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A back-of-the-envelope calculation is a rough calculation, typically jotted down on any available scrap of paper such as the actual back of an envelope. It is more than a guess but less than an accurate calculation or mathematical proof.
The defining characteristic of back-of-the-envelope calculations is the use of simplified assumptions.
In the hard sciences, back-of-the-envelope calculation is often associated with physicist Enrico Fermi, who was well known for emphasizing ways that complex scientific equations could be approximated within an order of magnitude using simple calculations. He went on to develop a series of sample calculations, which are called "Fermi Questions" or "Back-of-the-Envelope Calculations" and used to solve Fermi problems.
Fermi was known for getting quick and accurate answers to problems that would stump other people. The most famous instance came during the first atomic bomb test in New Mexico on 16 July 1945. As the blast wave reached him, Fermi dropped bits of paper. By measuring the distance they were blown, he could compare to a previously computed table and thus estimate the bomb energy yield. He estimated 10 kilotons of TNT; the measured result was 18.6.[not in citation given]
Another example is Victor Weisskopf's pamphlet Modern Physics from an Elementary Point of View. In these notes Weisskopf used back-of-the-envelope calculations to calculate the size of a hydrogen atom, a star, and a mountain, all using elementary physics.
Nobel laureate Charles Townes describes in a video interview for the University of California, Berkeley on the 50th anniversary of the laser, how he pulled an envelope from his pocket while sitting in a park and wrote down calculations during his initial insight into lasers.
- Buckingham pi theorem, a technique often used in fluid mechanics to obtain order-of-magnitude estimates
- Scientific Wild-Ass Guess
- Rule of thumb
- Sanity testing
- Fermi problem
Notes and references
- Paritosh, Praveen; Forbus, Ken (2005). "Analysis of Strategic Knowledge in Back of the Envelope Reasoning". 20th National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-05). Pittsburgh, PA. 978-1-577-35236-5. Retrieved 2009-03-06.
- NetworkWorld.com: Ethernet, Compaq, Facebook and napkins
- Where Fermi stood. - Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists | Encyclopedia.com
- Back of the Envelope Calculations
- High School Mathematics at Work: Essays and Examples for the Education of All Students
- "Our History". Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Security, LLC. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
- Lectures given in the 1969 Summer Lecture Programme, CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), CERN 70-8, 17 March 1970.
- Video of interview with Charles Townes; envelope mention comes about halfway in
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