Bahá'í Faith in North America

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The Bahá'í Faith is a diverse and widespread religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in the 19th century in Iran. Bahá'í sources usually estimate the worldwide Bahá'í population to be above 5 million.[1] Most encyclopedias and similar sources estimate between 5 and 6 million Bahá'ís in the world in the early 21st century.[2][3] The religion is almost entirely contained in a single, organized, hierarchical community, but the Bahá'í population is spread out into almost every country and ethnicity in the world, being recognized as the second-most geographically widespread religion after Christianity.[2][4] See Bahá'í statistics.

United States[edit]

Bahá'í House of Worship, Wilmette, Illinois.

The first mention of events related to the history of the religion in the United States appears to be the 1845-6 echo of the Nov 1845 London Times story relating events of the Báb upon return from pilgrimage - this was printed in April 1846 in the Boon Lick Times based on an article in the NY Mirror.[5] A mention in 1850 followed.[6] In 1867 Bahá'ís near Baghdad petitioned the United States for relief from persecution.[7] In 1893 Rev. Henry Harris Jessup addressed the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago with the first mention the Bahá'í Faith itself in the United States - and published in the Chicago Inter Ocean[8] and manuscript.[9] In 1894 Thornton Chase became the first American Bahá'í.[10] Others soon followed. In 1906 a government census reported through a scholar that there were 1280 Bahá'ís in 24 places among 14 states[11] and in 1909 the first national convention was held with 39 delegates from 36 cities.[12] Star of the West was the first large periodical production in the country beginning in March, 1910.

`Abdu'l-Bahá, while head of the religion, visited the United States and Canada, ultimately visiting some 40 cities, to once again spread his father's teachings.[13] He arrived in New York City on 11 April 1912. While he spent most of his time in New York, he visited many cities on the east coast. Then in August he started a more extensive journey across to the West coast before starting to return east at the end of October. On 5 December 1912 he set sail back to Europe.[14] During his nine months on the continent, he met with many well known people as well as hundreds of American and Canadian Bahá’ís, recent converts to the religion.[15]

After his last return to Palestine `Abdu'l-Bahá mentioned various lands around the world that the religion should be introduced to and referred to WWI and qualities of those who seek to serve the religion. This took the form of a these series of letters, or tablets, to the followers of the religion in the United States in 1916-1917; these letters were compiled together in the book Tablets of the Divine Plan. They were translated and presented on April 4, 1919, and published in Star of the West on December 12, 1919.[16]

The Star of the West was replaced with the Bahá'í News in 1924. The first National Spiritual Assembly was elected in 1925 after years of increasing organizational development. See Statistics on National Spiritual Assemblies. The 1936 religious census conducted by the United States government revealed 2,584 Bahá’ís and in 1944 every state in the nation had at least one local Bahá’í administrative body called a Spiritual Assembly, and about 4,800 Bahá'ís despite major pioneering goals overseas.[17] In Apr 1953 the Bahá'í House of Worship (Wilmette, Illinois) was formally dedicated.[18]

In December 1999, the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States stated that out of approximately 140000 adult (15 and over) members on the rolls, only 70,000 had known addresses.[19] The American Religious Identity Survey (ARIS) conducted in 2001, with a sample size of 50,000, estimated that there were 84,000 self-identifying adult (21 and over) Bahá'ís in the United States.[20] The Association of Religion Data Archives estimated there were some 525,000 Bahá'ís in 2005[21] however statistics in Feb 2011 show 169,130 members on record,[22] excluding Alaska and Hawai'i.

Although a majority of Americans are Christians, Bahá'ís make up the second-largest religious group in South Carolina as of May 2014.[23]

Alaska[edit]

Alaska is unusual in that it is not an independent nation, recognized by the United Nations, and yet has a National Spiritual Assembly. Its specific statistics are not published, and are often not broken out in non-Bahá'í statistics of the USA in general. There are currently about 1500 Baha'is in Alaska.

Hawai'i[edit]

The Bahá'í community in Hawai'i had its origins when Hawaiian-born Agnes Alexander, who became a Bahá'í in Paris in 1900, returned to the islands in 1901. Similar to Alaska, the Bahá'ís of Hawai'i have an independent National Spiritual Assembly from that of the USA, though it is itself one of the 50 United States. Independent statistics have not been published.

Canada[edit]

The Bahá'í Shrine in Montreal.

The Canadian Bahá'í Community, according to its official website[24] consists of some 30,000 members across approximately 1200 communities throughout the 13 Canadian Provinces and Territories. According to the same source, the Canadian community is quite diverse: "There are French-speaking and English-speaking Bahá'ís, and more than 18% of Canadian Bahá'ís come from First Nations and Inuit backgrounds; another 30% are recent immigrants or refugees."

The Canadian community is one of the earliest western communities, at one point sharing a joint National Spiritual Assembly with the United States, and is a co-recipient of `Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablets of the Divine Plan. The first North American woman to declare herself a Bahá'í was Mrs. Kate C. Ives, of Canadian ancestry, though not living in Canada at the time. Moojan Momen, in reviewing "The Origins of the Bahá'í Community of Canada, 1898–1948" notes that "the Magee family... are credited with bringing the Bahá'í Faith to Canada. Edith Magee became a Bahá'í in 1898 in Chicago and returned to her home in London, Ontario, where four other female members of her family became Bahá'ís. This predominance of women converts became a feature of the Canadian Bahá'í community..."[25]

Statistics Canada reports 14,730 Bahá'ís from 1991 census data and 18,020 in those of 2001.[26] However the Association of Religion Data Archives (relying on World Christian Encyclopedia) estimated almost 46,600 Bahá'ís in 2005.[21]

Mexico[edit]

The Bahá'í Faith in Mexico begins with visits of Bahá'ís before 1916.[27] In 1919 letters from the head of the religion, `Abdu'l-Bahá, were published mentioning Mexico as one of the places Bahá'ís should take the religion to.[28] Following further pioneers moving there and making contacts the first Mexican to join the religion was in 1937, followed quickly by the first Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assembly of all Latin America being elected in 1938.[27][29] With continued growth the National Spiritual Assembly was first elected in 1961.[29][30] The Association of Religion Data Archives (relying on World Christian Encyclopedia) estimated almost 38,000 Bahá'ís in 2005.[21]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Bahá'í International Community (2006). "Worldwide Community". Bahá'í International Community. Archived from the original on 13 June 2006. Retrieved 31 May 2006. 
  2. ^ a b "Worldwide Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-2002". Enyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002. Retrieved 31 May 2006. 
  3. ^ adherents.com (2002). "Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents". adherents.com. Retrieved 28 August 2005. 
  4. ^ MacEoin, Denis (2000). "Baha'i Faith". In Hinnells, John R. The New Penguin Handbook of Living Religions: Second Edition. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-051480-5. 
  5. ^ "A Modern Mahomet". Boon's Lick Times (Fayette, Missouri). April 4, 1846. pp. 1, 3rd column, below middle. Retrieved Feb 8, 2014.  For further information see compiled by Steven Kolins (2013) [1845-6]. "First newspaper story of the events of the Bábí Faith". Historical documents and Newspaper articles. Baha'i Library Online. Retrieved Feb 8, 2014.  and Momen, Moojan (1999 (online)). "Early Western Accounts of the Babi and Baha'i Faiths". Encyclopedia articles. Bahá'í Library Online. Retrieved Feb 8, 2014.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  6. ^ "Early mention of Bábís in western newspapers, summer 1850". Historical documents and Newspaper articles. Baha'i Library Online. 2013 [July - Nov 1850]. Retrieved Feb 8, 2014. 
  7. ^ translated by Manuchehr Derakhshani and Nesreen Akhtarkhavari. (2006) [1867]. "An 1867 Petition from Bahá'ís in Shushtar, Iran, to the U.S. Congress". World Order 37 (3): 31–38. Retrieved Feb 8, 2014. 
  8. ^ "Henry H. Jessup, D.D., Makes an Eloquent and Instructive Address". The Inter Ocean (Chicago, Illinois). 24 September 1893. p. 2. Retrieved Feb 8, 2014. 
  9. ^ Jessup, Henry H. (2013) [1894]. "The Religious Mission of the English-Speaking Nations". Historical documents and Newspaper articles. Baha'i Library Online. Retrieved Feb 8, 2014. 
  10. ^ Stockman, Robert H. (2009). "Chase, Thornton (1847-1912)". Bahá’í Encyclopedia Project. Evanston, IL: National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States. 
  11. ^ "Story of religions in the Unitest States as told in census figures". The Fort Wayne Journal-Gazette (Fort Wayne, Indiana). 14 August 1910. p. Page 3A. Retrieved Feb 19, 2014. 
  12. ^ Linfoot (1970). "In Memoriam; Corine Knight True". The Bahá'í World; An International Record. XIII, 1954–1963. Universal House of Justice. pp. 846–849. 
  13. ^ Hatcher, William S.; Martin, J. Douglas (2002). The Baha'i Faith: The Emerging Global Religion. US Baha'i Publishing Trust. pp. 57–59. ISBN 978-1-931847-06-3. 
  14. ^ Balyuzi, H.M. (2001). `Abdu'l-Bahá: The Centre of the Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh (Paperback ed.). Oxford, UK: George Ronald. pp. 159–397. ISBN 0-85398-043-8. 
  15. ^ Kazemzadeh, Firuz (2009). "'Abdu'l-Bahá 'Abbás (1844–1921)". Bahá’í Encyclopedia Project. Evanston, IL: National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States. 
  16. ^ Abbas, `Abdu'l-Bahá (April 1919). Tablets, Instructions and Words of Explanation. Mirza Ahmad Sohrab (trans. and comments). 
  17. ^ Robert Stockman; Mana Derakhshani (2014). "American Bahá’í Community". Retrieved Feb 8, 2014. 
  18. ^ "Brief History of the Bahá'í Faith". Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Boise, Idaho. 1996-11-25. Retrieved Feb 8, 2014. 
  19. ^ National Teaching Committee (December 12, 1999). "Issues Pertaining to Growth, Retention and Consolidation in the United State; A Report by the National Teaching Committee of the United States". National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States. Retrieved Feb 8, 2014. 
  20. ^ "Largest Religious Groups in the United States of America". Adherents.com. 2013. Retrieved Feb 8, 2014. 
  21. ^ a b c "Most Baha'i Nations (2005)". QuickLists > Compare Nations > Religions >. The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2005. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  22. ^ Quick Facts and Stats, National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States
  23. ^ Wilson, Reid. "The Second-Largest Religion in Each State". The Washington Post. 
  24. ^ [1]
  25. ^ [2]
  26. ^ [3]
  27. ^ a b Lamb, Artemus (November 1995). The Beginnings of the Bahá'í Faith in Latin America:Some Remembrances, English Revised and Amplified Edition. West Linn, OR: M L VanOrman Enterprises. 
  28. ^ Abbas, `Abdu'l-Bahá (April 1919). Tablets, Instructions and Words of Explanation. Mirza Ahmad Sohrab (trans. and comments). 
  29. ^ a b "Comunidad Bahá’í de México". National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Mexico. 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-25. 
  30. ^ Hassall, Graham; Universal House of Justice. "National Spiritual Assemblies statistics 1923–1999". Assorted Resource Tools. Bahá'í Library Online. Retrieved 10 May 2009. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Academic American Encyclopedia. Grolier Academic Reference. 1998. ISBN 0-7172-2068-0. 
  • Chernow, Barbara A.; Vallasi, George A. (1993). The Columbia Encyclopedia. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-62438-X. 
  • The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition. Brill. 1960. Ref DS37.E523. 
  • Jones, Lindsay, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of Religion (second ed.). MacMillan Reference Books. ISBN 0-02-865733-0. 
  • O'Brien, Joanne; Palmer, Martin (2005). Religions of the World. Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-6258-7. 

External links[edit]