Bāgh which usually translates to garden, refers to an enclosed area with permanent cultures (many types of trees and shrubs) as well as flowers. It is common in south and south-eastern Asian countries. It usually has Irano-Islamic architectural elements.
Bāgh (Persian: باغ) is a word common to Persian, Pashto, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Azerbaijani, Georgian language (ბაღი) and Armenian and means garden and orchard, specifically one containing fruit- and flower-bearing trees. In Persian, the plural of bāgh is bāgh-hā (باغها or باغها) and in Kurdish, baxan (بيغان).
In Armenian the word bagh, pronounced bakhg, means ‘garden’ or ‘field’. The Old Persian word baga, or bag, as in such word as Baghdād, means God  and should not be confused with Bāgh. Similarly for the Avestan word Bagh (note the difference between a and ā) and the Vedic Sanskrit word Bhag, both of which also mean God.
Bāgh is also a constituent part of the place-name Karabagh (or Kārā-bāgh), which means Black Garden.
The Russian language utilizes the words bakhcha (бахча) and bakhchevye kultury (бахчевые культуры) from Tajiki Persian word Boghcha/Bāghche (Tajik: боғча and Persian: باغچه meaning small garden) to designate melons and gourds.
Use of baag or bageecha, signifying ‘garden’ or ‘yard’ [backyard or front yard], is very common in some Indian languages.
In modern Turkish the word BAĞ spelled and pronounced the same way as the instrument cord but relates to a garden/farm of grapes and grape trees. It also carries the same meaning in other Turkic Languages but may be pronounced slightly different.
Elements of a Bāgh
The elements of a Bāgh consist of the following:
Natural conditions and materials:
- Bāgh-e Ferdows
- Jallianwala Bagh
- Chahar Bagh
- Sikandar Bagh
- Hazuri Bagh
- Bagh-e Melli
- Khusro Bagh
- Ram Bagh
- Lal Bagh
Notes and references
- W. Eilers; M. Bazin; W.L. Hanaway; N.H. Dupree. "Bāḡ". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2008-04-15.
- Dehkhoda Dictionary (Loghat'nāmeh-ye Dehkhoda), Third Edition (Tehran University Press, 2006).
- Baghdād can be interpreted as God-given. Here dā is the Old Persian word for Give.
- Similarly, the place-name Bāku is considered to be an abbreviated form of the word Baghkuh, meaning Mount of God, or Mountain of God, where the Modern Persian word Kuh has its root in the Old Persian word Kaufa, Mountain.
- Dehkhoda Dictionary, ibid.
- Bāgh-e Rezvān is the name of a cemetery in Esfahan.
- Farnoush Tehrāni, The meaning of the Persian garden, in Persian, Jadid Online, 12 Novembre 2009, .
• Audio slideshow:  (5 min 58 sec).
- Farnoush Tehrāni, The face of the Persian garden, in Persian, 13 November 2009, .
• Audio slideshow:  (6 min 16 sec).