Badger

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For other uses, see Badger (disambiguation).
Badger
Badger-badger.jpg
European badger
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Caniformia
Superfamily: Musteloidea
Family: Mustelidae
Subfamily: Melinae
Mellivorinae
Taxideinae
Genera

 Melogale
 Meles
 Mellivora
 Taxidea

Badger species map.png
Badger ranges
  • Gold = Honey badger (Mellivora capensis)
  • Red = American badger (Taxidea taxus)
  • Teal = European badger (Meles meles)
  • Dark green = Asian badger (Meles leucurus)
  • Lime green = Japanese badger (Meles anakuma)
  • Blue = Chinese ferret-badger (Melogale moschata)
  • Indigo = Burmese ferret-badger (Melogale personata)
  • Azure = Javan ferret-badger (Melogale orientalis)
  • Purple = Bornean ferret-badger (Melogale everetti)

Badgers are short-legged omnivores in the family Mustelidae which also includes the otters, polecats, weasels and wolverines. The 11 species of badger are grouped in three subfamilies: Melinae (9 Eurasian badgers), Mellivorinae (the honey badger or ratel) and Taxideinae (the American badger). The Asiatic stink badgers of the genus Mydaus were formerly included within Melinae (and thus Mustelidae), but recent genetic evidence[1] indicates these are actually members of the skunk family, placing them in the taxonomic family Mephitidae.

Badgers include the species in the genera Meles, Arctonyx, Taxidea and Mellivora. Their lower jaws are articulated to the upper by means of transverse condyles firmly locked into long cavities of the skull, so dislocation of the jaw is all but impossible. This enables the badgers to maintain their hold with the utmost tenacity, but limits jaw movement to hinging open and shut, or sliding from side to side without the twisting movement possible for the jaws of most mammals.

Badgers have rather short, fat bodies, with short legs for digging. They have elongated weasel-like heads with small ears. Their tails vary in length depending on species; the stink badger has a very short tail, while the ferret badger's tail can be 46–51 cm (18–20 in) long, depending on age. They have black faces with distinctive white markings, gray bodies with a light-coloured stripe from head to tail, and dark legs with light coloured underbellies. They grow to around 90 centimetres (35 in) in length including tail. The European badger is one of the largest; the American badger, the hog badger and the honey badger are generally a little smaller and lighter. The stink badgers are smaller still, and the ferret badgers are the smallest of all. They weigh around 9.1–11 kg (20–24 lb) on average, with some Eurasian badgers weighing in at around 18 kg (40 lb).[2]

Etymology[edit]

An adult female (sow) American badger

The derivation of the word "badger", originally applied to the European badger (Meles meles), is uncertain. It possibly comes from the French word bêcheur (digger).[3] The Oxford English Dictionary states it probably derives from "badge" + -ard, referring to the white mark borne like a badge on its forehead.[4]

The less common name "brock" (Old English: brocc), (Scots: brock) is a Celtic loanword (cf. Gaelic broc and Welsh broch, from Proto-Celtic *brokko) meaning "grey".[4] The Proto-Germanic term was *þahsu- (cf. German Dachs, Dutch das, Norwegian svin-toks; Early Modern English: dasse), probably from the PIE root *tek'- "to construct," so the badger would have been named after its digging of setts (tunnels); the Germanic term *þahsu- became taxus or taxō, -ōnis in Latin glosses, replacing mēlēs ("marten" or "badger"),[5] and from these words the common Romance terms for the animal evolved (Italian tasso, French tesson/taisson/tasson—now blaireau is more common—, Catalan toixó, Spanish tejón, Portuguese texugo).[6]

A male badger is a boar, a female is a sow, and a young badger is a cub. A collective name suggested for a group of badgers is a cete,[7] but badger colonies are more often called clans. A badger's home is called a sett.[8]

Classification[edit]

The following list shows where the various species with the common name of badger are placed in the Mustelidae classification. The list is polyphyletic and the species commonly called badgers do not, if the stink badgers are included, form a valid clade.

Distribution[edit]

Badgers are found in much of North America, Ireland, Great Britain[11] and most of Europe as far as southern Scandinavia.[12] They live as far east as Japan and China. The Javan ferret-badger lives in Indonesia,[13] and the Bornean ferret-badger lives in Malaysia.[13] The honey badger is found in most of sub-Saharan Africa, the Arabian Desert, southern Levant, Turkmenistan, and India.[13]

Behavior[edit]

The behavior of badgers differs by family, but all shelter underground, living in burrows called setts, which may be very extensive. Some are solitary, moving from home to home, while others are known to form clans called cetes. Cete size is variable from two to fifteen.

Badgers can run or gallop at 25–30 km/h (16–19 mph) for short periods of time.

Badgers are nocturnal.[14]

In North America, coyotes sometimes eat badgers and vice versa, but the majority of their interactions seem to be mutual or neutral.[15] American badgers and coyotes have been seen hunting together in a cooperative fashion.[16]

Diet[edit]

The diet of the Eurasian badger consists largely of earthworms, insects, grubs, and the eggs and young of ground-nesting birds. They also eat small mammals, amphibians, reptiles and birds, as well as roots and fruit.[17] In Britain, they are the main predator of hedgehogs, which have demonstrably[18] lower populations in areas where badgers are numerous, so that hedgehog rescue societies will not release hedgehogs into known badger territories.[19] In some areas they are known to predate lambs, and may bite a ewe defending her lamb, almost always leading to infection of the bite. They are occasional predators of domestic chickens,[20] and are able to break into enclosures that a fox cannot. In southern Spain, badgers feed to a significant degree on rabbits.[21] The honey badger of Africa consumes honey, porcupines and even venomous snakes (such as the puff adder); they will climb trees to gain access to honey from bees' nests. American badgers are fossorial carnivores – i.e. they catch a significant proportion of their food underground, by digging. They can tunnel after ground-dwelling rodents at speed.

Badgers have been known to become intoxicated with alcohol after eating rotting fruit.[22]

Relation with humans[edit]

Sport[edit]

Hunting badgers has been common in many countries. The Dachshund dog breed was bred as a badger hound; Dachs is the German word for badger.

The blood sport of badger-baiting was outlawed in the United Kingdom by the Cruelty to Animals Act 1835, and the Protection of Badgers Act 1992 made it a serious offence to kill, injure or take a badger, or to damage or interfere with a sett unless a licence is obtained from a statutory authority. An exemption that allowed fox hunters to loosely block setts to prevent chased foxes escaping into them was brought to an end with the Hunting Act 2004.

Culling[edit]

For more details on Badgers and bovine tuberculosis, see Eurasian badger.

Controlling the badger population is prohibited in many European countries, as badgers are listed in the Berne Convention, but they are not otherwise the subject of any international treaty or legislation. Many badgers in Europe were gassed during the 1960s and 1970s to control rabies.[23]

Until the 1980s, badger culling in the United Kingdom was undertaken in the form of gassing, to control the spread of bovine tuberculosis (bTB). Limited culling resumed in 1998 as part of a 10-year randomised trial cull which was considered by John Krebs and others to show that culling was ineffective. Some groups called for a selective cull,[24] while others favoured a programme of vaccination. Wales and Northern Ireland are currently (2013) conducting field trials of a badger vaccination programme.[25] In 2012, the government authorised a limited cull[26] led by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), however, this was later deferred with a wide range of reasons given.[27] In August 2013, a full culling programme began where it is expected about 5,000 badgers will be killed over six weeks in West Somerset and Gloucestershire by marksmen with high-velocity rifles using a mixture of controlled shooting and free shooting (some badgers will be trapped in cages first). The cull has caused many protests with emotional, economic and scientific reasons being cited. The badger is considered an iconic species of the British countryside, it has been claimed by shadow ministers that "The government's own figures show it will cost more than it saves...", and Lord Krebs, who led the Randomised Badger Culling Trial in the 1990s, said the two pilots "will not yield any useful information".[25]

Pets[edit]

Badgers can be fierce animals and will protect themselves and their young at all costs, are capable of fighting off dog-packs and fighting off much larger animals, such as wolves and bears. However, badgers can be tamed and then kept as pets.[28]

Commercial use[edit]

Badger pelts

Today, badgers are commercially trapped for their pelts, which are used to make shaving brushes and clothing. Badger hair is particularly suited for shaving brushes due to its water retention. Virtually all commercial badger hair comes from mainland China, which supplies knots of hair in three grades to brush makers in both China and Europe.[29] In rural Northern China, badgers multiplied to the point of becoming a crop nuisance, and village cooperatives are licensed by the national government to hunt badgers and process their hair. The hair is also used for paint brushes, and was used as a trim on Native American garments.[30] It has been used in some instances as doll hair.[citation needed]

Food[edit]

Although rarely eaten today in the United States or the United Kingdom,[31] badgers were once a primary meat source for the diets of Native Americans and white colonists.[32][33][34][35][36] Badgers were also eaten in Britain during World War II and the 1950s.[33]

In Russia, the consumption of badger meat is still widespread.[37] Shish kebabs made from badger, along with dog meat and pork, are a major source of trichinosis outbreaks in the Altai region of Russia.[37] In Croatia, badger meat is rarely eaten. When it is, it is usually smoked and dried or, less commonly, served in goulash.[38]

In France, badger meat was used in the preparation of several dishes, such as Blaireau au sang, and it was a relatively common ingredient in countryside cuisine.[39] Badger meat was eaten in some parts of Spain until recently.[40] In Japan, badger is regarded in folktales as a food for the humble.[41]

Popular culture[edit]

Badger characters are featured in author Brian Jacques' Redwall series, most often falling under the title of Badger Lord or Badger Mother, and the 19th century poem "The Badger" by John Clare describes a badger hunt and badger-baiting. The character Frances in Russell Hoban's children's books is depicted as a badger. A badger god is featured in The Immortals by Tamora Pierce and "The Badger" is a comic book hero created by Mike Baron. The badger is the emblem of the Hufflepuff house of the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry in the J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter Book series, it is chosen as such because the badger is an animal that is often underestimated, because it lives quietly until attacked, but which, when provoked, can fight off animals much larger than itself, which resembles the Hufflepuff house in several ways.[42] Trufflehunter is a heroic badger in the Chronicles of Narnia book Prince Caspian by C. S. Lewis. In Lafcadio Hearn's book Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things there is a short story titled Mujina, which is a shapeshifting badger.

Many other stories featuring badgers as characters include Beatrix Potter's The Tale of Mr. Tod (Tommy Brock), the Rupert Bear adventures by Mary Tourtel, Kenneth Grahame's The Wind in the Willows, T. H. White's The Once and Future King and The Book of Merlyn, Fantastic Mr. Fox by Roald Dahl, Colin Dann's The Animals of Farthing Wood, Richard Adams's Watership Down and Erin Hunter's Warriors. In Incident at Hawk's Hill by Allan W. Eckert a badger is one of the main characters.

Badgers are also featured in films and animations: a flash video of "The Badger Song" shows a group doing calisthenics; in Pokémon, Typhlosion and Linoone are based on badgers. Walt Disney's 1973 film Robin Hood, depicts the character of Friar Tuck as a badger. In the Doctor Snuggles series, Dennis the handyman, was a badger.

In Europe, badgers were traditionally used to predict the length of winter.[43] The badger is the state animal of the U.S. state of Wisconsin[44] and Bucky Badger is the mascot of the athletic teams at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The badger is also the official mascot of Brock University in St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada, as well as that of St Aidan's College at the University of Durham.

In 2007, the appearance of honey badgers around the British base at Basra, Iraq fueled rumors among the locals that British forces deliberately released "man-eating" and "bear-like" badgers to spread panic. These allegations were denied by the British army and the director of Basra's veterinary hospital.[45]

On 28 August 2013 the PC video game Shelter was released by developers Might and Delight in which players control a mother badger protecting her cubs.[46]

References[edit]

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  20. ^ "Forums". River Cottage. Retrieved 27 August 2013. 
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  42. ^ The Official Pottermore house descriptions http://lilyevans-snape.livejournal.com/200599.html
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External links[edit]