The Badwater Ultramarathon describes itself as "the world's toughest foot race". It is a 135-mile (217 km) course starting at 282 feet (86 m) below sea level in the Badwater Basin, in California's Death Valley, and ending at an elevation of 8360 feet (2548 m) at Whitney Portal, the trailhead to Mount Whitney. It takes place annually in mid-July, when the weather conditions are most extreme and temperatures over 120 °F (49 °C), even in the shade, are not uncommon. Consequently, very few people—even among ultramarathoners—are capable of finishing this grueling race.
Originally, the run was conceived as being between the lowest and the highest points in the contiguous United States: Badwater, Death Valley (−282 ft) and Mt. Whitney's summit (14,505 ft). The two are only eighty miles apart on the map, but the land route between the two points is substantially longer, 146 miles (235 km), because of detours around lakebeds and over mountain ranges. Additionally, since the finish-line is 11 miles (18 km) from the nearest trailhead, anyone who competes over the 146-mile (235 km) race-distance must be capable of a total physical effort of 157 miles (253 km). Due to the two mountain ranges that must be crossed between Badwater and Whitney, the course's cumulative elevation gain exceeds 19,000 feet (5,800 m).
In later years, as the United States Forest Service required summit permits to climb Mt. Whitney, the official course was shortened to end at Whitney Portal. The Badwater-to-Portal course is 135 miles (217 km) long, with 13,000 feet (4,000 m) of cumulative elevation gain. Forest Service regulations do not allow competitive events in the John Muir Wilderness; however, many runners choose to continue tradition and complete the ascent to Mount Whitney's summit on their own.
Early history 
Al Arnold first attempted running the route in 1974 but was pulled off the course after eighteen miles (29 km) with severe dehydration. After vigorous sauna-training and desert-acclimatization, he attempted the run again in 1975. This time, a knee injury aborted the run at fifty miles. In 1976, training injuries kept him from even beginning his annual attempt on the course.
In 1977 he successfully pioneered running the course, summiting Whitney eighty hours after his start at Badwater. Arnold has never returned to the course, except to receive the Badwater Hall of Fame Award.
The second Badwater-to-Whitney running was completed in 1981, by Jay Birmingham.
In 1987, the crossing became an official, organized footrace. Five runners competed the first year. During the early years of the race, no particular route between Badwater and Whitney was specified and runners attempted various "shortcuts" between the start and finish. Adrian Crane, one of the competitors in the inaugural race, even used cross-country skis to cross the salt-flats at Badwater.
AdventureCORPS Badwater Ultramarathon 
Currently, AdventureCORPS manages the competitive race from Badwater to Whitney Portal. The course route is specified, and the race is held annually. The field is invitation-only and limited in size. Demand to participate in the race usually far exceeds available spots. Rules have changed somewhat over the years: afternoon starts have been discontinued; the use of intravenous fluids now disqualifies a runner.
Course support is not provided. Each runner must arrange for his or her own support crew and vehicle. The crew provides their runner with his or her needs, including water, ice, food, gear, pacing, and first aid.
Runners who complete the course in sixty hours receive a commemorative medal; runners who complete the course in forty-eight hours receive a belt buckle. No prize money is awarded.
The record for the 146-mile (235 km) race was set in 1991 by Marshall Ulrich: 33 hours and 54 minutes. Records for the current 135-mile (217 km) course are 22 hours 51 minutes 29 seconds (men), set by Valmir Nunes, and 26 hours 16 minutes 12 seconds (women), set by Jamie Donaldson.
In the last few years, 70 to 80 people have competed in each race, with 20–40% failing to reach the finish line. There have been no fatalities.
The 2011 winner was Mexican Oswaldo López.
Related events 
Multiple crossings 
In 1994, Scott Weber completed the first Triple Crossing going from the Mount Whitney Summit to Badwater, then returning from Badwater to the Mount Whitney summit, then going from the Mount Whitney summit back to Badwater in 10 days. The first leg of the Triple was also done solo unassisted with Weber pushing an unmodified 'baby jogger' cart with his supplies from oasis to oasis spaced from 20 to 30 miles (48 km) apart. Weber completed the majority of the triple unassisted and solo being met once or twice a day by Ben on the second leg and for 100 miles (160 km) of the third leg. Faced with the necessity of completing the Triple before August ended, Weber abandoned his cart at mile 390 to be fully crewed by Denise Jones. Completing this Triple and adding the Badwater race from the previous month made Weber the first runner to complete four full crossings of the Badwater-Mount Whitney summit course in a single July–August window. He remains the only runner to have done a multiple crossing with a solo unassisted section of 146 miles (235 km) or greater.
In 2001, Marshall Ulrich was the first runner to complete the "Badwater Quad", consisting of two back-to-back Death Valley 300s for a total of four consecutive Badwater/Whitney transits. He completed the course, a distance in excess of twenty-two marathons, in ten days.
In 2003, Sawyer Manuj became the first Asian-American to complete the Badwater duo.
In 2012, Terry Abrams (54) became the first woman to complete a solo Triple 146 crossing, 438 miles, which includes two summits of Mt. Whitney. She is also the oldest woman to complete the Double, 292 miles.
Unassisted solo crossings 
In 1994, Scott Weber became the first runner to cross from the summit of Mount Whitney to Badwater course solo without a crew. He did so by pushing a 'baby-jogger' cart with his supplies going oasis to oasis (20-30 miles (48 km) apart). Weber then continued on to complete 2 additional crossing with minimal support until being crewed full-time for the final 45 miles (72 km) of this 438+ mile journey.
Unassisted "self-contained" solo crossings 
In July 1999, Marshall Ulrich became the first runner to complete the 146-mile (235 km) Badwater-to-Summit course without a crew or resupply, denying himself the use of artificial shade or outside aid of any kind. Starting with 225 lb (102 kg) of gear and water loaded in a modified baby jogger, he pushed and pulled the cart to the Whitney trail head, then continued on to the summit with a pack. He reached Whitney's summit in seventy seven hours and forty six minutes.
Ben "Badwater" Jones, the reference authority and person that documents Badwater crossings, he documents the following attempts on his website http://www.badwaterbenjones.com -> Badwater/Mt. Whitney 146
In July 2011, Lisa Bliss became the first woman and second person to complete the 146 mile Badwater-to-Summit course totally self-contained (without crew or resupply of any kind, abiding the rules set forth in Marshall Ulrich's 1999 unassisted "self-contained" solo crossing,). She pushed and pulled a custom-built 3-wheeled cart filled with water and gear that weighed 240 pounds at the start from Badwater to the Whitney trail head, and then continued the remaining 11 miles to the summit with a pack that she carried from the start. She reached the Mt. Whitney summit in 89 hours and 38 minutes.
In July 2012, "Bogie" Bogdan Dumitrescu made an unsuccessful attempt. In August 2012, Croix Sather got to the Whitney Portal in 64:55 and summited Whitney in 72:55, setting a new record. A subsequent attempt was made by "Bogie" Bogdan Dumitrescu who got to the Whitney Portal in 56:50 and summited Whitney in 70:40
Badwater Solo Ultra 135/146 
Through the years, runners of all abilities have completed individual Badwater to Mt. Whitney crossings in the spirit of the early crossings, usually aided by crew. In 2005, Hugh Murphy initiated an informal gathering known as the Badwater Solo Ultra 135/146. Runners could finish at Whitney Portal (135 mi.), but were encouraged to continue to the summit of Mt. Whitney (146 mi.) Finishers of either distance were presented with a bronze belt buckle. In 2007, the informal group start was dissolved due to National Park Service permitting regulations. Solo runners continue to complete the course on an individual basis during the months of July and August. The word "solo" is used to designate runners who are not part of the official race. These Solos should not be confused with the unassisted crossings of Ulrich or Weber. In compliance with National Park and Forest Service permitting rules, the Badwater Solo is not a competitive race or an organized event of any kind. In general there are three types of recognized "solos". "Solo badwater" where the runner has a crew. "Solo self supported" or "Solo Oasis to oasis", where the runner does not have a crew but can use/buy/stash water and food. "Solo self contained" where the runner cannot get help and has to carry all food and water ( see exact rules established by Marshall Ulrich). Since 2007, Marcia Rasmussen has attempted to verify each Solo crossing and continue the tradition of awarding a buckle to each finish. "Badwater" Ben Jones maintains a "Master List" of all Badwater-to-Whitney crossings, including finishers of the official Badwater Ultramarathon and the Badwater Solo. All "solo" crossings used to be documented on Ben's website http://badwaterbenjones.com -> Badwater/Mt. Whitney 146. As of spring 2013, all 146mi crossings will be tracked and documented at -> http://badwater146.info and will be discussed and approved by the community, by members of the badwater146 at yahoogroups.com. To request membership to the group, send an email to badwater146-subscribe at yahoogroups.com.
In 2007, then-19 year old Ben Eakin completed his first solo crossing, having only finished 2 marathons and 1 50K prior to doing so. Eakin completed the solo from Badwater to the summit of Mount Whitney, to become the youngest person to complete the lowest to highest course, as well as the first type-1 diabetic.
In 2005, Barbara Szeprethy, then 24, is the youngest woman to finish the course, 3 times total, in consecutive years.
Death Valley Cup 
Any competitor who completes both the Badwater Ultramarathon and the Furnace Creek 508 bicycle race (also held in Death Valley) during the same calendar year is awarded the Death Valley Cup. In 1996, Marshall Ulrich became the first ever to finish the Death Valley Cup.
Badwater World Cup BWWC 
Badwater World Cup (BWWC) consists of
- Badwater ( race in the desert)
- Brazil 135 Ultramarathon ( race in the mountains)
- Arrowhead ( race in the snow)
- Europe 135
See also 
- Running on the Sun: The Badwater 135, a documentary film on the 1999 race
- "Elevations and Distances in the United States". Reston, Virginia: USGS. April 29, 2005. Retrieved October 24, 2011. Originally published in 1995.
- "Hikers View High, Low Sites in U.S.". The San Diego Tribune. November 4, 1969.
- AdventureCORPS. "Badwater Ultramarathon Race Results, 2000–2010 COURSE RECORDS:". AdventureCORPS. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
- "Ulrich solo". Badwater.com. Retrieved March 3, 2011.
- "Marshall Ulrich, 1996: First Ever Death Valley Cup Finisher". the508.com. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
Official event sites 
Landmark crossings 
- Breaking Point and Beyond, reprint of Marathoner Magazine article about Al Arnold's pioneering of the course, 1978.
- My Most Unforgettable Ultramarathon, And What I Learned From It, reprint of Marshall Ulrich's account of his unassisted crossing in Marathon and Beyond.
- Running on the Sun: The Badwater 135. Documentary of the 1999 race
- The Distance of Truth: Documentary of the 2005 race
Badwater World Cup BWWC 
- AdventureCORPS Badwater Ultramarathon
- Brazil 135 Ultramarathon
- Arrowhead 135 Ultramarathon
- Europe 135 Ultramarathon