Bahá'í Faith in India

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Bahá'í House of Worship

Even though the Bahá'í Faith in India is tiny in proportion of the national population, it is numerically large and has a long history culminating in recent times with the notable Lotus Temple, various Bahá'í schools, and increasing prominence. According to the 2005 Association of Religion Data Archives data there are close to some 1,880,000 Bahá'ís.[1]

History[edit]

Establishment[edit]

Bábí period[edit]

The roots of the Bahá'í Faith in India go back to the first days of the Bábí religion in 1844.[2] Four Babis are known from India in this earliest period.[3] The first was Sa'id Hindi - one of the Letters of the Living from India and a second only known as Qahru'llah.[4] Two other very early Bábís were Sa'in Hindi and Sayyid Basir Hindi. Additionally, four other Indians are listed among the 318 Bábís who fought at the Battle of Fort Tabarsi.[5] There is little evidence of any contact from these early Indian Babis back to their homeland.

Early Bahá'í period[edit]

During Bahá'u'lláh's lifetime, as founder of the religion, he encouraged some of his followers to move to India.[6] Some who settled in India including Hájí Sayyid Mírzá and Sayyid Muhammad who had become Bábís after meeting Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad in the 1850s. Hájí Sayyid Mahmúd also traded in Bombay. These individuals were very successful as general merchants and commission agents but it was near another 50 years before native converts began.[5] A Baha'i teacher was asked for and Jamál Effendi was sent approximately 1875.[5] Still in these early years another member of the family of the Báb, Mírzá Ibrahím, helped establish the first Bahá'í printing and publishing company, the Násirí Press, in Bombay and began to publish Bahá'í books from about 1882-3 onwards.[5] The Book of Certitude and the Secret of Divine Civilization were both published in 1882.[7] Much later - in the 1891 - Jamál Effendi was confused with a terrorist and reported on by British agents among the Indian population and those records have been found (though Indian government national archives.)[5] Following the passing of Bahá'u'lláh, as the leadership of the religion fell to `Abdu'l-Bahá, he in turn sent further emissaries in his stead - both Persian and American.[7]

Professor Pritam Singh is believed to be the first member of the Sikh community in India to accept the Bahá'í Faith, and the first to publish a Bahá'í weekly magazine in India. He learned of the religion from Mirzá Mahmud soon after his graduation from the University of Calcutta in 1904.[2] By 1908 the Bahá'í pioneers and representatives of `Abdu'l-Bahá, then head of the religion, had produced functioning communities in Bombay, Calcutta, Aligarh and Lahore.[7] Narayenrao Rangnath Shethji is believed to be the first convert from Hindu background. Better known as Vakil, he was born in a well-known Hindu family in Nawsari. He became a Bahá'í in 1909.[2] Representatives of the Indian Zoroastrian community had been sent to Persia to help their coreligionists. There they came into contact with the religion and supported its activities. Later, several Iranian Zoroastrian converts to the religion traveled to Bombay (notably Mulla Bahram Akhtar-Khavari) and actively promulgated their new religion among local Zoroastrians.[7]

Bahá'í House, New Delhi

As early as 1910 the national community in India was being urged to distinguish itself from Islam by Bahá'í institutions of America.[8] National coordinated activities began and reached a peak with the December 1920, first All-India Bahá'í Convention, held in Bombay for three days. Representatives from India's major religious communities were present as well as Baha'i delegates from throughout the country. The resolutions arrived at included the collection of funds to build a Baha'i temple, the establishment of a Baha'i school and the growth of teaching and translation work[7] - goals reached before the end of the century (see below.)

Following the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá, and Shoghi Effendi was appointed head of the religion and he soon set about the formation of the first round of National Spiritual Assemblies in the world in 1923 and India's was in that first wave.[9] In 1930 notable Bahá'í and world traveler Martha Root made an extensive trip though India.[10][11] The first Bahá'í summer school was able to be held in Simla in 1938 and in 1941 three new local communities with functioning Local Spiritual Assemblies had been established: Hyderabad, Kota and Bangalore. These activities reached a peak with occasional awareness of the social leaders in India like Mahatma Gandhi.[12] In time his comment "The Bahá'í Faith is a solace to humankind." appeared in the Bombay Chronicle newspaper on May 24, 1944, during the centenary of the Bahá'í Faith and the Indian Bahá'í community consisted of twenty-nine Local Spiritual Assemblies.[7]

Through the first half of the Twentieth Century the Bahá'ís continue to grow with a focus away from the large cities and had the notable achievement of the conversion of Kishan Lal Malviya, a scheduled caste leader from Shajapur (a district northeast of Ujjain) and another scheduled caste leader, Dayaram Malviya, also converted setting the stage for a rural dynamic of growth called "mass teaching". And Shirin Fozdar rose to prominence and served as a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of India from 1936 to 1951. Her main area of work from 1925 to 1950 was in a large community of Untouchables or Harijans in Ahmedabad.[13]

Growth[edit]

Baha'i house in Bangalore

After more than a century the Bahá'í Faith in India had only reached around 1,000[7] and for a significant time there hadn't even been an Indian-based community in India. Various social and religious forces encouraged a broader outreach for the aims of the teaching activities of the religion. It was a time of "mass teaching".[7] The Bahá'í teachings were adapted for presentation to a clearly Hindu context familiar to the people of the countryside - using principles and language familiar to them.[7] -

  • the presentation of Bahá'u'lláh as the kalki Avatar who according to the Vishnu Purana will appear at the end of the kali yuga for the purpose of reestablishing an era of righteousness
  • emphasizing the figures of Buddha and Krishna as past Manifestations of God or Avatars,
  • references to Hindu scriptures such as the Bhagavad Gita,
  • the substitution of Sanskrit-based terminology for Arabic and Persian where possible (i.e., Bhagavan Baha for Bahá'u'lláh), and the incorporation in both song (bhajan)[14] and literature of Hindu holy places, hero-figures and poetic images.
  • Hindi translations of Baha'i scriptures and prayers that appeared during this period which are so heavily Sanskritized as to make it difficult to recognize their non-Hindu antecedents.

Together with the teaching of the unity of humanity these approaches attracted many of the lower castes.[15] In short order most of a tiny village of some 200 people mass converted to the Baha'i Faith.[7] The following year hundreds of people adopted the religion thanks to an open air conference where speeches could be heard. In two more years almost as many people converted as had been Bahá'ís through regions of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. In 1961 there were a total of 78 Local Spiritual Assemblies and less than 1,000 believers and in 1963 there were some 65,000[16] and by 1970 these figures had risen to 3,350 Assemblies and 312,602 believers.[7] However in contrast to the Neo-Buddhist movement no effort was made to denounce Hinduism[7] and progress along Bahá'í ideals advanced - Assemblies formed in response to growing numbers of Baha'is, the House of Worship for India was built, and schools were established - all goals of the 1920, first All-India Baha'i Convention (see above).

During this period of growth, six conferences held in October 1967 around the world presented a viewing of a copy of the photograph of Bahá'u'lláh on the highly significant occasion commemorating the centenary of Bahá'u'lláh's writing of the Suriy-i-Mulúk (Tablet to the Kings), which Shoghi Effendi describes as "the most momentous Tablet revealed by Bahá'u'lláh".[17] After a meeting in Edirne (Adrianople), Turkey, the Hands of the Cause travelled to the conferences, 'each bearing the precious trust of a photograph of the Blessed Beauty, which it will be the privilege of those attending the Conferences to view.' Hand of the Cause Abul-Qasim Faizi conveyed this photograph to the Conference for Asia at India.[18]

India became largest Bahá'í community in the world in 2000 after less than a century of mass teaching, with an official Bahá'í population of between 1.7 million[19] to over 2 million,[20] The expansion of the numbers and organization of the community has helped grow the publishing agencies of the religion until the Indian Bahá'í Publishing Trust has an international reputation.[21] According to the 2005 Association of Religion Data Archives data there are close to some 1,880,700 Bahá'ís.[1]

Emergence from obscurity[edit]

The Mother Temple of the Subcontinent[edit]

Main article: Lotus Temple

The Bahá'í House of Worship in Delhi, India, popularly known as the Lotus Temple, is a prominent attraction in Delhi. It was completed in 1986 and serves as the Mother Temple of the Indian subcontinent. It has won numerous architectural awards and been featured in hundreds of newspaper and magazine articles[22] and becoming "the most visited building in India, surpassing even the Taj Mahal with some 4.5 million visitors a year."[23] A few international dignitaries have also visited. Lists of prominent individuals are listed in an article[24] and updated most recently in 2004 addition.[25]

Bahá'í educational institutions[edit]

Since its inception the religion has had involvement in socio-economic development beginning by giving greater freedom to women,[26] promulgating the promotion of female education as a priority concern,[27] and that involvement was given practical expression by creating schools, agricultural coops, and clinics.[26] The religion entered a new phase of activity when a message of the Universal House of Justice dated 20 October 1983 was released.[28] Bahá'ís were urged to seek out ways, compatible with the Bahá'í teachings, in which they could become involved in the social and economic development of the communities in which they lived. Worldwide in 1979 there were 129 officially recognized Bahá'í socio-economic development projects. By 1987, the number of officially recognized development projects had increased to 1482. There are some seven educational institutions the Baha'is of India have undertaken.[29] Two of the more well known are:

Prominence[edit]

Baha'i house in Chandigarh.

Following the successes in large scale growth in numbers and organization with commitment to raise up a Temple and schools, the Baha'i Faith in India has awakened degrees of prominence.

  • Amongst other important engagements during his state visit to India from 5–7 November 1999, Pope John Paul II attended an inter-religious meeting. Against a backdrop of protests by various sectarian groups against ecumenism, this particular function had aroused interest. Distinguished representatives of nine religions, including Mrs. Zena Sorabjee of the Baha'i community, shared the platform with Pope John Paul. Many ambassadors, highranking government officials, political and civic leaders and intellectuals, as well as cardinals, archbishops and other senior religious dignitaries, were present at this unique event.[34]
  • The situation of the Babri Mosque was commented on by Members of the India Supreme Court highlighting the approach of the Baha'is on multi-faith issues.[35]
  • Zia Mody is a prominent Bahá'í[36] Indian legal consultant. She is a member of the Securities and Exchange Board of India's Standing Committee on Mutual Funds, and of the Capital Market Committee of the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry. She is the daughter of noted Indian jurist Soli Sorabjee.

Recent events[edit]

Lotus Temple arrests[edit]

Baha'i House in New Delhi.

In 2006, some former employees of the temple made a complaint to the police that the trustees of the temple had been involved in various crimes including spying, religious conversion and producing false passports. The trial judge directed the police to arrest nine specific trustees, but the High Court later stayed the arrest.[37]

Protest of persecution in Iran[edit]

In 2001 the government of India voted against the United Nations resolution Situation of Human Rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran raised in response to the Persecution of Bahá'ís in Iran.[38]

In June 2008 several leading jurists of India's legal system, journalists, and civil rights activits signed an open letter urging Iran to abide by international human rights conventions and release the detainees immediately of the leadership of the Bahá'í Faith in Iran. Signatories include:[39] former Chief Justice of India Justice Jagdish Sharan Verma, former Supreme Court judge Justice V.R. Krishna Iyer, former Chief Justice of Delhi High Court Justice Rajinder Sachar, former Attorney General Soli Sorabjee, member, Law commission, Tahir Mahmood, former chairperson, National Commission for Women, Dr. Mohini Giri, editorial director, Hindustan Times, Vir Sanghvi, senior columnist Kuldip Nayar, president, World Council for Arya Samaj, Swami Agnivesh, among others.

First local House of Worship[edit]

In 2012 the Universal House of Justice announced the first local Bahá'í House of Worship would be built. One of these was specified in Bihar Sharif, Bihar, India.[40]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Most Baha'i Nations (2005)". QuickLists > Compare Nations > Religions >. The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2005. Retrieved 2010-09-16. 
  2. ^ a b c The Bahá'í Faith - Brief History National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of India.
  3. ^ Historical Accounts of two Indian Babis: Sa'in Hindi and Sayyid Basir Hindi By Sepehr Manuchehri, Research Notes in Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Studies, Vol. 5, no. 2 (April, 2001)
  4. ^ The Practice of Taqiyyah (Dissimulation) in the Babi and Bahai Religions by Sepehr Manuchehri, Research Notes in Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Studies, Vol. 3, no. 3 (September 1999)
  5. ^ a b c d e Momen, Moojan (1999/2000). "Jamál Effendi and the early spread of the Bahá’í Faith in Asia". Baha'i Studies Review 9.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  6. ^ Bahá'í History by Moojan Momen and Peter Smith
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l The Baha'i Faith in India: A Developmental Stage Approach by William Garlington, Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Studies, No. 2 (June, 1997)
  8. ^ Letter from the House of Spirituality of Bahais, Chicago, Ill., U. S. A. to the Assembly of Bomday India.
  9. ^ The Bahá'í Faith: 1844-1963: Information Statistical and Comparative, Including the Achievements of the Ten Year International Bahá'í Teaching & Consolidation Plan 1953-1963, Compiled by Hands of the Cause Residing in the Holy Land, pages 22 and 46.
  10. ^ "Miss Martha Root in India (I)". Bahá'í News (45): 7–8 (continued...). October 1930. 
  11. ^ "Miss Martha Root in India (II)". Bahá'í News (46): 10–11. November 1930. 
  12. ^ Mahatma Gandhi and the Bahá'ís - Striving towards a Nonviolent Civilization, by M. V. Gandhimohan, Copyright © 2000, Bahá'í Publishing Trust of India, New Delhi, ISBN 81-86953-82-5
  13. ^ Sarwal, Anil (1989). "Shirin Fozdar: An Outstanding Pioneer". Bahá'í Digest. Retrieved 2008-02-23. 
  14. ^ The Baha'i Bhajans: An example of the Baha'i Use of Hindu Symbols by William Garlington, Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Studies, Vol. 2, No. 1 (January, 1998)
  15. ^ Notes on Bahá'í population in India by Charles Nolley and William Garlington, 1997-03
  16. ^ Francis, N. Richard (1998). "Rahmatu'llah Muhajir - Hand of the Cause of God, the Treasure of All Humanity". Bahá'í Faith Website of Reno, Nevada.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  17. ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1944). God Passes By. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 171. ISBN 0-87743-020-9. 
  18. ^ House of Justice, Universal (1976). Wellspring of Guidance, Messages 1963-1968. Wilmette, Illinois: National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States. pp. 109–112. ISBN 0-87743-032-2. 
  19. ^ Source: Year 2000 Estimated Baha'i statistics from: David Barrett, World Christian Encyclopedia, 2000; Total population statistics, mid-2000 from Population Reference Bureau
  20. ^ Baha'i Faith in India, FAQs, National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of India
  21. ^ Bahá'í Publishing Trust - Publishing Division of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of India
  22. ^ Bahá'í Houses of Worship, India The Lotus of Bahapur
  23. ^ Commemorations in Chicago highlight the immense impact of House of Worship OneCountry, Volume 15, Issue 1 / April–June 2003
  24. ^ An Architectural Marvel by Prof. Anil Sarwal, First published in The Tribune, Chandigarh
  25. ^ Distinguished visitors praise Baha'i Temple
  26. ^ a b Momen, Moojan. "History of the Baha'i Faith in Iran". draft "A Short Encyclopedia of the Baha'i Faith". Bahai-library.com. Retrieved 2009-10-16. 
  27. ^ Kingdon, Geeta Gandhi (1997). "Education of women and socio-economic development". Baha'i Studies Review 7 (1). 
  28. ^ Momen, Moojan; Smith, Peter (1989). "The Baha'i Faith 1957–1988: A Survey of Contemporary Developments". Religion 19 (1): 63–91. doi:10.1016/0048-721X(89)90077-8. 
  29. ^ Socia-Economic Development Projects
  30. ^ a b Background statement of the school
  31. ^ Empowering Young Women to Improve Rural Lives - The Story of the Barli Development Institute for Rural Women, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India. A case study in Bahá'í Development. Prepared by The Bahá'í International Community for The World Faiths Development Dialogue (11 July 2003)
  32. ^ bahaindia.org (2003-08-11). "Barli Development Institute for Rural Women". Archived from the original on 13 October 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-15. 
  33. ^ Odess-Gillett, Warren. "A Baha’i Perspective 08.15.2009 Warren Odess-Gillett interviews Jess Firth". WXOJ-LP. Retrieved 2009-09-19. 
  34. ^ Pope Addressed by Baha'is in India
  35. ^ Excerpts from the Supreme Court of India, Oct. 24, 1994 regarding the destruction of the Babri Mosque in the town of Ayodhya
  36. ^ Zia Mody Profile, AZB & Partners - Mumbai
  37. ^ HC stays arrest of Lotus temple trustees, webindia123.com, 18 August 2006
  38. ^ Bahá'í International Community (2008). "UN General Assembly Resolution 2001". Bahá'í International Community. Retrieved 2009-04-04. 
  39. ^ "Iran asked to stop persecution of Baha’is". The Tribune, Chandigarh, India (The Tribune Trust). 2008-06-19. 
  40. ^ "Plans to build new Houses of Worship announced". Bahá'í World News Service (Bahá’í International Community). 22 April 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-22. 

External links[edit]