Bahlul Khan Lodi

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Bahlul Khan Lodi
Sultan of the Lodi dynasty
Reign 1451–12 July 1489
Coronation 19 April 1451
Successor Sikandar Lodi
Died 12 July 1489

Bahlul Khan Lodi, (Pashto: بهلول لودي), (died 12 July 1489) was chief of the Pashtun Lodi tribe[1] and founder of Lodi dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate[2] upon the abdication of the last claimant from the previous Sayyid rule.[3] Bahlul became sultan of the dynasty on 19 April 1451 (855 AH).

Early life[edit]

A coin of Bahlul Lodi

Bahlul's grandfather, Malik Bahram, settled in Multan during the reign of Firuz Shah Tughluq and took service under the governor of Multan, Malik Mardan Daulat. Malik Bahram had a total of about five sons. His eldest son, Malik Sultan Shah Lodi, later served under the Sayyid dynasty ruler Khizr Khan and distinguished himself by killing in the battle later's worst enemy Mallu Iqbal Khan. He was rewarded with the title of Islam Khan and in 1419 appointed the governor of Sirhind. Bahlul, the son of Malik Kala, the younger brother of Malik Sultan was married to Malik Sultan's daughter.

In his youth, Bahlul was involved in the trading of horses and once sold his finely bred horses to the Sayyid dynasty Sultan Mohammad Shah. As a payment he was granted a pargana and raised to the status of amir. After the death of Malik Sultan, he became the governor of Sirhind. He was allowed to add Lahore to his charge. Once, Sultan Muhammad Shah asked for his help when the Malwa Sultan Mahmud Shah I invaded his territory. Bahlul joined the imperial army with 20,000 mounted soldiers. By his clevernees, he was able to project himself as a victor over the army of the Malwa Sultan and Sultan Muhammad Shah conferred on him the title of Khan-i-Khanan. He also accepted Bahlul's occupation over a large part of Punjab.

In 1443, Bahlul attacked Delhi but he did not succeed. During the reign of last Sayyid ruler Sultan Alam Shah, Bahlul again made another unsuccessful attempt to capture Delhi in 1447. Finally, when Alam Shah retired to Badaun in 1448, a minister of Alam Shah, Hamid Khan invited him to occupy the throne of Delhi. After the voluntary abdication of the throne by Alam Shah, Bahlul Shah ascended the throne of Delhi on 19 April 1451 and adopted the title of Bahlul Shah Ghazi. Alam Shah continued to live in Badaun till his death in July 1478.[4][5]

The tomb of the founder of the Lodi dynasty lies close to the shrine of the noted Sufi saint, Nasiruddin Chirag-e-Delhi, in a locality that goes by his name, 'Chirag Delhi'.[6][7]

Tomb of Bahlol Lodi at Chirag Delhi in Delhi

After ascending to the throne, Bahlul decided to dispose of Hamid Khan. His cousin and brother-in-law Malik Mahmud Khan alias Qutb-ud-din Khan (Governor Of Samana) imprisoned Hamid Khan.[5]

In 1479, Sultan Bahlul Khan Lodi defeated and annexed Sharqi dynasty based at Jaunpur. Bahlul Khan did much to stop rebellions and uprisings in his territories, and extended his holdings over Gwalior, Jaunpur and upper Uttar Pradesh. In 1486, he appointed his son, Babrak Shah as viceroy of Jaunpur. In time, this proved to be problematic, as his second son, Nizam Khan (Sikandar Lodi) was named successor, and a power struggle ensued upon his death in 1489.

the reign[edit]

After ascending to the throne, Bahlul decided to dispose of Hamid Khan. His cousin and brother-in-law Malik Mahmud Khan alias Qutb-ud-din Khan (Governor Of Samana) imprisoned Hamid Khan.[5]

In 1479, Sultan Bahlul Khan Lodi defeated and annexed Sharqi dynasty based at Jaunpur. Bahlul Khan did much to stop rebellions and uprisings in his territories, and extended his holdings over Gwalior, Jaunpur and upper Uttar Pradesh. In 1486, he appointed his son, Babrak Shah as viceroy of Jaunpur. In time, this proved to be problematic, as his second son, Nizam Khan (Sikandar Lodi) was named successor, and a power struggle ensued upon his death in 1489.

Death[edit]

Bahlul died on July 1489 after a long reign.[8] His tomb is a drab place compared to other mausoleums. It is a square chamber with three arched openings on all sides, surmounted by five domes, the central one being the biggest. Koranic verses are inscribed on the arches but there is hardly any other ornamentation.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, (Columbia University Press, 1996), 304.
  2. ^ Catherine B. Asher and Cynthia Talbot, India Before Europe, (Cambridge University Press, 2006), 116.
  3. ^ History & Civics 9, by Sudeshna Sengupta, p126.
  4. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2006). The Delhi Sultanate, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp.134-36, 139-142
  5. ^ a b c Mahajan, V.D. (1991, reprint 2007). History of Medieval India, New Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0364-5, pp.245-51
  6. ^ Delhi's Valley of Kings The Tribune, 1 March 2004.
  7. ^ Bahlul Khan Lodi Tomb - Location Wikimapia.
  8. ^ Sultan Bahlul Khan Lodi The Muntakhabu-’rūkh by Al-Badāoni (16th century historian), Packard Humanities Institute.

External links[edit]

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ala-ud-Din
Sultan of Delhi
1451–1489
Succeeded by
Sikandar Lodi
New dynasty Lodi dynasty
1451–1525