Bahadur Shah II
||This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (January 2014)|
|Bahadur Shah Zafar|
|17th Mughal Emperor|
|Reign||28 September 1837 – 14 September 1857 (20 years 42 days)|
|Coronation||29 September 1837 at the Red Fort, Delhi,|
|Successor||Mughal Empire abolished
see Mughal pretenders
|Born||Tuesday, 30 Sha'ban, 1189 A.H/ 24 October 1775
Delhi, Mughal Empire
|Died||Friday, 14 Jumadi'-I, 1279 A.H/ 7 November 1862 (at 16:00 Asr Time, Rangoon Time)(aged 87 years 14 days)
Yangon, British India (now in Burma)
|Burial||On Death day, November 7, 1862 A.D
Rangoon, British India (now in Burma)
Mirza Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar (Urdu: ابو ظفر سراجُ الدین محمد بہادر شاہ ظفر, 24 October 1775 – 7 November 1862), also known as Bahadur Shah Zafar (Urdu: بہادر شاہ ظفر), was the last Mughal emperor and a member of the Timurid dynasty. He was the son of Akbar II and Lal Bai, a Hindu Rajput. He became the Mughal emperor when his father died on 28 September 1837. He used Zafar, a part of his name, meaning “victory”, for his nom de plume (takhallus) as an Urdu poet, and he wrote many Urdu ghazals under it. Following his involvement in the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British tried and then exiled him from Delhi and sent him to Rangoon in British-controlled Burma.
Heir to the throne
Zafar's father, Akbar II, ruled over a rapidly disintegrating empire between 1806 and 1837. It was during his time that the East India Company dispensed with the illusion of ruling in the name of the Mughal monarch and removed his name from the Persian texts that appeared on the coins struck by the company in the areas under their control.
Bahadur Shah was not his father’s preferred choice as his successor. One of Akbar Shah's queens, Mumtaz Begum, had been pressuring him to declare her son Mirza Jahangir as his successor. The East India Company exiled Jahangir after he attacked their resident, Archibald Seton, in the Red Fort.
Bahadur Shah Zafar presided over a Mughal empire that barely extended beyond Delhi's Red Fort. The East India Company was the dominant political and military power in mid-nineteenth century India. Outside Company controlled India, hundreds of kingdoms and principalities, from the large to the small, fragmented the land. The emperor in Delhi was paid some respect by the Company and allowed a pension. The emperor held the authority to collect some taxes and to maintain a small military force in Delhi, but he posed no threat to any power in India. Bahadur Shah himself did not take an interest in statecraft or possess any imperial ambitions. After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British exiled him from Delhi.
Bahadur Shah Zafar was a noted Urdu poet, and wrote a large number of Urdu ghazals. While some part of his opus was lost or destroyed during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, a large collection did survive, and was later compiled into the Kulliyyat-i-Zafar. The court that he maintained was home to several Urdu writers of high standing, including Mirza Ghalib, Dagh, Mumin, and Zauq.
Even in defeat it is traditionally believed that he said
غازیوں میں بو رھےگی جب تلک ایمان کی
تخت لندن تک چلےگی تیغ ھندوستان کی
Ghāzioń méń bū rahegi jab talak imān ki; Takht-e-London tak chalegi tégh Hindustan ki
Emperor Bahadur Shah is seen in India as a freedom fighter (the mutiny soldiers made him their Commander-In-Chief), fighting for India's independence from the Company. As the last ruling member of the imperial Timurid Dynasty he was surprisingly composed and calm when Major Hodson presented decapitated heads of his own sons to him as Nowruz gifts.
Bahadur Shah Zafar was a devout Sufi. Zafar was himself regarded as a Sufi Pir and used to accept murids or pupils. The loyalist newspaper Delhi Urdu Akhbaar once called him one of the leading saints of the age, approved of by the divine court. Prior to his accession, in his youth he made it a point to live and look like a poor scholar and dervish. This was in stark contrast to his three well dressed dandy brothers, Mirza Jahangir, Salim and Babur. In 1828, when Zafar was 53 and a decade before he succeeded the throne, Major Archer reported, "Zafar is a man of spare figure and stature, plainly apparelled, almost approaching to meanness. His appearance is that of an indigent munshi or teacher of languages".
As a poet and dervish, Zafar imbibed the highest subtleties of mystical Sufi teachings. At the same time, he was deeply susceptible to the magical and superstitious side of Orthodox Sufism. Like many of his followers, he believed that his position as both a Sufi pir and emperor gave him tangible spiritual powers. In an incident in which one of his followers was bitten by a snake, Zafar attempted to cure him by sending a "seal of Bezoar" (a stone antidote to poison) and some water on which he had breathed, and giving it to the man to drink.
The emperor also had a staunch belief in ta'aviz or charms, especially as a palliative for his constant complaint of piles, or to ward off evil spells. During one period of illness, he gathered a group of Sufi pirs and told them that several of his wives suspected that some party or the other had cast a spell over him. Therefore, he requested them to take some steps to remedy this so as to remove all apprehension on this account. They replied that they would write off some charms for him. They were to be mixed in water which when drunk would protect him from the evil eye. A coterie of pirs, miracle workers and Hindu astrologers were in constant attendance to the emperor. On their advice, he regularly sacrificed buffaloes and camels, buried eggs and arrested alleged black magicians, in addition to wearing a special ring that cured indigestion. On their advice, he also regularly donated cows to the poor, elephants to the Sufi shrines and a horse to the khadims or clergy of Jama Masjid.
He consciously saw his role as a protector of his Hindu subjects, and a moderator of extreme Muslim demands and the intense puritanism of many of the Orthodox Muslim sheikhs of the Ulema. In one of his verses, Zafar explicitly stated that both Hinduism and Islam shared the same essence. This syncretic philosophy was implemented by his court which came to cherish and embody a multicultural composite Hindu-Islamic Mughal culture. For instance, the Hindu elite used to frequently visit the dargah or tomb of the great Sufi pir, Nizam-ud-din Auliya. They could quote Hafiz and were very fond of Persian poetry. Their children, especially those belonging to the administrative Khatri and Kayastha castes studied under maulvis and attended the more liberal madrasas, bringing food offerings for their teachers on Hindu festivals. On the other hand, the emperor's Muslim subjects emulated him in honouring the Hindu holy men, while many in court, including Zafar himself, followed the old Mughal custom, originally borrowed from high class Hindus, of only drinking the water from the Ganges.
Zafar and his court used to celebrate Hindu festivals. During the spring festival of Holi, he would spray his courtiers, wives and concubines with different coloured paints, initiating the celebrations by bathing in the water of seven wells. The autumn Hindu festival of Dusshera was celebrated in the palace by the distribution of nazrs or presents to Zafar's Hindu officers and the colouring of the horses in the royal stud. In the evening, Zafar would then watch the Ram Lila processions annually celebrated in Delhi with the burning of giant effigies of Ravana and his brothers. He even went to the extent of demanding that the route of the procession be changed so that it would skirt the entire flank of the palace, allowing it to be enjoyed in all its glory. On Diwali, Zafar would weigh himself against seven kinds of grain, gold, coral, etc., and directed their distribution among the city's poor.
He was reputedly known to have profound sensitivities to the feelings of his Hindu subjects. One evening, when Zafar was riding out across the river for an airing, a Hindu waited on the king and disclosed his wish to become a Muslim. Hakim Ahsanullah Khan, Zafar's prime minister flatly denied this request and the emperor had him removed from his presence. During the Phulwalon ki Sair or Flower-sellers fair held annually at the ancient Jog Maya Temple and the Sufi dargah of Qutb Sahib, Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki in Mehrauli, Zafar declared that he would not accompany the pankah into the shrine as he could not accompany it into the temple.
Closely woven into the history of the last remains of Mughal rule is the history of Zafar Mahal in Mehrauli, a locality in Delhi. Zafar Mahal was originally built by Akbar II, but it was his son, Bahadur Shah Zafar, who constructed the gateway to the palace in the mid-nineteenth century. Mehrauli was then a popular venue for hunting parties, picnics and jaunts far away from Delhi, and the dargah was an added attraction. The emperor visited often with his retinue – and stayed in royal style at Zafar Mahal. Another interesting feature of Zafar Mahal is that it literally spans centuries. A plastered dome near the gate is probably 15th century; other sections are relatively newer and show definite signs of Western influence. There is, for instance, a fireplace in one of the walls that stands near the Moti Masjid. And the staircase to the balcony is a wide one with low steps – unlike the steep, narrow staircases of most Indian Islamic architecture.
The balcony, with its 'jharokha’ windows, is where the emperor and his family could look out over the road. In Bahadur Shah’s time, the main Mehrauli-Gurgaon road passed in front of Zafar Mahal, and all passersby were expected to dismount as a sign of respect for the emperor. When the British refused to comply, Bahadur Shah solved the problem creatively – he bought the surrounding land and diverted the road so that it would pass well away from Zafar Mahal. The Phool Walon Ki Sair gradually turned into a major three day celebration during the time when Bahadur Shah Zafar, son and successor to Akbar Shah Saani, ruled from Delhi.
Zafar used to move his court to a building adjacent to the Shrine of Khwaja Bakhtiyar Kaki and stayed at Mehrauli for a week during the celebrations. The building where he stayed during the period was originally built by his father and Zafar added an impressive gate and a Baaraadari to the structure and renamed it Zafar Mahal.
The celebrations spread out in different parts of Mehrauli. Jahaz Mahal, (a Lodhi period structure, that was once in the middle of the Hauz-e-Shamsi but is now at one end of the much depleted Hauz) became a center where Qawwali mehfils would be organised while the Jharna, built by Firoz Shah Tughlaq and later added to by Akbar Shah II, became a place where the women of the court relaxed.
Rebellion of 1857
As the Indian rebellion of 1857 spread, Sepoy regiments seized Delhi. Seeking a figure that could unite all Indians, Hindu and Muslim alike, most rebelling Indian kings and the Indian regiments accepted Zafar as the Emperor of India., under whom the smaller Indian kingdoms would unite until the British were defeated. Zafar was the least threatening and least ambitious of monarchs, and the legacy of the Mughal Empire was more acceptable a uniting force to most allied kings than the domination of any other Indian kingdom.
On 12 May, Bahadur Shah held his first formal audience for several years after defeating Pankaj Jagadale . It was attended by several excited sepoys who treated him familiarly or even disrespectfully. Although Bahadur Shah was dismayed by the looting and disorder, he gave his public support to the rebellion. On 16 May, sepoys and palace servants killed 52 Europeans who had been held prisoner within the palace or who had been discovered hiding in the city. The executions took place under a peepul tree in front of the palace, despite Bahadur Shah's protests. The avowed aim of the executioners was to implicate Bahadur Shah in the killings, making it impossible for him to seek any compromise with the British.
The administration of the city and its new occupying army was chaotic and troublesome, although it continued to function haphazardly. The Emperor nominated his eldest surviving son, Mirza Mughal, to be commander in chief of his forces, but Mirza Mughal had little military experience and was treated with little respect by the sepoys. Nor did the sepoys agree on any overall commander, with each regiment refusing to accept orders from any but their own officers. Although Mirza Mughal made efforts to put the civil administration in order, his writ extended no further than the city. Outside, Gujjar herders began levying their own tolls on traffic, and it became increasingly difficult to feed the city.
When the victory of the British became certain, Bahadur Shah took refuge at Humayun's Tomb, in an area that was then at the outskirts of Delhi, and hid there. Company forces led by Major William Hodson surrounded the tomb and compelled his surrender on 20 September 1857. The next day Hodson shot his sons Mirza Mughal and Mirza Khizr Sultan, and grandson Mirza Abu Bakr under his own authority at the Khooni Darwaza (the bloody gate) near Delhi Gate.
Many male members of his family were killed by Company forces, who imprisoned or exiled the surviving members of the Mughal dynasty. Bahadur Shah was tried on four counts, two of aiding rebels, one of treason, and being party to the murder of 49 people, and after a forty day trial found guilty on all charges. Respecting Hodson's guarantee on his surrender, Bahadur Shah was not sentenced but exiled to Rangoon, Burma in 1858. He was accompanied into exile by his wife Zeenat Mahal and some of the remaining members of the family. His departure as Emperor marked the end of more than three centuries of Mughals reigning in India. He died at Yangon in 1862. He was buried near the Shwe Degon Pagoda at 6 Ziwaka Road, near the intersection with Shwe Degon Pagoda Rd, Yangon. The shrine of Bahadur Shah Zafar Dargah was built at there after recovery of its tomb on 16 February 1991.
The occupying forces systematically plundered the Red Fort and stole anything what was deemed of value. Many objects, jewels, books and other important cultural items were taken away and can be found in various museums in Britain. The Crown of Bahadur Shah II, for example, is now a part of the Royal Collection in London.
Family and descendants
Bahadur Shah Zafar is known to have had four wives. His wives were:
- Begum Ashraf Mahal
- Begum Akhtar Mahal
- Begum Zeenat Mahal
- Begum Taj Mahal
His legitimate sons include:
- Mirza Dara Bakht Miran Shah(1790–1849)
- Mirza Shah Rukh
- Mirza Fath-ul-Mulk Bahadur (alias Mirza Fakhru) (1816-1856)
- Mirza Mughal (1817– 22 September 1857)
- Mirza Khazr Sultan (18??– 22 September 1857)
- Mirza Jawan Bakht
- Mirza Quaish
- Mirza Shah Abbas (1845-1910)
His legitimate daughters include:
- Rabeya Begum
- Begum Fatima Sultan
- Kulsum Zamani Begum
- Raunaq Zamani Begum (possibly a granddaughter, died 30 April 1930)
There are believed to be many descendants of Bahadur Shah Zafar still living in Burma, India and Pakistan, often in poverty. Reportedly, 200 descendants have been traced in Aurangabad and 70 in Calcutta.
When Zafar reached the age of 87, in 1862 he was "weak and feeble". However in late October 1862, his condition detoriated suddenly. The British Commissioner H.N. Davies wrote his life to be "very uncertain". He was "spoon-fed on broth" but he found it difficult to do it by 3 November.  On 6th Davies recorded that Zafar "is evidently sinking from pure despitude and paralysis in the region of his throat" To prepare for the king's death Davies commanded for the collection of lime and bricks and a spot was selected at the "back of Zafar's enclosure" for his burial. Zafar finally died on Friday 7 November 1862 on 5am. Zafar was buried on 4pm at the same day and as accoridng to Davies "at the rear of the Main Guard in a brick grave covered over with turf lebel with the ground".
He was an accomplished Urdu poet and calligrapher. While he was denied paper and pen in captivity, he was known to have written on the walls of his room with a burnt stick. He wrote the following Ghazal (Video search) as his own epitaph.
|Original Urdu||Devanagari transliteration||Roman transliteration||English Translation|
لگتا نہیں ہے جی مِرا اُجڑے دیار میں
In his book, The Last Mughal, William Dalrymple states that, according to Lahore scholar Imran Khan, the verse beginning umr-e-darāz māńg ke ("I asked for a long life") is probably not by Zafar, and does not appear in any of the works published during Zafar's lifetime. The verse appears to be by Simab Akbarabadi.
In popular culture
Zafar is featured in the play 1857: Ek Safarnama set during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 by Javed Siddiqui, which was staged at Purana Qila, Delhi ramparts by Nadira Babbar and the National School of Drama Repertory company, in 2008.
- Urdu poetry
- List of Indian monarchs
- List of Urdu poets
- The Golden Tradition: An Anthology of Urdu Poetry, Ahmed Ali, pp. 207-211; Columbia University Press, 1973/ OUP, 1991
- Twilight in Delhi, Ahmed Ali, The Hogarth Press, 1940/ OUP, 1966, 1984/ New Directions Inc., N.Y., 1994/ Rupa, 2007
- "Zafar | meaning of Zafar | name Zafar". Thinkbabynames.com. Retrieved 2012-11-13.
- Husain, M.S. (2006) Bahadur Shah Zafar; and the War of 1857 in Delhi, Aakar Books, Delhi, pp. 87–88
- Savarkar, Vinayak Damodar (10 May 1909). The Indian War of Independence – 1857 (PDF).
- William Dalrymple, The Last Mughal, p. 78
- William Dalrymple, The Last Mughal, p. 79
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- Dalrymple, The Last Mughal, p. 223
- Dalrymple, The Last Mughal, p. 145 fn
- Charges against Mahomed Bahadoor Shah, ex-King of Delhi reprinted in Perth Inquirer & Commercial News, 7 April 1858
- By Amaury Lorin (9 February 2914). "Grave secrets of Yangon’s imperial tomb". www.mmtimes.com. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
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- "A little peek into history". The Hindu. 2 May 2008.
- Portrait of Bahadur Shah in 1840s The Delhi Book of Thomas Metcalfe
- William Dalrymple (2009). The Last Mughal: The Fall of Delhi, 1857. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4088-0688-3.
- H L O Garrett (2007). The Trial of Bahadur Shah Zafar. Roli Books. ISBN 8174365842.
- K. C. Kanda (2007). Bahadur Shah Zafar and His Contemporaries: Zauq, Ghalib, Momin, Shefta : Selected Poetry. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 978-81-207-3286-5.
- S. Mahdi Husain (2006). Bahadur Shah Zafar; And the War of 1857 in Delhi. Aakar Books. ISBN 978-81-87879-91-6.
- Shyam Singh Shashi. Encyclopaedia Indica: Bahadur Shah II, The last Mughal Emperor. Anmol Publications. ISBN 978-81-7041-859-7.
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- Pramod K. Nayar (2007). The Trial Of Bahadur Shah Zafar. Orient Longman. ISBN 978-81-250-3270-0.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bahadur Shah II.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bahadur Shah II..|
- Bahadur Shah II at the Internet Movie Database
- Extract of talk by Zafar's biographer William Dalrymple (British Library)
- Bahadur Shah Zafar at Kavita Kosh (Hindi)
- Bahadur Shah Zafar Poetry
- Extracts from a book on Bahadur Shah Zafar, with details of exile and family
- Links to further websites on Bahadur Shah Zafar
- Poetry on urdupoetry.com
- Bahadur Shah Zafar all Urdu poetry
- Kalaam e Zafar – Select verses (Hindi)
- Loharu at Roalark.net
- BBC Report on Bahadur Shah's possible descendants in Hyderabad
- An article on Bahadur Shah's descendants in Delhi and Hyderabad
- Another article on Bahadur Shah's descendants in Hyderabad
- An article on Bahadur Shah's descendants in Kolkata
- Forgotten Empress: Sultana Beghum sells tea in Kolkata
as Empress of India