Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery
Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, or in Latin: Medicinae Baccalaureus, Baccalaureus Chirurgiae (abbreviated in various ways, viz. MBBS or MBChB, MB BS, MB BChir, BM BCh, MB BCh, MB ChB, BM BS, BM, BMed etc.), are the two first professional undergraduate degrees awarded upon graduation from medical school in medicine and surgery by universities in various countries that follow the tradition of the United Kingdom. The naming suggests that they are two separate degrees; however, in practice, they are usually treated as one and awarded together. In countries that follow the United States the degree is awarded as M.D..
History and nature 
The degree is currently awarded in various forms in institutions in Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, China, Egypt, Fiji, Ghana, Guyana, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Libya, Malawi, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Myanmar, Nepal, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Historically, Bachelor of Medicine was also the primary medical degree conferred by institutions in the United States and Canada, such as University of Pennsylvania, Harvard, University of Toronto, University of Maryland, and Columbia. Several early North American medical schools were (for the most part) founded by physicians and surgeons who had trained in England and Scotland. University medical education in England culminated with the Bachelor of Medicine qualification, and in Scotland the Doctor of Medicine, until the mid-19th century when the public bodies that regulated medical practice at the time required practitioners in Scotland as well as England to hold the dual Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degrees. Throughout the 19th century, North American medical schools switched to the tradition of the Ancient universities of Scotland and began conferring Doctor of Medicine rather than Bachelor of Medicine, the first institution to make such a switch being King's College (now Columbia University) in New York.
In the countries that award bachelors' degrees in medicine, however, Doctor of Medicine denotes a holder of a higher doctorate and is reserved for medical practitioners who undertake research and submit a thesis in the field of medicine. Nevertheless, those holding Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery are usually referred to by the courtesy title of "Doctor" and use the prefix "Dr", whether or not they also hold a Ph.D. or DSc. The reason is found in a parallel tradition for those who are post-graduate specialists in Surgery; on acceptance into a College of Surgeons, they stop styling themselves "Doctor" and revert to "Mister" (Mr), "Miss" or occasionally "Missus" (Mrs). This curious situation, where an elevation in professional rank is signified by dropping the title of Doctor, came about because historically a "surgeon" was an ordinary workman, usually a Barber, not trained in medicine but performing dissections and surgery under the direction of a gowned academic who was the actual "Doctor".
Despite their styling as two degrees, Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery are usually conferred together. At some institutions, such as Oxford and Cambridge, it was possible in the past to be awarded the two degrees in different years.
In many countries, the degrees are awarded after an undergraduate course lasting five or six years. In some cases, a graduate in another discipline may subsequently enter a special graduate-entry medical course, reduced in duration to account for relevant material covered or learning skills acquired during the first degree. In some cases the old first year courses (for six year degrees) in the basic sciences of physics, chemistry and biology have been abolished, and that standard has to be reached by means of school examinations before entry. However, in most countries a newly graduated Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery must spend a specified period in internship before they can obtain full registration as a licensed medical practitioner.
The specific names and abbreviations given to these degrees depend on the particular institution, awarding body or country, and vary widely; this is mostly for reasons of tradition rather than to indicate any particular difference between the relative levels of the degrees, and they are considered equivalent.
If the awarding body titles the degrees in Latin, the degrees are commonly named Medicinae Baccalaureus, Chirurgiae Baccalaureus, Medicinae Baccalaureus et Chirurgiae Baccalaureus, or Baccalaureus in Medicina et in Chirurgia, abbreviated as MB ChB, MB BCh or otherwise. If titled in English, they are named Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, or Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery, usually abbreviated as MB BS, and sometimes as BM BS, even though most MB BS-awarding institutions do not use Latin to name their degrees.
Below are described the specific names used, arranged by country.
Most Australian medical schools confer MBBS degrees as it follows the British tradition. Recently, there is a review of the Australian Qualifications Framework which proceeds the masters degree(extended) to allow the use of "Doctor of ......" for the degree's title. Many Australian universities are under the process of superseding their bachelor-level degree (MBBS) by master-level degree (MD) to meet the criteria of Bologna process.
The University of Melbourne in Australia introduced the North American MD degree in 2011 for graduates of the Bachelor of Biomedicine and Bachelor of Science New Generation degrees. The university is the first in Australia to leave the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) and offer the Doctor of Medicine (MD) as a first professional degree in medicine rather than as a research degree. The first cohort of MD students from the university will graduate in 2014, one year after the last graduating cohort of MBBS students. The University of Melbourne renamed its previous research MD degree to Doctor of Medical Science (DMedSc), which will distinguish the new MD graduates from the doctors who obtain the research degree.
The University of Western Australia from 2014 will begin a similar 4 year post graduate course with graduates qualifying with an MD (professional doctorate) rather than the MBBS (bachelor's degree) as it stood up until 2011.
The University of New South Wales is proposing to change from their old style MBBS degree to the joint-degree BMed/MD (Bachelor of Medical Studies/ Doctor of Medicine). This program will start at the end of 2013.
The University of Newcastle and University of New England are considering to renew their (Joint Medical Program) Bachelor of Medicine(BMed) at the level 7 bachelor's degree to level 9 master's degree "extended" according to Australian Qualifications Framework which is the Doctor of Medicine(MD) from 2015.
The Medical University of Bahrain or RCSI-Bahrain, is a constituent university of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) and awards its graduates the MB/BCh BAO, the same degree awarded to graduates at RCSI.
All medical schools in Bangladesh award MBBS. The MD is awarded as a postgraduate research degree in select medical colleges, following the medical tradition of Commonwealth countries. In Bangladesh, Allopathic and Alternative Medicine related medical education at the undergraduate and graduate level is provided by medical colleges. The colleges are under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Health, and are affiliated with a university in the respective region. Until the early 1990s, all medical colleges were established by the government. Since then, several private medical colleges have been set up.
All Egyptian medical schools, public and private, award an MBBCh as the basic medical degree after completion of 6 academic years. Contrary to the US and Canada, an M.D. is awarded as an advanced research degree, comparable to a PhD.
England, Wales and Northern Ireland 
Various abbreviations are used for these degrees in these areas:
- MB ChB are used at the universities of Birmingham, Bristol, Edinburgh, Lancaster, Leeds, Leicester, Liverpool, Keele, Manchester, Sheffield, and Warwick.
- MB BCh is used by the Welsh universities - Swansea University and Cardiff University.
- MB, BCh, BAO are used at the Queen's University, Belfast.
- MB BS are used at all medical schools currently or previously part of the University of London (Imperial College School of Medicine, UCL Medical School, King's College London School of Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and St George's, University of London), University of East Anglia, Hull York Medical School, and Newcastle University.
- BM BCh is awarded by the University of Oxford.
- BM BS are used at the University of Nottingham, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry (Exeter Medical School and Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry), and Brighton and Sussex Medical School
- BM is awarded at the University of Southampton. Although no degree in surgery is formally awarded by Southampton, this degree is equivalent to the MB ChB, and students may go on to a career in surgery the same as any other graduates in medicine and surgery.
- MB BChir are awarded by the University of Cambridge.
At the University of St Andrews, pre-clinical study leads to the award of a BSc (Hons) degree. Students then progress to other institutions to complete their MBChB. At the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, the preclinical course leads to an additional Bachelor of Arts (BA), degree (upgradable after three or four years to Master of Arts), after which most students used to go elsewhere (but usually to one of the London teaching hospitals) to complete clinical training. They could then take the degrees of their new university: they used to have the options of returning to their old university to take the clinical examinations, or taking one of the old non-university qualifying examinations. Most students at Oxford and Cambridge now remain in place to take their clinical training.
The Conjoint diplomas: LRCP, MRCS, and the alternative diploma LMSSA were non-university qualifying examinations in medicine and surgery awarded jointly by the Royal College of Physicians of London, Royal College of Surgeons of England and Society of Apothecaries through the United Examining Board from 1994 until 1999, when the General Medical Council withdrew permission. Prior to 1994, the English Conjoint diploma of LRCP, MRCS was awarded for 110 years, and the LMSSA was a distinct and sometimes less-esteemed qualification. These diplomas slowly became less popular among British medical students, but as recently as 1938 only a half of them qualified with university degrees. The diplomas came to be taken mostly by those who had already qualified in medicine overseas.
All Ghanaian medical schools award an MBChB as the basic medical degree after 6 academic years. These medical schools are Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, University of Ghana, University for Development Studies and University of Cape Coast
The University of Guyana awards MB BS. Other "offshore" United-States-linked schools in the country award the North American MD. Recently, the University of Guyana acquired accreditation by CAAM-HP, establishing itself as a credible institute and teaching standards in comparison with University of West Indies.
Hong Kong 
The awarding of qualifications in Hong Kong follows the British tradition. The dual degree is awarded as:
Medical colleges in India, accredited by the Medical Council of India, all title the degrees as MBBS. The students complete a course of four and a half years followed by one year of a compulsory rotatory internship before applying for the degree. The course is divided into four parts with the 2nd part lasting one and a half years. Students take an examination at the end of each part. The first part comprises preclinical subjects anatomy, physiology and biochemistry. The second part includes pharmacology, microbiology, pathology and forensic medicine. The 3rd part is divided into part I and part II comprising social and preventive medicine, ophthalmology, otorhinology and Internal Medicine, General and special Surgery, Paediatrics and Obstetrics and Gynaecology respectively.
The 12 month internship is compulsory to attain both the degrees and registation with the Medical Council of India.
In Indonesia, medicine is an undergraduate study. The Bachelor of Medicine program is completed in 3.5 up to 4 years and graduating students are awarded the degree of S.Ked (Sarjana Kedokteran / Bachelor of Medicine). At this point, the graduate is not yet a doctor, but he or she may choose to work directly as a scientist or other non-clinician professions (usually still health-related). However, most S.Ked graduates will pursue the conventional path, which is to enroll in the clerkship program for another 1.5 up to 2 years. This makes the total duration of medical school 5 or 6 years. After they finish clerkship, they will take their Hippocratic Oath and be awarded the title of dr. (medical doctor, equivalent to M.D. in United States). Graduates who hold this title are licensed and may now practice medicine. Note that this title is written in lowercase "d", as opposed to uppercase "D", Dr., which in Indonesia refers to a Ph.D.
In Iran, Medical education begins after high school. No pre-med course or Bsc degree is required. The eligibility is determined through the rank applicants obtain in the public university entrance exam being held every year throughout the country. The entry to medical school is so competitive and only the Students with the highest rank are accepted into medical program. The primary medical degree is completed in 7-7.5 years. Medical graduates are awarded a certificate in general medicine, called "Professional Doctorate in Medicine" validated by the "Ministry of health and Medical Education of Iran". All physicians will obtain licence and medical council registration number from the "Medical Council of Iran" before they officially begin to practice. They may subsequently specialize in a specific medical field at medical schools offering the necessary qualifications. Academically, Degree of "Professional Doctorate in Medicine" is evaluated as Master's degree in Iran and graduates are allowed to enroll in PhD programs directly after obtaining medical degree.
All medical schools in Iraq award MB ChB.
The medical schools in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland—namely Queen's University Belfast, University of Dublin (Trinity College), some constituent institutions of the National University of Ireland (University College Dublin, University College Cork and National University of Ireland, Galway), and the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland—award the degrees of MB BCh BAO. The letters BAO stand for Baccalaureus in Arte Obstetricia (Bachelor of Obstetrics), a degree unique to Ireland which the Irish universities added in the 19th century as the legislation at the time insisted on a final examination in obstetrics. This third degree is an anachronism which is not registerable with the Irish Medical Council nor the British General Medical Council (GMC). The only exception is the University of Limerick graduate school of medicine which awards BM BS for Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery.
LRCPI LRCSI, or simply LRCP&SI, denotes a holder of the historical non-university qualifying licenciates awarded jointly by the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland and the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland to students of the RCSI's medical school under the Irish Conjoint Scheme. Unlike the corresponding licentiates awarded by the Royal Colleges in Scotland and England (which were external qualifications), these qualifications are still registerable with the Irish Medical Council, but not with the British GMC. Students at RCSI still receive these licenciates but now also receive the degrees MB BCh BAO, due to RCSI's status as a recognised college of the National University of Ireland. The RCSI students also received a Licence in Midwifery (LM) from each college, in the same way that the Irish universities granted BAO degrees, so their qualifications were sometimes expressed as L & LM, RCPI, L & LM, RCSI or more misleadingly as LLM, RCP&SI.
LAH formerly denoted a licentiate of the now-defunct Apothecaries' Hall, Dublin, and is no longer awarded.
The Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery (MBBS) degree is awarded in Jordan after completion of six years comprising three years of medical sciences and three clinical years. Currently, four state supported universities grant the degree which are:
- Jordan University of Science and Technology
- University of Jordan
- Mutah University
- Hashemite University
Mount Kenya University awards a different degree, the Bachelor of Clinical Medicine and Community Health.
There are two major medical universities in Libya, University of Tripoli (Tripoli) and University of Benghazi (formerly Garyounis) (Benghazi). Both schools award MBBCh. There is also a credited private university called Libyan International Medical University.
The MBBS is awarded by 5 Public & 14 Private Universities:
- Universiti Malaya (UM) - October 1949
- Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia (UIAM) - May 1995
- Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) - June 2003
- Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM) - July 2005
- Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA) - July 2009
- International Medical University (IMU) - February 1999
- Asian Institute of Medicine, Science & Technology (AIMST) University - May 2001
- Monash University Malaysia Campus - February 2007
- Universiti Kuala Lumpur (UniKL-RCMP) - July 2008
- Melaka Manipal Medical College (MMMC)
- Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences (CUCMS)
- Management & Science University – International Medical School (MSU-IMS)
- MAHSA University College
- Taylor’s University College
- Newcastle University – Medicine Malaysia
- Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR)
- Masterskill University College of Health Sciences (MUCH)
- SEGI University College
- Insaniah University College
There are 18 Medical Schools in Nepal that award MBBS degree. Nepal Medical Council (NMC) is the regulatory board in Nepal that give recognition to medical institutions for providing formal studies in medical science and training.
Kathmandu University (KU) and Affiliated colleges:
- Kathmandu University, School of Medical Sciences (KUSMS), Dhulikhel, Kavre
- Manipal College of Medical Sciences (MCOMS), Pokhara, Kaski
- College of Medical Sciences (CMS), Bharatpur, Chitwan
- Kathmandu Medical College (KMC), Sinamangal, Kathmandu
- Nepal Medical College (NMC), Jorpati, Kathmandu
- Nepalgunj Medical College (NGMC), Chisapani, Nepalgunj
- Lumbini Medical College (LMC), Tansen, Palpa
- Nobel Medical College, Biratnagar
Tribhuvan University (TU) and Affiliated colleges:
- Tribhuvan University, Institute of Medicine (IOM), Maharajgunj, Kathmandu
- Universal College of Medical Sciences (UCMS), Bhairawaha
- National Medical College, Birgunj
- Janaki Medical College, Janakpur
- KIST Medical College, Imadol, Lalitpur
- Chitwan Medical College (CMC), Bharatpur, Chitwan
- Gandaki Medical College (GMCTHRC), Pokhara, Kaski
- Mahendranagar Medical College, Mahendranagar, Kanchanpur
Medical School not affiliated to universities or having their own board:
- B.P. Koirala Institute Of Health Sciences (BPKIHS), Ghopa, Dharan
- Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS), Patan, Lalitpur
- National Academy of Medical Sciences (NAMS), Kathmandu is a NMC recognized medical college that have post-graduate residency training programs but do not award MBBS degree.
New Zealand 
All Eighty eight (38 Public Sector and 50 Private Sector) medical institutes award MBBS, including the famous institutes of "Service Institute Of Medical Sciences" (SIMS) ,Shifa College of Medicine, Army Medical College, King Edward Medical University, The Aga Khan University, Dow University of Health Sciences and University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Khyber Medical University. University of Health Sciences, Lahore awards M.B,B.S degree to all the medical colleges of the Punjab including private sector as well.
People's Republic of China 
In the People's Republic of China, medical graduates are traditionally awarded a Bachelor of Medicine (BMed) for a course of study lasting five or six years. However, as of 2011, 49 universities, including its frequently top-ranked medical schools, have been authorized by the government to award the MBBS degree as an equivalent to the BMed. These universities are:
- Anhui Medical University
- Beihua University
- Capital Medical University
- Central South University
- China Medical University
- Chongqing Medical University
- Dalian Medical University
- Fudan University
- Fujian Medical University
- Guangxi Medical University
- Guangzhou Medical College
- Harbin Medical University
- Hebei Medical University
- Huazhong University of Science and Technology
- Jiamusi University
- Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
- Jilin University
- Jining Medical University
- Nanchang University
- Nanjing Medical University
- Nantong University
- Ningbo University
- Ningxia Medical University
- Peking University Health Science Center
- Qingdao University
- Shandong University
- Shanghai Jiao Tong University
- Shantou University
- Sichuan University
- Soochow University
- Southeast University
- Southern Medical University
- Taishan Medical University
- Tianjin Medical University
- Tongji University
- Wenzhou Medical College
- Wuhan University
- Xiamen University
- Xian Jiaotong University
- Xinjiang Medical University
- Zhejiang University
- Zhengzhou University
- Weifang Medical University
Saudi Arabia 
Medical schools in Saudi Arabia award MBBS.
Government sponsored medical schools: King Abdul Aziz University, Faculty of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences. Jeddah. King Faisal University, College of Medicine. Ahsa. University of Dammam, College of Medicine. Dammam King Khalid University, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences. Abha. King Saud University, College of Medicine. Riyadh. Umm Al-Qura University, College of Medicine. Makkah. Aljouf university college of medicine, . Private Medical Schools: Alfaisal University Ibn Sina National College for Medical Studies Batterjee Medical College for Sciences and Technology AlMaareefa College Global Colleges Sulaiman AlRajhi Colleges
Medical schools in Somalia . 1. Benadir University award the degree MBChB is first medical school in Somalia after collapsed the central government . 2. Amoud University award the MBBS degree, where the first medical student graduated after collapsing the central government,and it is the first university of the top rank of Somalia, 3. Hargiesa university, Award MBBS certificate
The University of St Andrews School of Medicine awarded MB ChB until the early 1970s, but since the incorporation of its clinical medical school into the University of Dundee, St Andrews now only awards a pre-clinical BSc or BSc (Hons), and students go to a Partner Medical School (Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh, Glasgow, or Manchester where they are awarded an MB ChB after a further three years' study.
The Scottish Triple Conjoint Diploma of LRCPE, LRCSE, LRCPSG (earlier LRCPE, LRCSE, LRFPSG) is an old non-university qualifying examination in medicine and surgery awarded jointly by the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, previously through a Conjoint Board and from 1994 through the United Examining Board. These qualifications are still registrable with the GMC, but permission to award them was withdrawn by the Privy Council of the UK in 1999.
South Africa 
The University of Pretoria, University of Cape Town, University of the Free State, University of Stellenbosch, University of KwaZulu-Natal and MEDUNSA all award MBChB, whereas the University of the Witwatersrand styles its degree as MBBCh.
The Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine at the National University of Singapore confers MB BS. The American Duke University also has a medical programme based in Singapore (Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School), but it follows the North-American model of styling its degree Doctor of Medicine.
Sri Lanka 
The University of Sri Jayewardenepura, University of Colombo, University of Peradeniya, University of Kelaniya (Ragama), University of Ruhuna, Rajarata University, University of Jaffna and Eastern University of Sri Lanka all award MBBS.
All Sudanese medical schools award BMBCh.
South Sudan 
United States 
The five universities in Uganda which have medical schools that teach undergraduate courses, namely Makerere University, Mbarara University, Gulu University, Kampala International University and Busitema University, all award the MBChB degree.
West Indies 
All constituent countries of the University of the West Indies (UWI) confer MB BS, due to the historical affiliation of UWI to the University of London. There are other medical schools in the West Indies, but these follow the North-American system leading to MD.
Medical degrees differ from other undergraduate degrees in that they are professional qualifications which lead holders to enter a particular career upon receipt. This is not the case with most other undergraduate degrees, so whilst the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery are undergraduate or graduate degrees (depending on the institution), they are perhaps more accurately conceptualised as a so-called first professional degree. Other professions whose qualifications follow a similar pattern include:
- Occupational Therapy
- Physical Therapy
- Veterinary Medicine
- Physician Assistant
Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery are usually awarded as general/ordinary degrees, not as honours degrees, and as such the graduate is not classified as for honours degrees in other subjects. However, at many institutions (for example the University of Sheffield, University of Liverpool, University of Leicester and University of Manchester in England and the University of Dundee in Scotland) it is possible for the degrees to be awarded with Honours (i.e. MB ChB (Hons.)) or with Commendation, if the board of examiners recognises exceptional performance throughout the degree course. Very few of these are awarded.
More often, it is possible to study one subject for an extra year for an intercalated honours degree. This is usually a Bachelor of Science (BSc), Bachelor of Medical Science (BMedSci), Bachelor of Medical Biology (BMedBiol) or similar: at Oxford and Cambridge in England and Dublin in Ireland Bachelor of Arts degrees are awarded. At a few universities most medical students obtain an ordinary degree in science as well: when the University of Edinburgh had a six year course, the third year was followed by award of an ordinary BSc(MedSci). In Australia, The University of Melbourne in Australia offers an Arts Degree (BA) to a medical student on the completion of two extra years of undergraduate study, and Monash University offers a Law degree (LLB); if the optional Law degree is undertaken, on completion of their degree the student may choose to do a one-year internship at a hospital and become a doctor, or spend one year doing articles to practise thereafter as a lawyer. At the University of Nottingham and the University of Southampton, both in England, all medical students on the five year course obtain a Bachelor of Medical Sciences (BMedSci) degree without an extra intercalated year. At Imperial College London and University College London, certain medical students are able to extend their intercalated year to an extra three years, thus temporarily exiting the MBBS course to complete a PhD. Upon completion of the PhD, the student is required to sit the remaining 2 years of the medicine course in order to receive his/her MBBS degeee. The University of the West Indies, Mona in Kingston, Jamaica automatically awards a Bachelor of Medical Sciences (BMedSci) degree to all students who have successfully completed three years of their MBBS programme.
Medical school graduates are only entitled to use the courtesy title "Doctor" upon registration as a medical practitioner with the relevant regulatory body in their respective country. Medical graduates are also eligible to sit various postgraduate examinations, including examinations for membership and fellowship of professional institutions, such as Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons, postgraduate Masters degrees, such as a Master of Surgery or Master of Medicine and a postgraduate doctorate in medicine, such as Doctor of Medicine or Doctor of Science, if earned in Ireland, the UK or Commonwealth nations, and board certification examinations.
See also 
- Bachelor's degree
- Doctor of Medicine
- Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine
- List of medical schools
- Master of Medicine
- Master of Surgery
- Medical education
- Medical school
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