Baghdad Eyalet

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Eyālet-i Baġdād
Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire

 

1535–1864
Location of Baghdad Eyalet
Baghdad Eyalet in 1609
Capital Baghdad[1]
History
 -  Capture of Baghdad 1535
 -  Disestablished 1864
Today part of  Iraq

Baghdad Eyalet (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت بغداد; Eyālet-i Baġdād)[2] was an Iraqi eyalet of the Ottoman Empire centered on Baghdad. Its reported area in the 19th century was 62,208 square miles (161,120 km2).[3]

History[edit]

Ismail I took the Baghdad region from the Aq Qoyunlu in 1508.[4] After the Safavid takeover, Sunni Muslims, Jews and Christians became targets of persecution, and were killed for being infidels.[4] In addition, Shah Ismail ordered the destruction of the grave of Abu Hanifa, founder of the Hanafi school of law which the Ottomans adopted as their official legal guide.[4]

In 1534, Baghdad was captured by the Ottoman Empire,[4] and the eyalet was established in 1535.[5] Under the Ottomans, Baghdad fell into a period of decline,[citation needed] partially as a result of the enmity between its rulers and Shia Safavid Empire to the east, which did not accept the Sunni control of the city. Between 1623 and 1638, it was once again in Iranian hands. It was recaptured by the Ottomans in 1638.[4]

For a time, Baghdad had been the largest city in the Middle East. The city saw relative revival in the latter part of the 18th century under a largely autonomous Mamluk government. Direct Ottoman rule was reimposed by Ali Ridha Pasha in 1831. From 1851-1852 and from 1861–1867, Baghdad was governed, under the Ottoman Empire by Mehmed Namık Pasha. The Nuttall Encyclopedia reports the 1907 population of Baghdad as 185,000.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Sanjaks of Baghdad Eyalet in the 17th century:[6]

Seven of the eighteen Sanjaks of this eyalet were divided into ziamets and Timars:
  1. Sanjak of Hilla
  2. Sanjak of Zeng abad
  3. Sanjak of Javazar
  4. Sanjak of Rumahia
  5. Sanjak of Jangula
  6. Sanjak of Kara tagh
  7. [the name of the seventh sanjak is missing]
The other eleven sanjaks had no ziamets or Timars and were entirely in the power of their possessors:
  1. Sanjak of Terteng
  2. Sanjak of Samwat
  3. Sanjak of Biat
  4. Sanjak of Derneh
  5. Sanjak of Deh-balad
  6. Sanjak of Evset
  7. Sanjak of Kerneh-deh
  8. Sanjak of Demir-kapu
  9. Sanjak of Karanieh
  10. Sanjak of Kilan
  11. Sanjak of Al-sah

References[edit]

  1. ^ John Macgregor (1850). Commercial statistics: A digest of the productive resources, commercial.... Whittaker and co. p. 12. Retrieved 2013-06-26. 
  2. ^ "Some Provinces of the Ottoman Empire". Geonames.de. Retrieved 25 February 2013. 
  3. ^ The Popular encyclopedia: or, conversations lexicon 6. Blackie. 1862. p. 698. Retrieved 2013-06-26. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Gábor Ágoston; Bruce Alan Masters (2009-01-01). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-4381-1025-7. Retrieved 2013-06-26. 
  5. ^ Donald Edgar Pitcher (1972). An Historical Geography of the Ottoman Empire. Brill Archive. p. 126. Retrieved 2013-06-26. 
  6. ^ Evliya Çelebi; Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall (1834). Narrative of Travels in Europe, Asia, and Africa in the Seventeenth Century. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 90. Retrieved 2013-06-26.