Bahá'í Faith in Mexico

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The Bahá'í Faith in Mexico begins with visits of Bahá'ís before 1916.[1] In 1919 letters from the head of the religion, `Abdu'l-Bahá, were published mentioning Mexico as one of the places Bahá'ís should take the religion to.[2] Following further pioneers moving there and making contacts the first Mexican to join the religion was in 1937, followed quickly by the first Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assembly of all Latin America being elected in 1938.[1][3] With continued growth the National Spiritual Assembly was first elected in 1961.[3][4] The Association of Religion Data Archives (relying on World Christian Encyclopedia) estimated almost 37900 Bahá'ís in 2005.[5]

Pre–history[edit]

Several Bahá'ís from the United States made trips to Mexico to introduce the religion before 1916, including Mr. and Mrs. Frankland, Mark Tobey and Roy Wilhelm.[1]

`Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablets of the Divine Plan[edit]

`Abdu'l-Bahá, then head of the religion, wrote a series of letters, or tablets, to the followers of the religion in the United States in 1916–1917; these letters were compiled together in the book Tablets of the Divine Plan. The sixth of the tablets was the first to mention Latin American regions and was written on 8 April 1916, but was delayed in being presented in the United States until 1919—after the end of the First World War and the Spanish flu. The sixth tablet was translated and presented by Mirza Ahmad Sohrab on 4 April 1919, and published in Star of the West magazine on 12 December 1919.[2] After mentioning the need for the message of the religion to visit the Latin American countries `Abdu'l-Bahá continues:

... becoming severed from rest and composure of the world, [they] may arise and travel throughout Alaska, the republic of Mexico, and south of Mexico in the Central American republics, such as Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Belize...[6]

Following the Tablets and about the time of `Abdu'l-Bahá's passing in 1921, a few other Bahá'ís began moving to Latin America.[1]

Seven Year Plan and succeeding decades[edit]

In April 1936 Orcella Rexford traveled to Mexico presenting the religion to various contacts on issues like the Bahá'í view of world peace.[7] Shoghi Effendi, who was named `Abdu'l-Bahá's successor, wrote a cable on 1 May 1936 to the Bahá'í Annual Convention of the United States and Canada, and asked for the systematic implementation of `Abdu'l-Bahá's vision to begin.[1] In his cable he wrote:

"Appeal to assembled delegates ponder historic appeal voiced by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Tablets of the Divine Plan. Urge earnest deliberation with incoming National Assembly to insure its complete fulfillment. First century of Bahá'í Era drawing to a close. Humanity entering outer fringes most perilous stage its existence. Opportunities of present hour unimaginably precious. Would to God every State within American Republic and every Republic in American continent might ere termination of this glorious century embrace the light of the Faith of Bahá'u'lláh and establish structural basis of His World Order."[8]

Following the 1 May cable, another cable from Shoghi Effendi came on 19 May calling for permanent pioneers to be established in all the countries of Latin America. The Bahá'í National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada appointed the Inter–America Committee to take charge of the preparations. During the 1937 Bahá'í North American Convention, Shoghi Effendi cabled advising the convention to prolong their deliberations to permit the delegates and the National Assembly to consult on a plan that would enable Bahá'ís to go to Latin America as well as to include the completion of the outer structure of the Bahá'í House of Worship in Wilmette, Illinois.[1] In 1937 the First Seven Year Plan (1937–44), which was an international plan designed by Shoghi Effendi, gave the American Bahá'ís the goal of establishing the Bahá'í Faith in every country in Latin America. With the spread of American Bahá'ís communities and assemblies began to form in 1938 across Latin America.[1]

Beginning developments[edit]

First assembly[edit]

Following travels by Frances Stewart[1] and others like Beatrice Irwin[9][10] the first person to declare their belief in the religion in Mexico was Maria del Refugio Ochoa of Mexico City in 1937. A group that believed that a new messenger of God was about to appear or had appeared was contacted.[11] Among the early topics of discussion was world peace and Tahirih. The entire group joined the religion and formed the first Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assembly in Latin America in 1938.[1][12][13] Among the early work of the assembly was translating Bahá'í literature.[14] Its officers were Pedro Andres Basurto, Maria Luisa B de Jurado, and Zenaida Jurad.[15] It was noted as early as May 1938 that once formed as an assembly it was not under the jurisdiction of the national assembly of the United States.[16] The assembly was invited to attend the US national convention to facilitate communication and consult about the progress of the religion in the region. They sent a representative.[17] A monthly magazine, Emir, published in Mexico Citv, carried a story "Un Nuevo Mensaje Espiritual Nos Ilega de Oriente," before April 1939 presenting the religion directly and reproducing a picture of the US Bahá'í House of Worship and of the members of the assembly in Mexico City.[18] The assembly pursued legal recognition in spring 1939 as well as establishing classes the winter of 1938–9.[19] In the early spring of 1940 it began publishing its own newsletter – Novedades Bahá'ís – which began with a 6-page article delineating the brief history of the community and its activities.[20] Mexicans outside Mexico also encountered the religion. In 1940 four Mexicans were part of an observance in Costa Rica for the death of May Maxwell.[21] After starting plans in January 1941[22] for a radio broadcast by Ford covering Central and South America the broadcast was successfully accomplished 26 November 1941.[23] Meanwhile a Pedro Espinosa is noted from Mexico City talking at the Bahá'í Center in New York in June 1943.[24]

By 1942 another assembly had been elected in the town of Puebla[25] though it failed to re–elect in 1943.[26]

Regional developments[edit]

An All–American Convention, that is to say North and South, for the Bahá'ís was held in 1944 with Carlos Vergara as the delegate from Mexico.[27]

A number of notable Bahá'í individuals traveled though visiting starting in early 1945: Juliet Thompson early 1945[28] for a year,[29] Dorothy Beecher Baker, then chair of the Inter–America Committee, in later 1945 and again early 1947,[30] Amelia Collins early 1946[31] and Mason Remey in early 1947.[32] Later most of these were appointed as Hands of the Cause a distinctive station in the religion. Dorothy Baker's daughter toured Mexico several times and helped refound the assembly of Pueblo that failed re–election previously as well as another in Coatepec.[33] Charles Ioas and Amoz Gibson, later a members of the Universal House of Justice, served in the community for a time as well.[34]

In January 1947 Panama City hosted the first congress of the northern Latin America countries to build a new consciousness of unity among the Bahá'ís of Central America, Mexico and the West Indies to focus energies for the election of a regional national assembly.[35] Regional committees were appointed overseeing Panama, Mexico, and Nicaragua.[36] Its members were Josi Antonio Bonilla, Marcia Steward, Natalia Chávez, Gerardo Vega, and Oscar Castro.[33] Retrospectively, a stated purpose for the committee was to facilitate a shift in the balance of roles from North American guidance and Latin cooperation to Latin guidance and North American cooperation.[37] The process was well underway by 1950 and was to be enforced about 1953. In 1948 several of the committee and others traveled extensively through the region visiting Bahá'í communities[38] and various regional conferences – one hosted in Mexico City in 1948 – and temporary schools. In 1950 the committee coordinated a series of classes for itinerant Bahá'ís visiting and teachings classes among the communities along with close coordination of their services.[39]

A regional National Spiritual Assembly for Central America, Mexico and the Antilles was then elected in 1951[1] attended by Dorothy Baker and Horace Holley serving as special representatives.[40] The convention hosted 25 delegates from Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Jamaica. Following the election a letter of the regional assembly noted that "Considerable attention is being paid to stressing the need throughout the area of a much greater understanding of the administration of the religion. Local assemblies are being taught, by means of the National Teaching Committee and the Baha'i Bulletin to acquire a much higher concept of their own importance as governing bodies. They are being groomed slowly but surely to realize that they are not merely groups of nine people gathered together in a purely spiritual unity, but nine members of a governing body, gathered together to maintain order and peace in their own communities, resolve their problems through the medium of prayer and consultation and to devise efficient ways and means of spreading the Faith in the territory under their immediate jurisdiction."[41] The 1952 members were Raquel Constante, Cora Oliver, James Facey, Elena Marella, Artemus Lamb, Louise Caswell, Zenayda Jurado, David Escalante, and Randolph Fitz–Henley.[42] 1955's convention was held in Mexico City with 27 delegates, 16 of whom attended.[43] During this time Auxiliary Board members, assistants to Hands of the Cause at the time, carried on a campaign of visiting many communities[44] with many pioneers still being coordinated by the regional assembly.[45] The first assembly of Monterrey formed in 1956.[46] In July 1956 the first Mexican conference was held about issues specific to Mexico about the promulgation of the religion.[47]

The regional assembly was reorganized in April 1957 with Mexico joining with the Republics of Central America:[4][12] Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala.[48] In attendance representing the head of the religion, Shoghi Effendi, was Hand of the Cause Dhikru'llah Khadem with 27 delegates from the various countries as well as representative of various institutions.[49] In 1958 there were 50 delegates at the election of the regional assembly.[50] Coordinated efforts were made in 1959 to celebrate United Nations Day[51] and the first assembly of San Miguel de Allende in Guanajuato was formed.[52] In 1959 the first public meeting on the religion in Mexico took place in Guadalajara.[53] The meeting was covered by the local news. The 1960 convention was attended by Hand of the Cause William Sears.[54]

In 1961 Mexican Bahá'ís elected their own National Spiritual Assembly with Hand of the Cause Paul Haney overseeing the proceedings.[12][55] Its members were Samuel Burafato, Dr. Edris Rice–Wray, Valeria Nichols, Carmen Burafato, Harold Murray, Florence Mayberry, Anna Howard, Chappie Angulo, Earl James Morris.[56]

Indian connections[edit]

In March 1957 the first Indians joining the religion are noted.[57] A committee focused on that need was active by April 1958 in making contacts and translating materials.[58] Bahá'í observers were welcomed at an Inter–American Indian Congress in the city of Guatemala in 1959 thanks to their contacts with local versions of inter–American Indian institutes in the region and included opportunities for sharing native and Spanish translations of Bahá'í pamphlets.[59] In 1961 the Hands of the Cause of the Americas took special note of the spread of the religion among the Indians across the continents noting progress in Mexico among them.[60] The first all–Indian assembly of Mexico was elected in San Rafael Comac near Cholula, Puebla 1960.[56][61] Hand of the Cause Enoch Olinga visited this assembly of San Rafael in May 1961.[62]

A national community[edit]

In 1963 the members of the National Assembly were elected by 19 delegates from the Mexican community.[63] That year was the first election of the Universal House of Justice and the delegates for the election were the members of the national assemblies. In Mexico they were: Samuel Burrafato, Carmen Burrafatoc, Romeo Guerrac, Anna W. Howard, Florence Mayberry, Earl James Morris, Harold Baldwin Murray, Valeria Lamb Nichols, and Dr. Edris Rice–Wray.

A review done of the world community in 1963 found Mexico had:[64]

In 1964 the religion reached Cozumel and Isla Mujeres.[65] In 1965 Hand of the Cause Ugo Giachery attended the national convention.[66] Its first Mayan member was elected that year – Jorge Coronado – after 3 yrs of work promulgating the religion among the Maya people.[67] The first Yaqui tribe member joined the religion in 1966.[68] Mexican pioneers are noted as pioneering to other countries and other states in Mexico from 1967.[69] Youth from the United States were known to offer a period of service to the Yucatan area including the institute there and accompanied the Auxiliary Board member on many trips.[70] In October there was a major regional conference in Panama at which there was a viewing of a copy of the photograph of Bahá'u'lláh on the highly significant occasion commemorating the centenary of Bahá'u'lláh's writing of the Suriy-i-Mulúk (Tablet to the Kings), which Shoghi Effendi describes as "the most momentous Tablet revealed by Bahá'u'lláh".[71] It also served as a laying of a cornerstone for the first Latin American Bahá'í House of Worship. To this conference there were delegations of various Mexican peoples and institutions.[72][73] Meanwhile short term pioneers continued to come to Mexico.[74] Indian actor and documentarian Phil Lucas was among those that lived in Mexico in the 1970s.[75] Bahá'ís reached out to various city and state leaders who were presented with Bahá'í literature[76] including the Governor of Yucatan,[77] and the Governor of Oaxaca.[78]

Youth[edit]

In 1970 a Bahá'í club was founded in the Fundación Universidad de las Américas, Puebla[79] which was officially recognized – the first in all Latin America – in 1971.[80] In 1972 traveling speakers on the religion made presentations there.[81] The first international youth conference of Mexico took place in 1973 in Pueblo City with participants from 5 countries[12] swelling to 200 youth.[82] Later in 1975 a series of public concerts by Bahá'í performers at a university of Mérida included audiences of hundreds as well as news coverage.[83] In 1974 teachers and youth from the center at Muna appeared on local television during a winter school on the religion.[84] The first Bahá'í Campus Club at the Autonomous University of Guadalajara, Mexico's School of Medicine was formed in April 1978.[85]

Conferences[edit]

In 1974 the Bahá'ís of Mexico were invited to be part of a university panel discussion religion in Mexico which the Continental Counselors Cannen de Burafato and Paul Lucas participated in at the request of the national assembly.[86] As part of International Women's Year in 1975, the Bahá'í International Community participated in the first World Conference on Women, held in Mexico City. Two Bahá'í representatives were officially accredited to attend the Conference and nine representatives attended the NGO (Non–Governmental Organization) Tribune, the parallel meeting for non–governmental organizations[87] in a process which was overseen by the national assembly of Mexico.[88] The delegates were Bahá'í women leaders from around the world and included among them was Dr. Edris Rice–Wray of Mexico.[89] Dr. Helen Elsie Austin was among the delegates in many international women's conferences, including the 1975 International Women's Conference in Mexico City.[90] There was also television coverage and interviews.[89][91] Meanwhile several Indian Bahá'ís from Mexico participated in a cultural awareness meeting in California for the Bahá'ís along with Indians from the United States encouraging a standard of deeds over words be kept along with awareness of the culture of the peoples addressed.[92] In February 1977 a conference looking at promulgating the religion in Mexico also took place in Mérida with more than 2000 Bahá'ís attending.[12] One third of the participants were indigenous believers from across Central America 150 of whom were Mayans.[93] Non–Bahá'í family members of the Indians were allowed to fully attend the meeting. Three Hands of the Cause were present – Paul Haney, Rahmatu'lláh Muhájir, and Enoch Olinga, as well as Counsellor Florence Mayberry who had been on the first national assembly of Mexico.

Demographics by the late 1970s[edit]

While there were 11 assemblies in 1963 by 1977 the community reported 141 assemblies had been elected.[94] The 1979 national convention reported 165 assemblies, 602 localities, 45 delegates, and seven Auxiliary Board members for the nation.[95]

Socio–Economic Development beginnings[edit]

Since its inception in the 1800s in Asia the religion has had involvement in socio-economic development beginning by giving greater freedom to women,[96] promulgating the promotion of female education as a priority concern,[97] and that involvement was given practical expression by creating schools, agricultural coops, and clinics.[96] In Mexico Bahá'í schools began serving community needs as early as 1965 when Bahá'ís founded an institute in Muna, Yucatán offering children's classes and adult training by the Bahá'ís of the region.[98] In 1970 an institute similar to the one founded in Muna was established in San Rafael Comac.[99] Another institute, damaged in 1973 in a quake, was renovated, expanded and re–opened in 1975.[100] In early 1976 Bahá'í women from many northern Latin American countries including Mexico gathered in El Salvador for a women's conference sponsored by the Continental Counselors of Central America and the event included meetings among the Bahá'ís as well as invited non–Bahá'ís.[101]

The religion entered a new phase of activity when a message of the Universal House of Justice dated 20 October 1983 was released addressing the world community on the importance of such activities.[102] Bahá'ís were urged to seek out ways, compatible with the Bahá'í teachings, in which they could become involved in the social and economic development of the communities in which they lived. Worldwide in 1979 there were 129 officially recognized Bahá'í socio–economic development projects. By 1987, the number of officially recognized development projects had increased to 1482. Aside from continuing the various schools Bahá'í musicians from 14 countries met for an international conference including Charles Wolcott, which served as an exhibition of indigenous dance and music, a memorial to Bahá'ís suffering Persecution and an opportunity to toured a local children's hospital, an orphanage, a school and a local theatre to play for children and staff – two traveling musicians joined the religion during the events.[103]

Modern community[edit]

Since the 1980s the national community has engaged in a wide variety of venues.

International issues[edit]

Mexican Bahá'ís have participated the interfaith Mexican hosting of the Parliament of the World's Religions.[104]

The national government has been generally somewhat supportive of the Bahá'í response to human rights abuses in Iran. In 2001 Mexico abstained;[105] in 2002 it supported the resolution.[106]

The Mexican Bahá'í community was among the respondents of the Special Rapporteur of the UN who had conducted a survey on problems relating to freedom of religion and belief from the standpoint of the curricula and textbooks of primary or elementary and secondary education institutions. The results of such a survey could facilitate the formulation of an international educational strategy to combat all forms of intolerance and of discrimination based on religion or belief, a strategy that could centre on the definition and implementation of a common minimum programme to foster tolerance and non–discrimination.[107]

Mexican Bahá'ís participated in a world teleconference commemoration of Human Rights Day before the 2001 World Conference against Racism. The videoconference linked participants in Bogota, Chicago, Geneva, Mexico City, New York, Rome, San Francisco, Santiago and Vienna. Speakers included Mary Robinson, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights; Jyoti Singh, Executive Coordinator of the UN World Conference Against Racism; Techeste Ahderom, Chairman of the NGO (Non–Governmental Organization) Committee on Human Rights and a Baha'i International Community representative to the United Nations; and Pitso Montwedi, Counsellor of the Permanent Mission of South Africa to the UN. It also enabled participants in those cities and on the internet to ask questions and join in the discussion with UN leaders in the work.[108]

People[edit]

Indigenous peoples[edit]

In 1980 two teams of Native American Bahá'ís from Alaska, Canada and the United States representing 10 tribes under the nameTrail of Light traveled from the north to the south starting mid June and presented the religion to audiences in Mexico, Belize, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, Bolivia, Chile, Peru and finally Ecuador.[109] The first Bahá'í of the Totonac people was noted in Veracruz, Mexico before 1983.[110] A 1984–5 continuation of the 'Trail of Light' process brought Mexican indigenous Bahá'ís into Veracruz Mexico.[111] In 1988 Mexico was represented at the fifth Continental Indigenous Council among the 400 participants.[112]

Youth[edit]

Mexican youth traveled internationally to support Bahá'í communities including in New Zealand[113] and Brazil.[114] Other youth continue to travel to Mexico, serve and be changed by the engagement.[115]

Demographics[edit]

The Association of Religion Data Archives (relying on World Christian Encyclopedia) estimated almost 37900 Bahá'ís in 2005.[5] The national teaching committee indicated in c.2000 that while there was at least some growth in 19 of the states of Mexico most of the growth took place in San Luis Potosí and Yucatan, followed by Guanajuato, Baja California, with some notice in Colima and other states.[116] In 2009 a regional conference held by request of the Universal House of Justice to celebrate recent achievements in grassroots community–building and to plan their next steps in organizing in their home areas.[117][118] 600 Bahá'ís from across Mexico attended the 2-day event.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Lamb, Artemus (November 1995). The Beginnings of the Bahá'í Faith in Latin America:Some Remembrances, English Revised and Amplified Edition. West Linn, OR: M L VanOrman Enterprises. 
  2. ^ a b Abbas, `Abdu'l-Bahá (April 1919). Tablets, Instructions and Words of Explanation. Mirza Ahmad Sohrab (trans. and comments). 
  3. ^ a b "Comunidad Bahá’í de México". National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Mexico. 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-25. 
  4. ^ a b Hassall, Graham; Universal House of Justice. "National Spiritual Assemblies statistics 1923–1999". Assorted Resource Tools. Bahá'í Library Online. Retrieved 10 May 2009. 
  5. ^ a b "Most Baha'i Nations (2005)". QuickLists > Compare Nations > Religions >. The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2005. Retrieved 4 July 2009. 
  6. ^ `Abdu'l-Bahá (1991) [1916–17]. Tablets of the Divine Plan (Paperback ed.). Wilmette, IL: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 104. ISBN 0877432333. 
  7. ^ "News of the Cause". Bahá'í News (99): p. 4. April 1936. 
  8. ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1947). Messages to America. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Committee. p. 6. ISBN 0877431450. OCLC 5806374. 
  9. ^ collections of pioneers noted
    • "News of the Cause". Bahá'í News (99): p. 4. April 1936. 
    • "Inter–America Committee". Bahá'í News (105): p. 7. February 1937. 
    • "Annual Report of the Inter–America Committee". Bahá'í News (109): p. 5. July 1937. 
    • "Inter–America Committee". Bahá'í News (112): p. 6. December 1937. 
  10. ^ individual pioneers noted
  11. ^ "Mexico". Bahá'í News (115): p. 3–4. April 1938. 
  12. ^ a b c d e Cameron, G.; Momen, W. (1996). A Basic Bahá'í Chronology. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. pp. 252, 331, 351, 396, 410. ISBN 978-0-85398-404-7. 
  13. ^ "Inter–America Committee". Bahá'í News (116): p. 11. June 1938. 
  14. ^ "Inter–America Committee". Bahá'í News (117): p. 10. July 1938. 
  15. ^ "Mexico". Bahá'í News (117): p. 11. July 1938. 
  16. ^ "Status of Assemblies of Central and South America (Letter from Shoghi Effendi)". Bahá'í News (119): p. 4–5. October 1938. 
  17. ^ "Inter–America Committee". Bahá'í News (123): p. 4. March 1939. 
  18. ^ "Items of News". Bahá'í News (124): p. 8. April 1939. 
  19. ^ "News of East and West". Bahá'í News (127): p. 10. July 1939. 
  20. ^ "Inter–America Teaching Activities". Bahá'í News (133): p. 8. February 1940. 
  21. ^ "Inter–American Teaching". Bahá'í News (149): p. 6. July 1940. 
  22. ^ "Inter–America News; Nicaragua". Bahá'í News (141): p.5. January 1941. 
  23. ^ "Inter–America News". Bahá'í News (148): p.11. January 1942. 
  24. ^ Ann Hedgeman Speaks, The New York Age, 19 June 1943 • Page 3
  25. ^ "Latin American Assemblies". Bahá'í News (153): p. 7. June 1942. 
  26. ^ "Latin American Assemblies". Bahá'í News (164): p. 9. July 1943. 
  27. ^
    • "The Latin American Session". Bahá'í News (170): p. 4. September 1944. 
    • "A New Bahá'í Era Begins; All America Unity". Bahá'í News (171): p. 4–5. November 1944. 
  28. ^ "A New Bahá'í Era Begins; All America Unity". Bahá'í News (174): p. 8. April–May 1945. 
  29. ^ "Early American Bahá'ís Honor Juliet Thompson at Memorial Service in House of Worship". Bahá'í News (313): p. 10–11. March 1957. 
  30. ^ "News Briefs". Bahá'í News (177): p. 9. November 1945. 
  31. ^ "Inter–America News". Bahá'í News (182): p. 5. April 1946. 
  32. ^ "New Assemblies and Groups in Latin America". Bahá'í News (194): p. 4. April 1947. 
  33. ^ a b "Latin America Has Arisen with a Will". Bahá'í News (196): p. 14–15. June 1947. 
  34. ^
    • "International School Marks Latin American Progress". Bahá'í News (198): p. 7. August 1947. 
    • "We can learn from Latin America". Bahá'í News (199): p. 8–9. September 1947. 
    • "House of Justice sadly laments loss of 'dearly–loved brother,' Amoz Gibson". Bahá'í News (616): p. 2. July 1982. 
  35. ^ "Panama Conference Demonstrates Unity". Bahá'í News (192): p. 1–2. March 1947. 
  36. ^ "Inter–America News Regional Committees". Bahá'í News (186): p. 5. August 1946. 
  37. ^ "Historical Background of the Panama Temple". Bahá'í News (493): p. 2. April 1972. 
  38. ^
    • "Latin American News". Bahá'í News (213): p. 9. November 1948. 
    • "Our Brothers to the South". Bahá'í News (216): p. 6. February 1949. 
  39. ^ "Latin American News; Pioneer Preparation". Bahá'í News (213): p. 7–9. September 1950. 
  40. ^ "Central America, Mexico and the Antilles; Some Comments on the First Convention". Bahá'í News (247): p. 9–10. September 1951. 
  41. ^ "International News; Meso America and the Antilles". Bahá'í News (248): p. 6. September 1951. 
  42. ^ "Central America; 1952 Convention Fixes Definite Goals". Bahá'í News (257): p. 6. July 1952. 
  43. ^ "Central America". Bahá'í News (292): p. 13. June 1955. 
  44. ^
    • "Teaching Missions by Members of the Auxiliary Board; Report by American Hands of the Cause". Bahá'í News (284): p. 1. October 1954. 
    • "Teaching Missions by Members of the Auxiliary Board; Second Report by American Hands of the Cause". Bahá'í News (288): p. 3. February 1955. 
    • "American Hands of the Cause Report on Auxiliary Board Missions". Bahá'í News (301): p. 2. March 1956. 
    • "Congresses, Dedications Stimulate Central American Teaching". Bahá'í News (310): p. 9. December 1956. 
    • "Central American Assemblies Strengthened by visit of Auxiliary Board Member". Bahá'í News (357): p. 13. December 1960. 
  45. ^
    • "World Crusade; Ninth Pioneer Report". Bahá'í News (284): p. 4. October 1954. 
    • "World Crusade; Tenth Pioneer Report". Bahá'í News (286): p. 2–3. December 1954. 
    • "World Crusade; Eleventh Pioneer Report". Bahá'í News (288): p. 4–5. February 1955. 
    • "World Crusade; Twelfth Pioneer Report". Bahá'í News (291): p. 7–8. May 1955. 
    • "Pioneers needed in Latin America; Mexico". Bahá'í News (357): p. 4. May 1957. 
  46. ^ "First Local Spiritual Assembly of Monterrey…". Bahá'í News (206): p. 4. August 1956. 
  47. ^ "First Teaching Conference held in Mexico". Bahá'í News (309): p. 7. November 1956. 
  48. ^ "Plan formation of two National Assemblies". Bahá'í News (312): p. 7. February 1957. 
  49. ^ "New Assembly formed in". Bahá'í News (317): p. 8–10. July 1957. 
  50. ^ "First Reports of the 1958 National Conventions Reveal Baha'is, Newly Aware of Spiritual Forces Released by Guardian's Ascension, Resolve to Meet Challenges with Maturity, Audacity, and Dedication; Central America, Mexico and Panama". Bahá'í News (328): p. 8–10. June 1958. 
  51. ^ "Central America and Mexico Communities hold Outstanding UN Day Observances". Bahá'í News (337): p. 10. March 1959. 
  52. ^ a b "First Local Spiritual Assembly ..". Bahá'í News (341): p. 21. July 1959. 
  53. ^ "First Public mention of the Faith made by Guadalajara on UN Day". Bahá'í News (348): p. 12–13. February 1960. 
  54. ^ "Delegates and visitors to the tenth Annual Convention..". Bahá'í News (355): p. 2. October 1960. 
  55. ^ "Latin American nations elect assemblies for 50th time; Historical photographs". Bahá'í World News Service (Bahá'í International Community). 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-17. 
  56. ^ a b "Mexico". Bahá'í News (365): p. 5–6. August 1961. 
  57. ^ "Committee Reports Pioneer openings in Alaska and Latin America; Latin America". Bahá'í News (313): p. 4–5. February 1957. 
  58. ^ "First Mexican Teaching Congress Pledges Obedience and Loyalty to the Hands of the Faith; Indian Goals Stressed". Bahá'í News (326): p. 11. April 1958. 
  59. ^ "Bahá'í Observers Participate in Inter–American Indian Congress". Bahá'í News (326): p. 9–10. August 1959. 
  60. ^ "Hands of the Western Hemisphere Recount signs of victory among American Indians". Bahá'í News (360): p. 6. March 1961. 
  61. ^ a b "Indians of Western Hemisphere Embrace Faith in Unprecedented Numbers". Bahá'í News (362): p. 6. March 1961. 
  62. ^ "Enoch Olinga visits Indian Bahá'ís of San Rafael, Mexico". Bahá'í News (366): p. 4. March 1961. 
  63. ^ Rabbani, Ruhiyyih (Ed.) (1992). The Ministry of the Custodians 1957–1963. Bahá'í World Centre. pp. 403, 410. ISBN 0-85398-350-X. 
  64. ^ a b The Bahá'í Faith: 1844–1963: Information Statistical and Comparative, Including the Achievements of the Ten Year International Bahá'í Teaching & Consolidation Plan 1953–1963, Compiled by Hands of the Cause Residing in the Holy Land, page 16, 19, 51, 103
  65. ^ "Early Victories in Latin America for the New Plan". Bahá'í News (404): p. 5. November 1964. 
  66. ^ "Conventions elect National Assemblies". Bahá'í News (413): p. 2. August 1965. 
  67. ^ "Conventions elect National Assemblies". Bahá'í News (418): p. 2–3. January 1966. 
  68. ^ "The first Yaqui..". Bahá'í News (429): p. 17. December 1966. 
  69. ^
    • "A Harvest time in British Honduras". Bahá'í News (435): p. 6. June 1967. 
    • "Yucatán Conference Draws Active Mayan Participation". Bahá'í News (445): p. 8–9. April 1968. 
    • "Bahá'ís in Mexico find many ways to teach". Bahá'í News (451): p. 14. October 1968. 
  70. ^ "A Dedicated Youth Team visits Yucatan". Bahá'í News (439): p. 11. June 1967. 
  71. ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1944). God Passes By. Wilmette, Illinois: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 171. ISBN 0-87743-020-9. 
  72. ^ "Laying the Cornerstone Highlights Conference". Bahá'í News (441): p. 4–10. December 1967. 
  73. ^ "Correction". Bahá'í News (444): p. 20. March 1968. 
  74. ^
    • "Summer Pioneering in Mexico". Bahá'í News (489): p. 24. December 1971. 
    • "Ensenada, Mexico – Extension Teaching". Bahá'í News (494): p. 17–18. May 1972. 
    • "Pioneering Training". Bahá'í News (498): p. 12. October 1972. 
  75. ^ "Panama Temple Dedication and International Conference; April 28 – May 2, 1972". Bahá'í News (496): p. 8–14. July 1972. 
  76. ^ "Bahá'ís meet with Pueblo governors". Bahá'í News 52 (6): p. 19. June 1975. 
  77. ^ "Presentation to Governor of Yucatan". Bahá'í News (548): p. 14. November 1976. 
  78. ^ "Mexico". Bahá'í News (597): p. 16. December 1980. 
  79. ^ "The first Bahá'í college club". Bahá'í News (488): p. 12. November 1970. 
  80. ^ "The first Latin American Bahá'í Club". Bahá'í News (491): p. 19–20. February 1972. 
  81. ^ "Latin America Club Bahá'í; Puebla Mexico". Bahá'í News (507): p. 15. June 1973. 
  82. ^ "First International Youth Conference of Mexico". Bahá'í News (505): p. 13. April 1973. 
  83. ^ "Mexico; Audiences respond to teaching trip". Bahá'í News (542): p. 11–12. June 1976. 
  84. ^ "Mexico: Youth appear on television". Bahá'í News (516): p. 2. March 1974. 
  85. ^ "Mexico". Bahá'í News (505): p. 13. September 1978. 
  86. ^ "Counselors join in ecumenical lectures". Bahá'í News (505): p. 9. December 1974. 
  87. ^ "Advancing the Status of Women". Bahá'í International Community. 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-28. 
  88. ^ "Bahá'í representatives will attend Mexico conference". Bahá'í News 52 (4): p. 2. April 1975. 
  89. ^ a b "Counselors join in ecumenical lectures". Bahá'í News (534): p. 2–3. December 1974. 
  90. ^ "Standing up for justice and truth". Bahá'í World News Service. 5 December 2004. Retrieved 2012-02-28. 
  91. ^ "Jamaica broadcast features Mrs. Afnán". Bahá'í News (536): p. 10. November 1975. 
  92. ^ "California Bahá'ís discuss Indian teaching". Bahá'í News 52 (6): p. 20. June 1975. 
  93. ^ "Merida: prelude to Expansion". Bahá'í News (551): p. 11–12. February 1977. 
  94. ^ "Six Pillars added to House of Justice". Bahá'í News (555): p. 11–12. June 1977. 
  95. ^ "Mexico". Bahá'í News (581): p. 7. August 1979. 
  96. ^ a b Momen, Moojan. "History of the Baha'i Faith in Iran". draft "A Short Encyclopedia of the Baha'i Faith". Bahai-library.com. Retrieved 16 October 2009. 
  97. ^ Kingdon, Geeta Gandhi (1997). "Education of women and socio–economic development". Baha'i Studies Review 7 (1). 
  98. ^ "Yucatan". Bahá'í News (411): p. 7. June 1965. 
  99. ^ "Institute Completed in Puebla, Mexico". Bahá'í News (477): p. 15. December 1970. 
  100. ^ "Amelia Collins Institute repaired, enlarged". Bahá'í News 52 (6): p. 18. June 1975. 
  101. ^ "45 Women Attend Special Conferences". Bahá'í News (541): p.15. April 1976. 
  102. ^ Momen, Moojan; Smith, Peter (1989). "The Baha'i Faith 1957–1988: A Survey of Contemporary Developments". Religion 19: 63–91. doi:10.1016/0048-721X(89)90077-8. 
  103. ^ "Conference promotes use of music". Bahá'í News (651): p. 10–11. June 1985. ISSN 0195-9212. 
  104. ^ "Monterrey Pre–Parliament Event". Council for a Parliament of the World's Religions. 13 September 2009. Retrieved 3–2–2012. 
  105. ^ United Nations General Assembly (19 December 2001). "UN General Assembly Resolution 2001". Bahá'í International Community. Retrieved 3–2–2012. 
  106. ^ United Nations General Assembly (22 April 2002). "2002 UN Resolution on Iran Rejected". Bahá'í International Community. Retrieved 3–2–2012. 
  107. ^ United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development (DPCSD) (23 October 1996). "Report of the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights". Bahá'í International Community. Retrieved 3–2–2012. 
  108. ^ "Human Rights Day program at the United Nations focuses on upcoming World Conference Against Racism". Bahá'í World News Service (Bahá’í International Community). 15 December 2000. Retrieved 3–2–2012. 
  109. ^ "Latin America; 'Trail of Light' sets many hearts ablaze". Bahá'í News (620): p. 10–11. November 1982. ISSN 0195-9212. 
  110. ^ Universal House of Justice (1986). "In Memoriam". The Bahá'í World of the Bahá'í Era 136–140 (1979–1983). XVIII (Bahá'í World Centre). pp. 723–4. ISBN 0853982341. 
  111. ^ "'Trail of Light' visits indigenous peoples". Bahá'í News (649): p. 7. April 1985. ISSN 0195-9212. 
  112. ^ "Indians consult at Indigenous Council". Bahá'í News (690): p. 6–9. September 1988. ISSN 0195-9212. 
  113. ^ "Youth animators spring to life". Bahá'ís World News Serviec (Bahá’í International Community). 28 August 2003. Retrieved 3–2–2012. 
  114. ^ "Mis experiencias de Enseñanza en Brasil". Material del CNE para el Boletin. Comité Nacional de Enseñanza de México (CNE). 2000–2001. Retrieved 2012-03-17. 
  115. ^ "Uniting under one faith". Alexandria Echo Press (The Bahá'ís of Woodbury). 23 September 2009. Retrieved 3–2–2012. 
  116. ^ "Neuvos Creyentes en el último año del Plan de 4 Años". Material del CNE para el Boletin. Comité Nacional de Enseñanza de México (CNE). 2000–2001. Retrieved 2012-03-17. 
  117. ^ "Attendance nears 50,000 people at conferences". Bahá'í World News Service (Guadalajara, Mexico: Bahá’í International Community). 2009-01-13. Retrieved 2012-03-17.  regional conference]
  118. ^ "Regional Conferences of the Five Year Plan; The Guadalajara Conference". Bahá'í World News Service (Bahá’í International Community). January 2009. Retrieved 2012-03-17. 

External links[edit]