award MB BCh.

West Indies[edit]

All constituent countries of the University of the West Indies (UWI) confer MB BS, due to the historical affiliation of UWI to the University of London. There are other medical schools in the West Indies, but these follow the North-American system leading to MD.

Zambia[edit]

All schools in Zambia that award the MBChB degree:

Government sponsored medical schools:

  • University of Zambia (UNZA)
  • Copperbelt University (CBU)

Private Sponsored medical schools:

  • Cavendish University Zambia (CUZ)
  • Lusaka Apex Medical University (LAMU)

Zimbabwe[edit]

In Zimbabwe the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degree is done at Undergraduate level. Entry into a Zimbabwean medical school is highly competitive due to the strict system. The University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences offers the five-year MBChB degree. This is the largest and oldest University in Zimbabwe. Applicants submit their applications early in February every year for the August intake and shortlisted candidates are required to pass an interview in order to be admitted into this programme. The first two years of this programme provide basic education in Biochemistry, Anatomy and Physiology. The following three years then provide clinical training in Paediatrics, Gyenacology and Obstretics, Phsychiatry, Pathology, Epidemiology, etc., along with clinical rotations at Parirenyatwa Hospital in Harare. The National University of Science and Technology offers the five-and-a-half year MBBS degree. Admission policy as well as curriculum are similar to that of the University of Zimbabwe. Clinical rotations are done at Mpilo Hospital in Bulawayo.

Classification[edit]

Medical degrees differ from other undergraduate degrees in that they are professional qualifications which lead holders to enter a particular career upon receipt. This is not the case with most other undergraduate degrees, so whilst the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery are undergraduate or graduate degrees (depending on the institution), they are perhaps more accurately conceptualised as a so-called first professional degree. Other professions whose qualifications follow a similar pattern include:

Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery are usually awarded as general/ordinary degrees, not as honours degrees, and as such the graduate is not classified as for honours degrees in other subjects. However, at many institutions (for example the University of Birmingham, University of Sheffield, University of Liverpool, University of Leicester and University of Manchester in England and the University of Dundee in Scotland) it is possible for the degrees to be awarded with Honours (i.e. MB ChB (Hons.)) or with Commendation, if the board of examiners recognises exceptional performance throughout the degree course. Very few of these are awarded.

More often, it is possible to study one subject for an extra year for an intercalated honours degree. This is usually a Bachelor of Science (BSc), Bachelor of Medical Science (BMedSci), Bachelor of Medical Biology (BMedBiol) or similar: at Oxford and Cambridge in England and Dublin in Ireland Bachelor of Arts degrees are awarded. At a few universities most medical students obtain an ordinary degree in science as well: when the University of Edinburgh had a six year course, the third year was followed by award of an ordinary BSc(MedSci). In Australia, The University of Melbourne in Australia offers an Arts Degree (BA) to a medical student on the completion of two extra years of undergraduate study, and Monash University offers a Law degree (LLB); if the optional Law degree is undertaken, on completion of their degree the student may choose to do a one-year internship at a hospital and become a doctor, or spend one year doing articles to practise thereafter as a lawyer. At the University of Nottingham and the University of Southampton, both in England, all medical students on the five year course obtain a Bachelor of Medical Sciences (BMedSci) degree without an extra intercalated year. At Imperial College London and University College London, certain medical students are able to extend their intercalated year to an extra three years, thus temporarily exiting the MBBS course to complete a PhD. Upon completion of the PhD, the student is required to sit the remaining 2 years of the medicine course in order to receive his/her MBBS degeee. The University of the West Indies, Mona in Kingston, Jamaica automatically awards a Bachelor of Medical Sciences (BMedSci) degree to all students who have successfully completed three years of their MBBS programme.[17]

Progression[edit]

Medical school graduates are only entitled to use the courtesy title "Doctor" upon registration as a medical practitioner with the relevant regulatory body in their respective country. Medical graduates are also eligible to sit various postgraduate examinations, including examinations for membership and fellowship of professional institutions. Among the latter are the Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons, postgraduate Masters degrees (such as a Master of Surgery or Master of Medicine), and a postgraduate doctorate in medicine (such as Doctor of Medicine or Doctor of Science, if earned in Ireland, the UK or Commonwealth nations, and board certification examinations).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Perspectives on professional doctorate education in the United States" (pdf). Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  2. ^ "ECFMG 2008 Information Booklet - Reference Guide for Medical Education Credentials". 
  3. ^ "Columbia University: About Columbia". 
  4. ^ Bowden, K.M. (1965) Forensic Medicine, Jacaranda Press, p. 23
  5. ^ "Doctor of Medicine (MD)". University of Melbourne. 15 January 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  6. ^ "Medical School Accreditation Program and Status Report". Australian Medical Council. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  7. ^ http://www.bsmmu.edu.bd/?page=menu&content=139020387254 List of Program offered by BSMMU
  8. ^ Ministry of Education Notice (PRC)
  9. ^ The UK quality code for higher education
  10. ^ Walker, R Milnes (1965). Medical Education in Britain. London: Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust. 
  11. ^ About Kwame Nkrumah University
  12. ^ http://www.mbbsmc.edu.pk
  13. ^ "Recognized Medical/Dental Colleges". Pakistan Medical & Dental Council. 2006. Retrieved 30 November 2010. 
  14. ^ "Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore". 
  15. ^ "Medical schools in Somalia". HAS. Retrieved 23 June 2014. 
  16. ^ (PHY-993) (HOD,0495) Wisconsin Medical Society PDF
  17. ^ Regulations of the University of West Indies Regarding The MBBS dEGREE

External links[edit]