The Bahá'í calendar, also called the Badí‘ calendar (badí‘ means wondrous or unique ), used by Bábism and the Bahá'í Faith, is a solar calendar with regular years of 365 days, and leap years of 366 days. Years are composed of 19 months of 19 days each, (361 days) plus an extra period of "Intercalary Days" (4 in regular and 5 in leap years). Years in the calendar begin at the vernal equinox, and are counted with the date notation of BE (Bahá'í Era), with 21 March 1844 CE being the first day of the first year. The period from 21 March 2014 to 20 March 2015 is the year 171 BE. At present, the Bahá'í calendar is synchronized to the Gregorian calendar, meaning that the extra day of a leap year occurs simultaneously in both calendars. Note: The Badi calendar was implemented during the Bábí faith and then adapted in the Bahá'í Faith.
The Bahá'í calendar started from the original Badí‘ calendar, created by the Báb, and an early version of the calendar began to be implemented during his time. It used a scheme of 19 months of 19 days (19x19) for 361 days, plus intercalary days to make the calendar a solar calendar. The first day of the early implementation of the calendar year was Nowruz, while the intercalary days were assigned differently than the later Bahá'í implementation. The calendar contained symbolic connections to prophecies of the Báb about the next Manifestation of God termed He whom God shall make manifest.
Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, who claimed to be the one prophesied by the Báb, confirmed and adopted this calendar and made Naw-Rúz the first day of the year, and also clarified the position of the intercalary days, as 4 or 5 days before the last month. Bahá'u'lláh set Naw-Rúz to the day on which the sun passes into the constellation Aries. Bahá'ís interpret this formula as a specification of the vernal equinox. Although the vernal equinox can occur on March 20, 21 or 22, Shoghi Effendi declared that, for the time being, the Badí‘ calendar is 'locked' to the Gregorian calendar with the new year always starting at sunset on 20 March. Without this, the calendar could vary by a day or two when compared to the Gregorian calendar. The implementation of the variable calendar with respect to the beginning of Naw-Rúz will require the Universal House of Justice selecting a single location for the fixing of the date of the equinox, such as the Qiblih. The 'locked' calendar is the one described in this article.
Years in the Bahá'í calendar are counted from Thursday, 21 March 1844, the beginning of the Bahá'í Era or Badí‘ Era (abbreviated BE or B.E.). Year 1 BE thus began at sundown 20 March 1844. Using the Bahá'í names for the weekday and month, day one of the Bahá'í Era was Istijlál (Majesty), 1 Bahá (Splendour) 1 BE. As detailed below, the names of the Bahá'í months and days reflect attributes of God. William Miller's polemical work against the Bahá'í Faith claims that the date the calendar was to begin was 1850 CE though most sources agree the date was with the Declaration of the Bab to Mullá Husayn, May 23, 1844 CE.
The Bahá'í calendar is composed of 19 months, each with 19 days. The Nineteen Day Fast is held during the final month of ‘Alá’ (2 March – 20 March), and is preceded by the intercalary days, known as Ayyám-i-Há. There are four intercalary days in a regular year, and five in a leap year. The introduction of intercalation marked an important break from Islam, as under the Islamic calendar the practice of intercalation had been specifically prohibited in the Qur'an. The month of fasting is followed by Naw-Rúz, the new year. Because the calendar is currently synchronized with the Gregorian calendar, the Bahá'í leap years happen on common era leap years. In addition, the intercalary days include 28 February and 1 March, causing precise synchronization of the 19 months with the Gregorian calendar.
The names of the months were taken by the Báb from the Du'ay-i-Sahar, a Ramadan dawn prayer by Imam Muhammad al-Baqir, the fifth Imam of Twelver Shi'ah Islam. These month names are described as describing attributes of God. Note the days of the month have the same names as the names of the month - the 9th day of the month for example is the same as the 9th month - Asmá, or "Names".
|Month||Arabic Name||Arabic Script||English Translation||Gregorian Dates|
|1||Bahá||بهاء||Splendour||21 March – 8 April|
|2||Jalál||جلال||Glory||9 April – 27 April|
|3||Jamál||جمال||Beauty||28 April – 16 May|
|4||‘Aẓamat||عظمة||Grandeur||17 May – 4 June|
|5||Núr||نور||Light||5 June – 23 June|
|6||Raḥmat||رحمة||Mercy||24 June – 12 July|
|7||Kalimát||كلمات||Words||13 July – 31 July|
|8||Kamál||كمال||Perfection||1 August – 19 August|
|9||Asmá’||اسماء||Names||20 August – 7 September|
|10||‘Izzat||عزة||Might||8 September – 26 September|
|11||Mashíyyat||مشية||Will||27 September – 15 October|
|12||‘Ilm||علم||Knowledge||16 October – 3 November|
|13||Qudrat||قدرة||Power||4 November – 22 November|
|14||Qawl||قول||Speech||23 November – 11 December|
|15||Masá’il||مسائل||Questions||12 December – 30 December|
|16||Sharaf||شرف||Honour||31 December – 18 January|
|17||Sulṭán||سلطان||Sovereignty||19 January – 6 February|
|18||Mulk||ملك||Dominion||7 February – 25 February|
|Ayyám-i-Há||ايام الهاء||The Days of Há||26 February – 1 March|
|19||‘Alá’||علاء||Loftiness||2 March – 20 March (Month of fasting)|
There are eleven holy days in the Bahá'í calendar; on nine of these holy days, work is suspended. The Festival of Ridván, a twelve day festival that commemorates Bahá'u'lláh's announcement of prophethood, is the most holy Bahá'í festival and is referred to as the "Most Great Festival."
On the Islamic lunar calendar, the births of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh fall on consecutive days; the first and second day of Muharram, respectively. The Universal House of Justice has decided to celebrate them on the solar calendar, but has the authority to change the observance to the lunar calendar days, which migrate through the solar calendar by 11 or 12 days each year.
|Name||Gregorian Dates||Work Suspended|
|Naw-Rúz (Bahá'í New Year)||March 21||Yes|
|First day of Riḍván (Arabic: رضوان)||April 21||Yes|
|Ninth day of Riḍván||April 29||Yes|
|Twelfth day of Riḍván||May 2||Yes|
|Declaration of the Báb||May 23||Yes|
|Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh||May 29||Yes|
|Martyrdom of the Báb||July 9||Yes|
|Birth of the Báb||October 20||Yes|
|Birth of Bahá'u'lláh||November 12||Yes|
|Day of the Covenant||November 26||No|
|Ascension of `Abdu'l-Bahá||November 28||No|
The Bahá'í week starts on Saturday, and ends on Friday. Like Judaism and Islam, days begin at sunset on the previous solar day and end at sunset of the present solar day. Bahá'í writings indicate that Friday is to be kept as a day of rest. The practice of keeping Friday as a day of rest is not observed by all Bahá'ís, however; for example, in the UK, the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís does not currently keep this practice.
|Arabic Name||Arabic Script||English Translation||Day of the Week|
Váḥid and Kull-i-Shay’
Also existing in the Bahá'í calendar system is a 19-year cycle called Váḥid and a 361-year (19x19) supercycle called Kull-i-Shay’ (literally, "All Things"). Each of the 19 years in a Vahid has been given a name as shown in the table below. The 9th Váḥid of the 1st Kull-i-Shay’ started on 21 March 1996, and the 10th Váḥid will begin in 2015. The current Bahá'í year, year 171 BE (21 March 2014 - 20 March 2015), is year Váḥid (Unity) of the 9th Váḥid of the 1st Kull-i-Shay’. The 2nd Kull-i-Shay’ will begin in 2205.
The concept of a 19-year cycle has existed in some form since the 4th century BC. The Metonic cycle represents an invented measure that approximately correlates solar and lunar markings of time and which appears in several calendar systems.
- Years in a Váḥid
|No.||Persian Name||Arabic Script||English Translation|
- Bahai library: Bibliography for the Tablets of Baha'u'llah: List of citations and resources for Tablets revealed 1863-68. Kitáb-i-Badí' ("The Wondrous Book," "the Unique Book"). Prepared by Jonah Winters for the Wilmette Institute.
- Curtis, Larry (2004-03-06). "A Day in the Bahá'í Calendar". bcca.org. Archived from the original on 2 October 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-24.
- Taylor, John (2000-09-01). "On Novelty in Ayyám-i-Há and the Badí Calendar". bahai-library.org. Retrieved 2006-09-24.
- MacEoin, Denis (1994). Rituals in Babism and Baha'ism. Pembroke Persian Papers. Volume 2 (illustrated ed.). British Academic Press. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-85043-654-6.
- Mottahedeh, Negar (1998). "The Mutilated Body of the Modern Nation: Qurrat al-‘AynTahirah’s Unveiling and the Iranian Massacre of the Babis". Comparative Studies of south Asia,Africa and the Middle East 18 (2): 43. doi:10.1215/1089201X-18-2-38.
- Mihrshahi, Robin (2004) . "Symbolism in the Badi‘ Calendar". Baha'i Studies Review 12 (1). doi:10.1386/bsre.12.1.15. ISSN 1354-8697. Retrieved 5–1–2012.
- Universal House of Justice (1992). Notes of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. 178–179. ISBN 0-85398-999-0..
- Effendi, Shoghi (1973). Directives from the Guardian. India/Hawaii: Bahá'í publishing trust. p. 30.
- National Spiritual Assembly of the United States (2006-03-05). "The Bahá'í Calendar". bahai.us. Archived from the original on 28 September 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-24.
- Bayat, Mangol (2000). Mysticism and Dissent: Socioreligious Thought in Qajar Iran. Modern Intellectual and Political History of the Middle East (reprint ed.). Syracuse University Press. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-8156-2853-8.
- Esslemont, J. E. (1980). Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era (5th ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. 178–179. ISBN 0-87743-160-4.
- Taherzadeh, A. (1976). The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, Volume 1: Baghdad 1853-63. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. pp. 116–7. ISBN 0-85398-270-8.
- Stephen N. Lambden. The Du'á Sahar or Supplication of Glory-Beauty (al-bahá')
- National Spiritual Assembly of the United States (2006-03-05). "The Badi Calendar". bahai.us. Archived from the original on 28 September 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-23.
- Walbridge, John (2003-10-02). "Ridvan". Retrieved 2006-09-23.
- Taherzadeh, Adib (1987). The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, Volume 4: Mazra'ih & Bahji 1877-92. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. p. 334. ISBN 0-85398-270-8.
- Effendi, Shoghi (1950). The Bahá'í Faith: 1844-1950. Wilmette, Illinois: Bahá'í Publishing Committee.
- "Letter written on behalf of the Guardian to an individual believer". Bahá'í News (162, April 1943): 5. 1939-07-10. In Effendi, Shoghi; Bahá'u'llah, 'Abdu'l-Bahá, The Universal House of Justice (1983). Hornby, Helen, ed. Lights of Guidance: A Bahá'í Reference File. New Delhi, India: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 109. ISBN 978-81-85091-46-4. Retrieved 2009-03-15. "III. Bahá'í: E. Miscellaneous Subjects: 372. Friday is Day of Rest in Bahá'í Calendar."
- Bellenir, Karen (2004). Religious Holidays and Calendars: An Encyclopedic Handbook (3rd ed.). Omnigraphics. p. 154. ISBN 0-7808-0665-4.
- National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United Kingdom. Letter from the NSA to the Chaplaincy to the Bahá’í Council for Wales consulted 1 September 2011
- Bolhuis, Arjen (2006-03-23). "The first Kull-i-Shay' of the Bahá'í Era". Retrieved 2006-09-23.
- Effendi, Shoghi (1976). Principles of Bahá'í Administration (4th ed.). London, UK: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-900125-13-6.
- Keil, Gerald (2008). Time and the Bahá’í Era. UK: George Ronald. ISBN 978-0-85398-527-3.
- Buck, Christopher and J. Gordon Melton (2011). “Bahā’ī Calendar and Rhythms of Worship.” Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations. By J. Gordon Melton, with James A. Beverley, Christopher Buck, and Constance A. Jones. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. (1:79–86.)
- The Bahá'í Calendar
- Arithmetic of the Bahá'í Calendar, and Variants
- Bahá'í Calendar, Bahá'í Events and Holy Days (types: Persian, Islamic, Gregorian)